Social-Pedagogical Support Of Children With Special Development Needs In Preschool Educational Institutions
The article considers one of the most urgent problems in modern Russia - the problem of socialization of children with disabilities and children with special health care needs. To solve this problem, it is necessary to use new social-pedagogical technologies. One of such technologies is social-pedagogical support. The categories of children with disabilities and children with special health care needs are divided into a group of children with special needs in development. To determine the content of social-pedagogical support for children with special needs in development, we analyze the activity of a kindergarten in the city of Sovetsky, the Tyumen region. Since 2015 in the kindergarten, the comprehensive program "Here lives the good" has been developed on the basis of a study of the needs of disabled children and children with special health care needs as well as the capacity of the educational institution. For the development of the program, analysis of the resources available in the institution necessary for working with children with disabilities and children with special health care needs is carried out; inquiries of parents of this category of children were recorded. The article presents the forms and methods of social-pedagogical support for children in the kindergarten used within the framework of the described program. Intermediate results of its implementation received in the kindergarten testify to the effectiveness of the Program and opportunity to broadcast the experience of social-pedagogical support for children with special needs in development not only at the regional but also at all-Russian levels.
Keywords: Social-pedagogical supportchildren with special needs in developmentpreschool educational institutionssocialization
In recent years, in connection with various hereditary pathologies and the impact of adverse environmental factors in Russia, the number of children with disabilities is growing. As a result, there is a growing need to organize social-pedagogical support for children with special needs in the system of the education.
To children with special needs, we refer children with disabilities and children with special health care needs. According to the Russian legislation, persons with disabilities, including children, “who have a disability with persistent impairment of body functions, due to illnesses, consequences of injuries or defects, leading to a limitation of life and causing the need for their social protection”, are disabled persons (the law "On Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities in the Russian Federation"). In turn, children with special health care needs (SHCN) are children with physical and / or psychological development deficiencies, confirmed by the psychological and medical-pedagogical commission and requiring special conditions for education (the law "On Education in the Russian Federation"). The above definitions indicate that the categories of children under consideration can be combined in a group of children with special needs in development, and, therefore, need to create special conditions in educational institutions for a successful positive socialization. Socialization implies the process and result of a person's assimilation of social experience and the subsequent positive self-realization on the basis of the assimilated knowledge (Galaguzova, Belyaeva & Galaguzova, 2016).
The solution of this problem is possible through the implementation of social-pedagogical support of children with special needs in development. The problem of social-pedagogical support has been well-studied in the Russian science, which is confirmed by a large number of works that reveal promising forms, methods, and means of this activity. In particular, social-pedagogical support is considered as a method and as a social-pedagogical technology (Alekhina, 2013; Galaguzova, Galaguzova Yu.N, & Toisteva, 2015). The issues of social-pedagogical support of children with disabilities and children with SHCN are specially studied (Zagvyazinsky & Selivanova 2012). As a system of professional activities, support aims at creating conditions for the natural development of children and assistance in solving problems, teaching, educating and socializing (Kazakova, 1998).
In relation to children with special needs in development, this activity should be implemented already at preschool educational institutions. In this case, the social-pedagogical support of children with special needs in development can be viewed as the interaction of teachers, pupils and their parents on the basis of predicting prospects for behaviour and self-expression of children in the development aimed at creating conditions and providing them with the most expedient assistance in socialization" (Mardakhayev, 2011).
Based on the abovementioned, the question arises: how to implement social-pedagogical support for children with special needs in development at a pre-school educational institution. In order to answer this question, we will analyze the activity of the kindergarten in Sovetskiy city of the Tyumen Region. Since 2011 the social-pedagogical support of children with special needs in development is realized, based on an integrated approach involving interaction of all the subjects of the educational process.
In the 2016-2017 academic year, compensatory groups (five groups on the basis of the Educational Institution of supplementary education and one at home) in the kindergarten, in which fifty-seven children with special needs in development, were brought up. The program "Here lives the good" was implemented in relation to them.
Purpose of the Study
The comprehensive program "Here lives the good" was developed on the basis of the study of the needs of disabled children and children special health care needs. The purpose of this study was as follows:
to determine the degree of readiness of teachers to work with children with special needs in development;
to analyze the material and technical support of the educational process for children with special needs in development;
to analyze the information and methodological support of the educational process of children with special needs in development;
to study the forms and methods of interaction between preschool teachers and the parents of children with special needs in development.
