Management Styles And Their Impact On The Implementation Of Changes In Schools


Processes taking place in schools in the modern era are very dynamic and a school as an organization must make adjustments and adaptations to a modern society. Therefore, it is crucial for the school principals to lead the necessary changes based on the management tools and methods of organizational excellence. An organization that strives to survive and reach organizational excellence in a competitive environment with is accelerated processes of change, needs a manager - leader. The subjects of management and leadership present two key concepts that have been studied on a very large scale for decades and thousands of books have been written on the subject. Management and leadership have been the basis for the success or collapse of companies and organizations from the dawn of human history, and therefore, this issue is of critical importance to the success of organizations in general and schools in particular. This article presents initial findings of a study that discusses the management styles of school principals who led a change in their schools, who succeeded more and who did less, and its dependence on the management styles of managers and their characteristics, based on Adizes ( 1980 ) tools for management styles diagnosis and analysis of behaviors.

Keywords: EFQMExcellenceManagement StyleLeadershipLeading Change


An organization that strives to survive and reach organizational excellence in a competitive environment with is accelerated processes of change, needs a manager - leader. The subjects of management and leadership present two key concepts that have been studied on a very large scale for decades and thousands of books have been written on the subject. Management and leadership have been the basis for the success or collapse of companies and organizations from the dawn of the human history, and therefore, this issue is of critical importance to the success of organizations in general and schools in particular.

Kotter (2003) describe that management is a series of processes that can guarantee that a complex system of people and technologies will be managed correctly, where management's most important aspects include planning, budgeting, organization, hiring personnel, monitoring and problem solving. In contrast, leadership is a series of processes that establishes organizations or adapts them to circumstances that have changed significantly. Leadership defines how the future should look despite setbacks.

Ben Baruch and Guri-Rosenblit (1995) clarified the issue of school principals' management and leadership and stated that in light of the dynamic, least expected processes at schools, and in light of the many diverse tasks that schools have to perform, school principals must act in a temperamental, often changing environment. A school principal must solve dozens if not hundreds of problems every day, balance different, contradicting demands of interest groups in and outside school, take initiatives to advance the school, engage in marketing and establishing contacts to promote the school and many other varied activities. This reality requires the school principal to be the leader of leaders (Sergiovanni, 1995).

In the light of the development of the Western society and the need to adapt the educational system to this development, there is a demand for professional training of the principals to lead the schools they run to achieve organizational excellence. It is therefore clear that there is a demand for principals - leaders.

European Foundation Quality Management (E.F.Q.M) approach:

The research deals with adoption of an organizational innovation in schools in Israel based on the E.F.Q.M. Excellence Approach and focuses on 15 schools that have been chosen for this pilot program.

The Excellence Approach E.F.Q.M is a framework for organization excellence developed by the European Foundation for Quality Management in 1989. This approach was designed to help organizations to improve their business competitiveness, better performance and increase profits. The vision of the policy makers was that "more and more units in the public sector will take upon themselves to assimilate the overall system to the organization excellence, examine themselves, adapt themselves to an organizational culture of continuous improvement, submit a request for an external assessment and in time nominate candidates for the National Quality Award in the public sector" (Sheleg, 2007).

From 2013 the Excellence Approach (E.F.Q.M) has been officially adopted by the Standards Institution of Israel and a staff of the Institution has been trained and approved to certify organizations that meet the organizational requirements of the European foundation for Quality management which is headquartered in Belgium. (The Standards Institution of Israel, 2013) The Standards Institution of Israel is the first to follow the process of implementing the E.F.Q.M approach in Israeli schools mentioned in this article.

Quality and organizational excellence:

Models and methods for quality management have developed in the industrial world, but in recent decades these models have also entered educational systems that are considered organizations for all purposes. Therefore, as is the case in the business, industrial and economic sectors, schools are also expected to adopt innovation and management methods adapted to the technological revolution and globalization of 21st century, which created a new and different competitive environment.

The multiplicity of competitors and the constant expectation of customers (in the case of a school - parents and students, policymakers and others) require the organizations, including schools, to make changes as a means of streamlining and sometimes even for survival (Zelig, 2011).

Simchon (2013) reinforces this claim by saying that the education system is committed to results at the national, ethical and social levels. In order to meet the expected results, the principals are required to lead advanced processes that will meet the existing and changing needs. In recent years, awareness has been developing to cultivate organizational excellence and to improve the quality of service in the various organizational systems. They have become common concepts and part of the management culture in Israel and around the world. This trend has also become the domain of educational organizations seeking to improve organizational processes and to promote the quality of service provided to their clients (students), in order to ultimately promote the achievements of students in the education system.

