Indicators Of Successful Self-Revelation In High-School Students
The question of professional self-determination in senior high school is the matter of high-priority. The choice of the future direction of professional training is determined by many factors that can be basically divided into two groups: external (objective) and internal (subjective). External factors include, for example, the profession prestige in the modern society and opinion of referents on the upcoming choice. Internal factors include the interests, inclinations and abilities of the senior pupil himself. As a matter of fact, these factors interact continuously, the actualization of ideas about the subjective prerequisites for professional self-determination often occurs under the influence of objective factors. The present article considers the success of self-revelation as a level of correspondence of the training program of the chosen profession to a senior pupil’s ideas about his/her own abilities and intelligence type (according to G.Gardner). The results of the empirical study of high school students show that only half of them could be characterized as those who have successfully disclosed their abilities. Those students show the high self-esteem components such as: will, independence and sense of reality, consistency, high rates of activity and achievement motivation as well as high level of existential fulfillment. This is compared to the students whose ideas about their own abilities and type of intelligence do not coincide with the chosen direction of training, or who haven`t decided on the choice. Whether these indicators can be considered as predictors of the abilities for self-disclosure of a high-school student - the question remains open.
Keywords: Professional self-determinationself-discovery of abilitiesself-esteemmotivation of teachingexistential fulfillment
The problem of self-revelation of abilities in the context of the professional self-determination of a high school student
The professional self-determination of a high school student and the subsequent choice of the direction of professional training is an actual field of psychological theory and practice, because of the social, economic and individual significance of the effectiveness of the student’s decision. The relevance of the professional self-determination process and its steps were described in the books of E.A. Klimov (1996) and A.K. Markova (1996). One notes that satisfaction with professional choice contributes to the effective professionalization, which manifests in the success of training, high professional motivation and the purposefulness of professional activity. Obviously, such young professionals are the most attractive to employers, and they are less likely to be unemployed after graduation.
Factors determining professional self-determination can be both external and internal in relation to the subject himself. The interests, inclinations and abilities of a senior pupil are mainly attributed to internal ones. The awareness of them and (at a different level of objectivity) the formation of ideas about them occurs in the constant interaction with external factors, for example, such as social stereotypes about professions that dynamically change in accordance with the economic and sociocultural conditions, the representation of referential adults and peers about the world of professions and the subject of professional self-determination (Pryazhnikov, 2008). The complex interaction of these factors leads to the choice of the direction of education by a high school student, and this choice can be more or less conscious, correlated with the objective self-esteem.
Abilities in the domestic psychology refer to the capability to successfully perform one or more activities. In turn, the abilities facilitate learning process thus contributing to the obtaining of motivation for their implementation through the statement of new goals and work at the limit of opportunities. In other words, the idea of a teenager's own abilities can be formed on the basis of a subjective assessment of the "ease" of mastering an activity, and its success. According to G. Gardner, the author of the theory of "multiple intelligence", the structure of our intellect is not homogeneous, and the dominance of one of the seven types of intelligence described by him predetermines the success of a person in a particular subject area (Gardner, 2006). The questionnaire, created on the basis of the G. Gardner's theory, allows us to see a subjective evaluation of a person's abilities. The self-revelation of abilities, in our opinion, occurs as internal communication "I am another I" and is the result of interaction with other people. The assumptions about of one's own abilities are correlated with perceptions of the types of professions where these abilities are claimed to be the most important. These kinds of assumptions, in turn, determine the choice of the future professional sphere. According to J. Holland, abilities and inclinations form a certain type of personality, which is the basis for the search for the professional environment for many people that, in their opinion, would allow them to fully reveal their abilities (Holland et al., 1991). The questionnaire by J. Holland used in the study makes it possible to determine the type of personality of a high school student on the basis of the marked inclinations. Thus, the success of abilities for self-revelation refers to the correspondence between the professional paths chosen by the senior pupil, his type of intelligence, in other words, his expressed abilities and professional inclinations.
The description of the successful self-disclosure of abilities requires the understanding of the mechanisms of this process in the pedagogical and vocational purposes. The objective data on this issue vary dramatically, therefore, we set ourselves the goal of describing the accompanying psychological indicators related to the motivational sphere and self-assessment of students, which in the future can be considered as predictors of the self-disclosure of abilities by high school students.
Are there any specific motivational and self-evaluation indicators of the successful self-revelation of high school students?
Does the success of the self-disclosure of abilities in high school students match with existential fulfillment (experience of fullness of life)?
Purpose of the Study
The main goal of the study is to identify the psychological indicators of the abilities successful self-revelation by high school students.
The study was conducted by the means of the psychodiagnostic method in the senior classes of Vladivostok secondary schools.
