Training Effectiveness And Employee Performance In A Malaysian Government-Linked Company


Training is very important tool for the organization to improvise the performance of all the personnel for organizational growth and success. An employee will become more effective and productive if he is trained well. Organization can develop and improve the quality of the current employees by providing effective training and development. Training is extremely important not only to increase working well but also to give a reason to do something and inspire employees by letting them know how important their jobs are and giving them all the information they need to perform those jobs. This research describes the relationship between training effectiveness and employee performance in Government Link Company (GLC). The challenges were found in management when employee has admitted for training. Many sources opinionative that less of training effectiveness of employees can influence their employee performance while doing their job. In consequence, the researchers want to know either training effectiveness can surely improve employee performance or not. A total of 176 employees have been involved in this study, using a quantitative questionnaire survey method. The results were inconclusive, exactly to the limit of the research. Moreover, the researchers found a solid connection between training effectiveness and employee performance. Finally, the outcomes are gathered from the questionnaire was assessed with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23. From the finding, it can be concluded that entire hypothesis was accepted. It is found that there is a positive relationship between training effectiveness and employee performance.

Keywords: Training effectivenessemployee performancetraininggovernment-linked company


In the 21st century, competition between organizations becomes more and more important. It is because the training programme thought of as excellence force to one organization remains quality in facing overall market competition and accepted as a venture for the organization. Cheng and Ho (2001) stated that only 10% of expense for training that is positive in order to training move from one place to another. In surrounding conditions of fast change, it is clear that an individual must have the capacity to change to fit new challenges.

According to Yusoff (2002), examine that training in organizational is a continuous learning process arranged to change attitudes, knowledge and employee ability which their work performance can be increased. DuBrin (2006) also states that employee performance describe their skills, ability, experience and so forth, to complete the assigned job needed by their superior(s) in effective way and reduce the job inefficiency in workplace.

For training to be effective, it should improve the performance and ability of the trained employee. According to Appiah (2010), training makes benefits for the worker learning, aptitudes, capacities and conduct. Nickels (2009) says, the impacts of training on worker`s performance may frequently empower development inside the representative and the association itself.

Training Effectiveness

Fraser (1994) defines effectives as a measure of the match between stated goals and their action of accomplishing. It a comparable way to deal with Erlendsson (2002), describes viability as how much goals are met by doing the right things. Kennedy (2013) stated that the organization relied upon to distinguish training need of its workers and configuration training programs that will help in the best possible way use to all the employees in a company towards becoming real of organization goal.

Training can also be defined as a learning process in which employees get knowledge, skills, experience and attitudes that they need in order to do their job better for the completed of their organizational goals this statement based on Ngirwa (2009). Training programs can likewise help the workforce to diminish their uneasiness or disappointment, started by the work on job (Chen, et al., 2004). Furthermore, Rowden (2002), highlighted that training may also be an efficient tool for improving one's job satisfaction, as employee better performance leads to appreciation by the top management, hence employee feel more adjusted with his job.

In order to have an effective training program, trainees should believe that when they participate in learning, they would get desired rewards in agreement (Chiaburu & Takleab 2005). Although it is expensive to give training to the employees but, in the long run, it gives back more than it took (Kaynak, 2003).

Employee Performance

An employee is a group of people who are working together such as related to department or research team. Employees refers to a pool of HR under the association's control in an immediate work relationship (Bhatnagar, 2007). Employees need to manage their performance to show the great attitude, the better performance and working well to achieve organization objective.

Furthermore, employees need to manage their performance to show the great attitude, the better performance and working well to achieve organization objective.

The employee performance means using their skills, ability, experience and so forth to complete the assigned job demanded by their subordinate with the effectiveness and producing something (DuBrin, 2006). In light of Martin & Bartol (1998) highlighted that the employee performance is about to do something that was completed of given job measured and that can be against of the present standards of quality. Champathes (2006) also stated when employee performances increased and this will lead to the organization effectiveness.

According Mondy, Noe and Premeaux (2002) having different tasks working together as one unit is a procedure for managers to work with their labourers to set the expectation, measure, and review results, and reward performance, in order to improve employee performance, with the final aim of positively affecting organizational success.

The Relationship between Training Effectiveness and Employee Performance

Nowadays, most of the managers were recognized that training as an effective tools in achieving productivity in the organization. It is well known fact that organizations always focus to the activities and programs which can help in the achievements of the objective for which such organizations were established. Thus, it is crucial that organization should have a well-trained and experience employee to carry out the various tasks and responsibilities to achieve organizational goals and objectives. (Ogbu & Idowu, 2017).

According to Shazwani (2012), training of employees is equal to investing in the organizational most important valuable thing that is the employee. It develops their skills, changes their point of view towards work and builds their loyalty to the company because of this improved performance.

Appiah (2010) stated that employee's performance is measured against the performance standards set by the organization. According to Appiah (2010), training creates benefits for the employee knowledge, skills, ability, abilities and behaviour. Training improves employee performance in the human resource as well as the organisation (Shazwani, 2012). Based on Swart et al., (2005) bridging the performance gap refers to implementing a relevant training intervention for the sake of developing particular skills and abilities of the workers and enhancing employee performance.