Goldstein (2013) claims that the challenges faced by organizations, including schools, are numerous and sometimes even existential. The path to deterioration (failure) is only a matter of time for an organization that does not strive for quality and excellence. Aharonov (2013) states that quality and organizational excellence serves as a strategic asset for any organization that adopts and leads them over time.

E.F.Q.M in Israel Education System:

In 2011, Orna Simchon, the head of the Northern District of the Ministry of Education addressed the School principals in the district, proposing a new program that focuses on quality management and organizational excellence. 

Out of dozens of candidates, 15 schools from the Northern District were selected as those who were supposed to implement the excellence method - E.F.Q.M in their school, at the initial implementation

level C2E - Committed To Excellence.

Simchon (2011) noted in her letter to principals in the Northern District that "the education system is constantly undergoing a process of change, and as such it has to follow systematically the rapid developments and to adapt to changing conditions and goals. The implementation of this task requires the educational organizations to systematically and critically examine the existing organizational frameworks and to propose plans for the reorganization of the systems. This task requires a flexible and dynamic organizational structure with high variability, adapted to the environment so that its function will meet the changing needs very frequently. Therefore, the school needs a stable and long-term holistic management system. The model of quality management is a model that looks at the organization, and in this case the school as a whole, with all its details and parts".

Simchon (2011) in her letter to the principals added that this unique pilot program that has so far not been tried in schools in Israel, will be carried out in 15 schools during three years to assimilate the European quality approach E.F.Q.M.

The goals of the program as determined by the district (Simchon, 2011) are:

  • 1. Transforming a school (that is taking part in a program) into a quality and outstanding school according to the approach for quality management - E.F.Q.M.

  • Implementing an innovative holistic organizational system designed and adapted to the unique characteristics of the school by bringing innovative tools based on a "focused management" style, and providing an innovative response to the major organizational dilemmas that the school faces.

  • Promoting the outputs and outcomes of the school in relation to its customers and key stakeholders: students, parents, the community and educational institutions.

It is therefore possible to understand that the school principal bears a heavy responsibility to lead and assimilate this innovative approach of excellence and to lead the school in its many facets to a new reality and an innovative culture.

If so, there is no doubt that there is a need for a principal with the qualities of a principal - leader according to the leadership definitions described above.

The management styles of the school principals who have been selected to be pioneers in the implementation of the E.F.Q.M approach have been reviewed and analysed according Adizes approach (Adizes, 1980).

Adizes (1980) described four management-leadership styles:

1.4.1. Producer – managers characterized by this style are usually loyal to their discipline and work. They are is well versed in their field, industrious, diligent and produce results. Managers are of the producer type lead the production system or the operational system in organizations. This type of manager encourages the determination of operational plans as fast as possible in order to reach results. Producer type managers stand out in that they are achievement driven and competitive, while at the same time they are devoted to the task and follow the need to produce fast results. Managers of the producer type learn fast what "motivates" the organization and learn how to master the technology or the principles that operate the system. These managers' motivation for achievement is rather high, and they need to integrate this need with an ability to learn and understand their line of work quickly, in order to produce fast and significant results. Because of their intensive dealing with problems arising in an organization, these managers do not tend to consult colleagues and managers above them, and certainly not workers subjected to them, and they may find themselves rushing from one problem to another, while others around them are relaxed and have nothing to do. In other words, producer type managers may be busy putting out fires, and may not find time to deal with day-to-day problems and/or long term planning. Producer type managers do not hold organized meetings, claiming that it's a waste of time. They assign tasks to their subordinates without considering the weight on their shoulders, and without seeing an egalitarian division of the load. Their task-oriented approach certainly come at the expense of people. They do not engage in long term planning, including planning that pertains to the development of their workers. Over time, the organization may be harmed because of workers' insufficient knowledge. At the same time, these managers may compromise their workers motivation and their need to succeed. These managers tend to ignore work regulations and rules, and tend to take shortcuts, and as result, they may harm the organization in general and specific departments in particular. This management style is also called the "lone ranger", as these managers are focused on producing results and tending to "burning" issues. As such, their behaviour expresses hurting others' feelings, impatience and intolerance. Organizations need this type of manager especially at their infancy stage, when it is important to getting established and producing results that will guarantee growth and expansion. However, the vitality and contribution of producer type managers' is important throughout an organization's life course.