199 students of the eleventh grade from various secondary schools of Vladivostok city, including 123 girls and 76 boys took part in the study.
The study was conducted at the general meeting of high school students where they were given the forms for filling in. The methodical unit consisted of a questionnaire, including one question concerning the chosen direction of the future professional training. The other questioners included the questions aimed to identify the type of intelligence according to G. Gardner and the professional inclinations by J. Holland. The answers to those questionnaires were compared and a conclusion was made about the success of self-revelation of one's own abilities by a high school student and his/her type of intellect, professional inclinations and the chosen direction of intelligence. For example, when a high school student chose “Economic” as his future major in the university, he should express entrepreneurial inclinations and logical-mathematical intelligence. In the case of mismatch of the indicators, the pupils were transferred into the control group. Thus, the group of high school students with indicators of successful self-disclosure of their abilities amounted to 89 people (N = 89), and the control group consisted of 110 people (N = 110).
The following questionnaires were used to assess the psychological indicators accompanying the successful self-disclosure of abilities: "Self-assessment of personality" developed by O.I. Motkov in the modification of B.A. Sosnovsky; the technique for diagnosing the motivation for learning and the emotional attitude to the teachings by A.D. Andreeva, and the scale of the existence by A. Langle and K. Orgler.
The results of the psychological indicators evaluation of the abilities for the successful self-disclosure were subjected to statistical comparison using a nonparametric criterion of the significance of the U-Mann-Whitney differences. The results were processed using the SPSS 20.0 application package.
The results show that there are components of self-evaluation and motivation of educational activity, which differ significantly in the two study groups.
In the group of high school students, characterized by successful self-disclosure of their abilities, the following components tend to have a high value: will, independence and sense of reality, harmoniousness as well as motivation for achievement, activity and existential fulfillment, whereas for those teenagers who have not decided on the future direction of training or whose choice does not correspond to his/her abilities, the same indicators tend to be average or below average.
Thus, students who successfully discover their abilities are characterized by highly developed volitional powers, self-control, manifested in particular in purposefulness. Those students are self-sufficient, independent from the opinions of others, which may determine their ability to independently choose the future direction of vocational training. They also have a clear sense of reality, which helps them to access themselves and the world around them critically; their self-esteem is balanced, which causes a positive image of yourself and the ability to cooperate with others (teachers, family). They have a high behavioral activity and motivation to achieve success; therefore, in educational activity they are capable of setting tasks independently and choosing the way to solve them. In general, they are capable of taking responsibility for their behavior. Predominantly high rates of existential fulfillment in this group of high school students allow us to say that these students are sensitive to their own needs and the requirements of the world around them, as well as they are able to find a balance between those needs and requirements which allows them to sense the fullness of life and its meaning.
High school students who have not decided what kind of higher education do they want to obtain, or those who demonstrate a discrepancy between abilities and professional choice are characterized by a low level of independence and strong-willed qualities, which probably manifests in their passivity with respect to professional choice. They have predominantly low rates of achievement motivation, therefore, they are anxious and indecisive, avoid taking responsibility in uncertain situations. They are also characterized by a low level of existential fulfillment, which manifests in low responsible involvement in the process of their own lives.
We made an attempt to search for psychological indicators related to the success of the abilities for self-revelation by high school students. We assumed that the student's self-esteem and motivation could play a decisive role in the objective assessment of his own abilities and the choice of the direction of vocational training. Comparing the indicators of self-esteem and motivation of the two groups of the high school students who differed in the success of their abilities for self-disclosure revealed significant differences in some of them. In particular, the students who successfully correlated their intellectual abilities, professional inclinations and the chosen direction of training demonstrated a high level of independence and activity, as well as a positive general image of themselves. They were more motivated to achieve success and were active in achieving educational and other goals. They were also characterized by the fullness of the experience of their own lives, the basis of which was a harmonious balance between their own needs and the requirements of the external environment.
The question of whether these psychological indicators can be considered as the predictors of the self-disclosure of abilities in schoolchildren remains open and requires other methods of analysis. In particular, it seems to us that it is necessary to take into account other objective factors contributing to the success of this process, for example, the contribution of reference adults (teachers and parents). These facts outline the field of further scientific research.
The study was carried out with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project # 17-06-00281 "Psychological and pedagogical predictors of educational effectiveness and mechanisms for self-revelation of the abilities of high school students".
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- Holland, J. L., Johnston, J. A. Hughey, K. F. & Asama, N. F. (1991). Some Explorations of a Theory of Careers: VII. A Replication and Some Possible Extensions // Journal Of Career Development (Sage Publications Inc.); 18(2): P. 91-100.
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