This article investigates the problem ofprevention of threats to the social development of children in asocial family. The study sample consisted of 300 families of nursery schoolstudents. There were identified three main categories of asocial families: families with difficult life situation, families in socially-dangerous position and families at risk. There are several factors of social disadvantage in these families: alcoholism of father, conflicts, breakdown in relations between spouses, between parents and children, disregard for the rights of the child, cruel treatment of children. Specific threats are: lack of parental basic care - providing to minors food, clothing, housing, education and medical care. Children lack of attention, warmth, affection. At the same time there is physical punishment, which take place from time to time. The result of identification and ranking of threats was a comprehensive programme for the prevention of threats to the social development of a child under school age in asocial family in the conditions of preschool educational institutions. The comprehensive programme was developed, tested, and implemented in activity of social teachers of nursery schools. The basic principle of this program is differentiated and an individual approach depending on the dominant threats in asocial family.
Keywords: Threatprevention of threats,preschool-age child,asocial family
Social protection of children as the most vulnerable part of society is one of the most daunting challenges of our time. The fact is that children completely dependent on adults, various forms of family problems.The most severe form the life of children has in asocial families. In an asocial family distress reaches a socially dangerous level which will endanger the lives and development of a child. Objective reality dictates the need for a system of work of specialists of educational institutions to ensure comprehensive social development of the child. One of the solutions to the problem advocates the prevention of threats to the social development of the child as a system of work with asocial family of a social teacher of educational organization.
In the study of the problem of prevention of threats to the social development of children in asocial family we learn against the research of scientists in the field of psychology, psychotherapy, social pedagogy, sociology, social work (Alekseeva, 2003, Belicheva, 1994, Maralov, 2013, Yakovleva 2012).
As a kind of personal living environment of a child family is a set ofphysical, natural, social and cultural living conditions in which he develops and is implemented as a personality. As the microenvironment of child’s activity the family is intended to facilitate its full-fledged social development, that is why to facilitate the assimilation and reproduction of a child's social experience and social norms, the formation of his social status and self-determination in the society in which he lives (Maralov & Goltsova, 2013).
In the Federal law of the Russian Federation "About bases of system of prevention of neglect and offenses of minors" asocial family is the family being in socially dangerous situation. The parents do not fulfill their duties on education, training and detention of children and (or) influence their behaviour negatively or cruelly address with them. Asocial families are characterized by outright these acquisitive attitudes with a very unscrupulous means to achieve them, lack of moral norms and constraints (Belicheva, 1994). It can be composed of individuals with various addictions or criminal subjects, but the most fundamental is the presence of social risk situation where children experience family abuse and neglect. The threat to the social development of the child involves a potential situation of violence or ill-treatment of a child. This situation may includes the possibility as of direct violent action on the part of adult members of the family as of indirect action which expresses in the neglect of parents meet the child’s basic needs, in weakening the ability of the family to protection from external adverse effects (Maralov & Goltsova, 2013).
The essence of the prevention of threats to thechild’s social development in the family is reflected in the impact of a social teacher in family environment. The aim of such impact is to change a situation in the child's best interests and to improve the status and quality of his life, empowering the protection of the right to a decent life and development, health and education (Almazov et al., 2002).
Prevention of threats to the social development of the child in the asocial family involves the use technology crisis intervention and the protection of minors by the removal of a child from the family in the activity of the social teacher. But in this case the social teacher should remember that the ongoing intervention must meet the legal requirements of each family member and to take into account the affection, the protection of children and the actual ability (Borodaeva, 2003).
Activity with asocial family for the prevention of threats to the social development of the young child includes the following steps. The first step is to create of a data bank for identifying and recording cases of socially dangerous position of minors. The second one is diagnosis of social risk in the family. The third step is to develop an individual program of prevention of socially dangerous position of the child. The fouthstep is the final. It means implementation of prevention programmes (Gil & Martinova,.2007).
The problem of prevention of family problems and violence were well represented in the scientific literature. At the same time the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in asocial family in activity of a social teacher in preschool educational organizations is not the object of special study. Thus, there is a contradiction between the objective need to prevent threats of the child’ssocial development in asocial family and insufficient knowledge of the essence of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in activity of a social teacher in preschool educational organizations.
What kindof threats to the social development of preschool-age children are inasocial family?
What is the content of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in activity of a social teacher in preschool educational organizations?
What is an individualised programme to prevent the threat of social development of the young child in asocial family?