1.4.2. Administrator – an administrator is a person who tends to details, who is highly organized and devoted to operating the system according to regulations and rules. An administrator's work is director at ensuring that the organization will function as it was set to function. As a result of the administrator's methodical approach and constant commitment to the tiniest details, the administrator supervises the system that maintains order in the organization. Every organization needs an effective manager, and this type of manager will contribute to effectiveness and methodicalness. A manager of this type will usually deal with details such as finances, accounting, administrative management as well as organization and methods. The dangers posed by this type of manager are: an organization managed by administrators becomes a bureaucratic organization where the goals are to adhere to rules and regulations, where it is not important if the goals are reached or not. This approach stifles creativity and prevents the organization's development. Managers of this type require rigid discipline and do not consider the workers' different needs, and may insist on their opinions and take the organization down. Adizes characterized these mangers as Bureaucrats. Bureaucrats do not encourage their workers to be creative and examine new ways. In extreme situations, managers of this type will punish workers who prefer new creative ways to working according to existing procedures. Bureaucrats despise improvisation and find it hard to digest ambiguity. Therefore, they issue new regulations often, based on an ideology according to which a task requires some performance regulations. The paradox is that too many regulations lead to damage to the general quality of work, to staff effectiveness and the service the organization offers to its customers. In an organization's life cycle, such a manager is of great significance especially in the transition from childhood to adulthood. At this stage, the organization shifts from the 'informal' stage that characterizes developing organizations to a stage when the organization is already well-established and has to develop organizational norms. It is no longer possible to manage workers' salaries on scrap papers. There is a need to anchor principles, rules and norms at work et

1.4.3. Entrepreneur – in a changing environment, organizations need new ideas in order to survive. New opportunities, chances, risks and problems arise on a daily basis and organizations must know how to deal with them. An 'entrepreneur' is needed to establish an organization, a person who will come up with the idea or that spark which the 'producer' can realize. An entrepreneur is characterized by innovation, convention breaker and thinking in new, original ways. Entrepreneur managers focus on the future, on new horizons to which they see fit to lead the organization and to which the organization can develop, and on future achievements. Entrepreneur managers often ask "Why?" and "why not?", thus doubting that which exists, the principles that guide the organization and its tradition, while constantly looking for better solutions. Entrepreneur managers have high abstract thinking skills and high abilities to identify trends. Entrepreneur managers are the force that search for where it is possible and necessary to introduce changes, and they have the power to motivate the organization. They have macro vision and focuses on the 'big picture' while not examining things to the tiniest details. They take chances by their nature and make decisions fast even when information is lacking. The risks that this type of manager is in that the goal of organizations governed by entrepreneur managers is innovation. Ideas are old immediately upon their publication. Ideas are not properly assimilated and their worthwhileness is not examined. An entrepreneur manager's message to workers is "Do not bother to start working on my ideas, because I am going to change them anyway". A manager of this type cannot work by the rules, and therefore this reality can harm the organization's social climate. In some cases, entrepreneur managers think up a rather general idea and expect their subordinates and colleagues to go ahead and implement it. They are not interested in details, but rather only in the general ideas. In their own eyes, entrepreneur managers are people of vision, revolutionaries, geniuses and original thinkers. They do not appreciate routine and like to be at the center stage and draw attention. They get bored easily. They prefer events when they are happy to announce new projects, revolutionary strategies and other changes. The frequent changes, and diverting the organization's efforts to new ideas may exhaust workers and lead them to a state where they ignore new instructions and 'stage' enthusiasm about the new instructions without translating them into practice.

1.4.4. Integrator – managers of this type focus on staff development and the staff's work in the organization. Their work style is directed at developing the organization so it will function as an organic system. Managers of this type are people oriented they are sensitive to the needs of others, to their opinions, the factors that drive and motivate them and their difficulties and sensitivities and thus contribute to creating a cohesive environment and organizational learning. The role of integrator managers is to connect the staff to the objectives of the organization and to empower teamwork to a level where they can fulfill their tasks without them. Integrator managers is attentive to people who are their top priority. They pave the way to a general consensus paying the cost of compromises. The main concern of this type of the manager is for the proper operation of the organization to the satisfaction of the workers in the system. They try to establish a dialogue with workers and listen to their concerns. As such, they know how to make decisions that will be acceptable to the people who have to implement them. The risks that this type of manager, termed by Adizes as 'the super-follower', is that such managers will devote much of their time to learning about the organizational climate, identifying sources of power and trends in organizational politics in which they operate. In many cases, these managers will refrain from expressing their opinions and will echo opinions expressed by individuals whom they perceive as belonging to the sources of power in the organization, and thus they get to lead the prevailing opinion, which will situate them as alleged leaders. These managers may prefer workers' wellbeing to that of the organization and as such may cause harm to the organization. Workers can identify the manager's management style and exploit it to their advantage even when itis not justified. Workers who feel that the manager is always on their side may go too far and make excessive demands, and when the organization meets these demands, there is a risk that the organization's goals will not be accomplished. The 'led' manager will work hard to be perceived as 'right', be deterred by interpersonal conflicts and situations where they may encounter resistance, especially on the part of those whom he considers figures o fpower, and as such, may show them withdraw the previously presented opinion.