Training is the only ways of identifying the hinder need of employees and then building their needed competence level so that they may carry out well to accomplish organizational goals (Farooq & Aslam, 2011). Obisi (2001) reported that training is a sensible process of improving the attitudes, knowledge, and skills, because of this; it leads to the acceptable performance by the workers at the job. Training has proved to create performance improvement related benefits for the employee as well as for the organization by positively influencing employee performance through the development of employee knowledge, skills, ability, abilities and behaviours (Appiah 2010; Harrison 2000)

Problem Statement

Training program is an imperative aspect that companies need to focus in order to increase employee performance also the organization performance. Training programs is an effective way to improve the employees’ knowledge, skills and ability for their self- improvement. This can be evident in a study by Faizuniah et al (2002) who found out that 24.4% of 60 Malaysian manufacturing companies had to spend more than 2% of annual budget for employees’ training programs.

Recently in Media news, 11 September 2015, stated that one of Government Link Company (GLC) faced safety issue due to lack of training and development, inspections, and maintenance at the offshore platform in Malaysia. It is also stated that systematic problems relating to the lack of staff competence and training. According to a 2015 survey by Cegos, which highlighted Malaysia seemed to be out of synchronise with developments in other Asia Pacific countries in term of the amount of corporate training provided to the organization.

Research Questions

The research questions are:

Is there any relationship between training effectiveness and employee performance?

This inquiry was produced to recognize whether the viability of the training has the relationship with the worker performance or not. This inquiry will give a response to this research where the principle goal of this exploration is to know whether the effectiveness of the training has a relationship with the employee performance.

Research Framework

Figure 1: Research Framework
Research Framework
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Purpose of the Study

The goal is to examine the effectiveness of training on employee performance in a Malaysian GLC. This GLC is a prominent utility company in Malaysia in which the training programs for the employee play a significant role in the company’s activities and ultimately would provide significant contribution to the company’s performance.

Research Methods

Data Collection Tools

Using quantitative form of research design, this study employs quantitative survey through questionnaire in order to achieve the objective of the study. A 200-questionnaire has been distributed and only 176 usable questionnaires have been retrieved from the GLC’s employees. Likewise, it separated into three sections which to be specific demography information, independent variable and dependent variable. The five-point liker scale is utilized to measure the independent and dependent factors.

Method of Analysis

After the data gathered from the questionnaire, the information gathered will be make sense of the quality with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Adaptation 23. The descriptive analysis were done in this survey. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. It’s providing simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together we simple graphic analysis, they form the basis of almost every quantitative analysis of data. This descriptive statistic includes the following areas, which are frequency distribution, measures of central desire and measures of spreading out.

Person Correlation Coefficient analysis also was carried out in this study. The Pearson correlation will be used to measure the significance of linear bivariate between the independent and dependent variables thereby achieving the objective of this study. The correlation analysis was used to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. It also figures out whether two variables are linearly correlated, could use scatter plot to visualise the relationship. A statistical t-test could then be used to test the significance of the linear relationship. If the two variables are not related correlated, then the correlation coefficient should be zero.


Descriptive Analysis

The respondents consist of 62.5% males, while the females consist of the rest 37.5% and most respondents aged between 21 to 30 years, which represents 35.2% of total of the sample. Most of the respondents are with married status (68.2%). Furthermore, most of the respondents hold posiiton as lower level employees (23.9%), 63.1% of the respondent are SPM holder and 26.7% of the respondents have 5 to 10 years working experiences.

Cronbach Alpha

Table 1 -
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The results of Cronbach’s Alpha for all tested elements under independent and dependent variables. Training Effectiveness is an independent variable while Employee Performance is the dependent variables. For training effectiveness, the Cronbach’s Alpha is 0.950 (20 items) in the element which can be considered as acceptable. Meanwhile, the dependent variable which is Employee Performance were tested using 20 items of an element produced a Cronbach’s Alpha 0.941 which is classified as good.

Correlation Analysis

Table 2 -
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Table 2 shows the finding on the correlation between the training effectiveness and employee performance Based on the result, the value of correlation between both variables at p-value is 0.00** (coefficient correlation at .886). This indicates that there is a strong relationship between training effectiveness and employee performance of the GLC. This attempts to imply that the training programs which are conducted for the GLC’s employees play a significant influence towards the performance of its employees. This is consistent with the study done by Dabale (2014) who affirmed that there was a positive relationship between training and employee performance as he proved that employee knowledge, skills, ability, competencies and behaviour are amongst the benefits gained from the training. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted.


From the finding, it can be concluded that the correlation analysis of two variable has a significant relationship. The entire hypothesis was accepted. The research also has been studied in determining the relationship between training effectiveness and employee performance. It is found that there is a positive relationship between training effectiveness and employee performance.

According to Dabale (2014) affirmed that there was a positive relationship between training and employee performance. He also concludes that the employee knowledge, skills, ability, competencies and behaviour is the benefits from the training. In addition, it was also observed that training alters the behaviour of employees in a direction that will achieve organisational goals and help to reconcile the gap between what should happen and what is happening to increase the level of performance.


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31 July 2018

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Hamid, A. A., Surbaini, K. N., Hadi, N., & Zaaba, S. N. F. (2018). Training Effectiveness And Employee Performance In A Malaysian Government-Linked Company. In N. Nadiah Ahmad, N. Raida Abd Rahman, E. Esa, F. Hanim Abdul Rauf, & W. Farhah (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Sustainability Perspectives: Engaging Enviromental, Cultural, Economic and Social Concerns, vol 44. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 282-288). Future Academy.