Purpose of the Study
The aim of this study was identifyingthe essence of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age child in asocial familyin activity of a social teacher in a preschool educational organization,
The empirical study was conducted on the basis of two nursery schools of Cherepovets, Vologda region. The study sample consisted of 300 families of nursery school students.
There were used following methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis; the study of literature and documents; conversation; observation; testing; survey; content analysis.
"The matrix definition of the generalized indicator of social well-being of the family" (M. Shakurova), "Social and psychological climate of the family" (A.N.Lutoshkin) "Express-diagnostics of the peculiarities of family environment, family education and the relationship of parents to children," (R. V. Оvcharova); the Technique of studying of style of family education. (R. V. Оvcharova).
The survey of the neighbourhood and explore a database of two nursery schools showed us that there were seven asocial families. We have identified three main categories of these asocial families: families with difficult life situation (2), families in socially-dangerous position (3), family risk (2). Eight children from 3,5 to 6 years old from these families attend two nursery schools.
In the majority of families (5) the child is perceived as a burden, a lot more worries and anxiety in these families. Parents have no any interest in the development of children in nursery school.
The results of diagnostic techniques ("The matrix definition of the generalized indicator of social well-being of the family", "Social and psychological climate of the family"etc.) are the following.
In most families noted the presence of several factors of social disadvantage: alcoholism, conflict, breakdown in relations between spouses, parent-child relationships, disregard for the rights of the child and cruelty to children (Table
Thus characteristics of the asocial lifestyle of families reflect deformation of the educational functions of the families (the absence of a deliberate systematic educational influences on the child); open family instability; unwillingness to solve personal and social problems; the combination of an unhealthy moral atmosphere; neglect of social values and attitudes; lack of resources (material, spiritual, social) for social recovery and growth. Dominant threatsto the social development of the child in these families were: disease; emotional dullness and the immorality of parents; parents neglect of the child and his abandonment; poverty of families and lack of desire of adults to change their financial position.
We classified the threats according to the types of asocial family (Table
The result of study of asocial families and dominant threatsto the social development of the child in these families was designing comprehensive individualized programmes of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in asocial family; The basic principle of the programmes was an individual approach depending on the dominant threats in asocial family. The social teachers of the nursery schools were persons who realised those programmes in their activity.
In this part of the article we give an example of the comprehensiveindividualized programme of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in the family with difficult life situation.
The aim of that programme was to normalize the living arrangement of two children in the family.
There were four areas of prevention of threats to the social development of pre-school children in that kind of family in the content of the individualized programme. The first direction was legal; the second was psychological; the third direction was pedagogical and the fourth included economic.
Legal direction included the provision of family legal information. In the consultations social teacher advised parents on issues of family, housing, labor, civil and pension laws, children's rights, etc.
The content of psychological direction was the correction of child-parent relationship, removing mutual misunderstanding, unproductive family interaction and conflicts in the relationship. It had several levels - from the individual family member to a family as a system and then from the family to the nearest society.
The aim of pedagogical direction was the formation of pedagogical culture of parents. The social teacher informed parents about available parenting practices; explained the mother (father) ways of creating the conditions which were necessary for the normal development and upbringing of the child in the family.
Economic direction aimed at improving the material status of the family. Social teacher of the nursery school assisted in financial aid in the form of cash, food, sanitation and hygiene, child care, clothes, shoes; help the father to solve questions of employment.
The structure of the comprehensiveindividualized programme included several sections: explanatory note; the purpose and objectives of the program; methods and forms of work; the content of the program; the conditions of implementation of the program; performance criteria for the program.
Thus, the essence of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in activity of a social teacher in preschool educational is the following. For the first time it is to ensure the preservation of physical, mental and social health of children. For the second time it supposes help adults to find internal resources to change their life and make family as a kind of happy environment of a child,
The next step of the study is to develop an integrated model of the prevention of threats to the social development of preschool-age children in activity of a social teacher in preschool educational.
Heartfelt thanks to social teachers of nursery schools, who participated in the long and complex process of study.
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13 July 2018
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Child psychology, developmental psychology, child care, child upbringing, family psychology
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Goltsova, N. V., & Yakovleva, Y. V. (2018). Prevention Of Threats To The Child`S Social Development In Antisocial Family. In S. Sheridan, & N. Veraksa (Eds.), Early Childhood Care and Education, vol 43. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 28-33). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.07.5