Problem Statement

What management style is desired to best implement the EFQM approach in schools and whether the principals chosen to be the pioneers of change in the education system in Israel are the ones who meet the characteristics of the principal who successfully assimilates the change in his organization?

Research Questions

What is the management style of the managers who succeeded in implementing the EFQM-quality approach in Israeli schools?

Purpose of the Study

To define and characterize the management style of school principals that can be used to implement organizational innovation in schools such as the EFQM Approach

Research Methods

The research based on a Mixed Methods methodology using both qualitative and quantitative tools. Qualitative tools will be in depth interviews with school principals, In order to understand in depth the management style of the principal: how he makes decisions, how he leads the process of change in the school, who was involved in his decisions, if any, to understand the extent of his involvement in the process of change and the process of implementing the quality approach in his school.

Quantitative research tools will be attitudes questionnaires seeking to examine the management style of the principals who began the process of implementing the change in their school.

The interview with principals and management style questionnaire will establish a holistic vision and a deep understanding of the principal's management style.


Findings - First stage of implementation of the Excellence Approach - C2E:

Table 1 -
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Out of 15 schools, 13 schools have been certified for the first phase of the EFQM approach - C2E level.

Based on the results of management style mapping it can be seen that 62% (31% + 31%) of the managers who succeeded in implementing the first stage of the EFQM approach(C2E) have managerial characteristics (management skills) of type A at the dominant level to the dominant high.

On the basis of the semi-structured interviews with all the principals, the findings of the management styles questionnaire of those principals who implemented the first stage as those who worked according to the rules and guidelines received during the in-service training, meetings and guidance of the Ministry of Education during the implementation of this stage, were strengthened.

Findings of the second stage of the implementation of the excellence approach - C2E2:

Out of 13 school principals who implemented the first stage, only 2 school principals continued to the next stage of implementation – C2E2.

At this stage of implementation, the principals were not accompanied by meetings with experts or by in-service training (as in the previous stage), but rather had to lead the next phase of the EFQM approach in the schools they ran.

The findings indicate that the principal of the school "1" has a characteristic of management style P and A at a "dominant" level.

The principal of the school"2" is characterized by the management style A at a "high dominance" level and all the other styles at a minor level.

In an interview with the principal of the school "1", the principal explained that he saw the implementation of the excellence approach as an individual goal and even described himself as the leader of the process and was involved in all stages of the work of the school staff.

On the other hand, the principal of the school "2" saw the implementation of the excellence approach as an objective for personal positioning (he says "another personal accomplishment and certificate on the wall").

In the original research, a process of research analysis was conducted among the "quality coordinators" of the schools.

Findings - Interviews with all principals who did not continue to the next stage: C2E2

In the study, a semi-structured interview was conducted with all principals, and insights were obtained from the principals who did not proceed to the C2E2 stage of the EFQM. It can be seen from the interviews that implementation of an innovative approach for quality and excellence in schools is a complicated task without any systemic support, and without determination of a unique and dedicated caregiver for this task in the schools, the implementation of an innovative will not succeed.


According to the literature review on leadership and management, management styles, organizational changes and quality and organizational excellence, it is clear that if we seek to implement organizational innovation such as the EFQM approach, we must place this on a principal- leader. From the interviews and questionnaires conducted in the 15 schools that served as the spearhead of an innovative approach for quality and excellence, two principals have been identified as those whose level of commitment to the implementation process was based on a sense of responsibility and a desire to make a change of the second or even third level.

The principal of the school "1" had a dominant characteristic of a Producer type and that's why he managed to lead his organization to successful implementation of the approach. The principal of the school "2' , the dominant type of Administrator, managed to lead the implementation process as long as there were clear procedures and instructions to follow. As soon as there was no guidance this principal placed the responsibility on another school principal. Having an experience of 18 years of management 4 schools, leading many changes and their implementation, and in light of the findings of the research, in order to succeed in assimilating organizational innovation, it is necessary to identify principals of a Producer type, leaders who will lead the process and achieve results and in the future change the management style according to the organization's situation, positioning and age.


I would like to thank Professor Chis for his professional guidance and support throughout the study. The discussions and instructions regarding the research method and the focus on the research topics have been of a great help and have led to final definition of the research topic.


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28 June 2018

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Menasches, A., & Chiș, V. (2018). Management Styles And Their Impact On The Implementation Of Changes In Schools. In V. Chis, & I. Albulescu (Eds.), Education, Reflection, Development – ERD 2017, vol 41. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 197-205). Future Academy.