The study suggested the use of questionnaire methods (questionnaires of teachers and diagnostic interviews of parents), analysis of documents regulating the educational process and analysis of financial and logistical support. Within the survey, 336 respondents from 14 preschool educational establishments were interviewed. As a result, it revealed that most of the teachers were not ready to implement social-pedagogical support for children with special needs in development, reflected in the table below.
Diagnostic interviews with parents showed that the majority of them (49 out of 54 respondents) did not believe in the ability of the educational institution teachers to fully meet the educational needs of their children and create conditions for a successful positive socialization of children with disabilities and children with special health care needs in the educational institution. The analysis of the material, technical, informational and methodological support of the kindergarten also showed that the institution was not ready to implement social-pedagogical support for children with special needs in development.
Based on the results of the study, the comprehensive program "Here lives the good" was developed. The objectives of the Program were:
Raising the level of formal and real qualifications of teachers engaged in psychological and pedagogical support for the development of children with special health care needs and disabled children at preschool educational organizations.
Improving material, technical and information support of psychological-pedagogical support for the development of children with special health care needs and disabled children at the preschool educational organization.
Introducing modern pedagogical technologies aimed at the comprehensive development of children with special health care needs and disabled children at the preschool educational organization.
Developing and realizing a model for interaction with parents of children with special health care needs and disabled children, including the family in society.
At the moment, we can identify the intermediate results of the implementation of the program in question. In particular, within the framework of the solution of the first task:
- advanced training for teachers in the field of "Inclusive Practice at Preschool Institutions", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "Mental Retardation", "Children's Cerebral Palsy" and "Intellectual Disorders";
- professional retraining of teachers in "Psychological-pedagogical support of children with special health care needs ";
- participation of teachers in the work of district and regional methodological seminars, the problem group on the direction "Creating the inclusive environment at the preschool educational organizations ";
- participation in the work of scientific events of different levels (round tables, conferences and forums) on the development of inclusive education in Russia.
As a part of the solution of the second task, the necessary diagnostic tools, methodological developments, information technology tools, visualization, training and developing games, etc. are purchased.
The institution uses such forms of work as:
individual training with specialists;
involvement of children with special needs in development to participate in a variety of activities held in pre-school educational organizations (thematic and sporting events, creative competitions and exhibitions).
Psychological-pedagogical support of children with special health care needs and disabled children is built on the basis of adapted educational programs and individual educational programs for each child, individual rehabilitation programs for disabled children, developed in accordance with legal documents, taking into account the recommendations of the Territorial psychological-medical-pedagogical commission.
With regard to the solution of the fourth task, it is found that the main conditions necessary for trust between the educational institution of supplementary education and the family are the following:
studying the families of pupils: taking into account differences in the age of parents, their education, general cultural level, personal characteristics, their views on upbringing, the structure and nature of family relations, etc.;
kindergarten’s open attitude to the family;
orientation of the teacher to work with children and parents.
The application of these forms in work contributes to the development of children's speech, training the ability to compare, generalize, draw the conclusions, relieving stress, developing children physically, emotionally and aesthetically, because they include elements of music, visual arts, literature, and plastics of the movement, which point out increase in the level of socialization of children with special educational needs.
The success of the program in question is also confirmed by increase in the level of socialization of children with special needs in development in the kindergarten, which is confirmed by their successful adaptation to the society. After their completion of preschool education, not all the children with disabilities continue studying in specialized institutions. Many of them attend the general education school, successfully study and actively participate in the life of the school.
So, in 2016-2017 academic year, ten pupils with special educational needs graduated from the kindergarten, five of them were children with disabilities. All the children entered the educational institutions of the next stage: a general development class (4 pupils), a correctional class with the adapted program for children with mental retardation (2 pupils), one pupil entered a correctional class for mentally retarded children in a specialized institution in Novorossiysk, and one - the Ural boarding school.
Within the framework of continuity with general educational organizations, the teachers take an active part in the round table discussions on the adaptation of children with special health care needs to schooling, psychological-medical-pedagogical commission and other activities.
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