The article analyzes the practice of implementing continuing education programs in the Russian Federation in the modern conditions of globalization and transition to an innovative economy, where education plays a leading role, allowing a person to develop constantly; it illustrates the modern Russian practice of implementing the approach to education. The authors are concerned with the acute issue of the employees professional correspondence to the positions held, including the problem of so-called employee’s "final stop" syndrome caused by the revision of the "state outlook" on the quality of staff training and understanding that even modern university education is not capable of giving knowledge for all life; today the society is stated to be ripe for understanding the need to create/educate highly qualified specialists. Materials and legislative norms that allow determining essential characteristics of these programs implementation are analyzed. The authors attempt to study the influence of some features of the globalization process such as: transformation of knowledge into the main element of social wealth that stimulates a creative approach to solve problems, formation of global information space that ensures implementation of any type of activity in real time, and formation of an effective public management system. The article summarizes that implementation of continuing education programs allowing people to exchange experiences, develop intellectually, learn to solve various problems constructively, will increase the population education level as a whole, thereby contributing to the emergence of highly qualified specialists in various fields.
Keywords: Federationcontinuous educationintegration
In the modern world in the era of the information infrastructure active development, the global information space, knowledge is transformed into the main element of social wealth that allows considering options, including scientific and industrial cooperation of countries, transition to an innovative economy, where education plays a leading role. Today, one can safely say that in the Russian Federation, a serious process of transition from a formal approach to education/training began, though it often is considered to the practice of obtaining a document on education (diploma) without orientation to the subsequent application of the acquired knowledge, when a person, having received an economist degree, diploma, for example, went to work to the grocery store as a shop-assistant - to the situation of increasing the education prestige, to strive to expand the boundaries of professional knowledge and skills, to apply the general management principles into the effective education management system, considering the richest domestic and foreign experience in this field, as well as understanding that "teaching is not only the transmission of facts, but also the art of intellectual search, that requires communication face to face with students" (Bromwich, 2015; Kuznetsova et al., 2017; Korneva & Plotnikova, 2015).
Thus, the level and prospects of the modern society development characterized with the increasing role of information, various technologies, including information, into the process of accelerating globalization real rates, necessitate the realization of free access of any person to information resources, with the criteria system and assessment methods of their effectiveness, their competence. Perhaps presenting a person being far from the information space is perhaps unreal in principle. Therefore, the accessibility principle in obtaining information - knowledge - is the main condition for the mobility of specialists. Moreover, the success of a person, a specialist, as a whole, is determined with the ability, speed and possibilities of his self-development. So absolutely new management methods appear and they are replicated in non-fiction materials, for example, scrum is the so-called revolutionary project management method (Schwaber, 2004); its application increases their productivity. Thus, the usage of various forms, methods of obtaining and transmitting information provides a continuous process of improving people's interaction, management and facilitates establishment of so-called feedbacks between participants. In other words, continuous education largely cultivates the process of people's self-development.
Today, more than ever the question of the employees’ professional conformity to their positions is actualized. At present, the problem of the so-called employee’s "last stop" syndrome does not seem unrealistic, it gradually begins to come to understanding that modern even university education is not capable of giving knowledge for all life. The idea, the original slogan "lifelonglearning" or the "LLL" system, the "3L" system that appeared in the West in the 80s of the 20th century can serve as an illustration. This slogan implementation was one of the options for responding to the labor market demands when the very possibility of getting an education began to be viewed as a promising investment in human capital, which was subsequently taken as a basis for the creation of the personnel policy of some successful organizations.
In this regard, one cannot ignore the fact that the very concept of globalization, emerged on the basis of ideas of modernization, progress and universalization underwent major changes at the end of the last century, when the trajectory of the world civilization development changed under the collapse pressure of so-called "world bipolarity" theory caused with the USSR collapse.
At present, in the Russian Federation, one of the priority tasks of development is the qualitative improvement of the management system itself, both at the state and municipal levels. And the solution of this serious issue is directly related to resolving the problem of training highly qualified personnel, and, therefore, creating an effective education system. At present the education system and, in particular, the university system, is considered in the globalization processes context (Neborsky, 2017), when the very structure of educational institutions is changing and new forms are being developed, for example, the networked university.
It should be remembered that state of matters in the education sphere is directly connected not only with state social policy, but also with the economic development strategy of the state as a whole, and the country's competitiveness depends in a dynamically changing world. One can state with absolute certainty that today in modern society many aspects of not only state life but also social development depend on the education development level, its quality (economy, security, culture, etc.). According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation declaring as the highest value the rights and freedoms of man and citizen and speaking of the social orientation of the state, it is necessary to ensure it at the proper level and need for public goods and services, and they, of course, include the possibility of education obtaining and continuing.
Undoubtedly, the very idea of education continuity is not an opening or news. So, even in Ancient Greece Plato reflected on it correlating the society well-being with the constant knowledge renewal; in the nineteenth century, for example, D.I. Pisarev in his pedagogical works on general problems of education, in particular, in the work "Realists", also talked about the need for education continuity. The twentieth century introduced its corrections into this idea, marking it in 1968 in the materials of the UNESCO general conference. Later in 1972, the report of the UNESCO Commission was published; it resulted in the decision to recognize the continuing education system as one of the key principles for the education reform at all continents. So there is a new world educational vector. Thus, the slogan "Learning Through Life" having received its legal consolidation, created conditions for the educational process modernization with possibility of using information and communication technologies, including into creation and implementation some elements of distance learning.
The theoretical and methodological foundations of the continuous education system in Russia are noted to be formulated. They are based on scientific research of B.S. Gershunsky, A.P. Vladislavlev, A.M. Novikov, and others.
Describing today as a whole the understanding of education problems in Russia, it is possible to single out two global factors that require a continuous increase in adult education.
Firstly, it is the awareness at the state level of the need for constant maintenance of the professional knowledge level of workers throughout the whole working period that corresponds to modern technologies that is a potential condition for their effective work.
Secondly, it is recognition by everyone needs for constant improvement of their professional knowledge, skills, skills as a necessary condition for professional growth, enhancement of skills, preservation of the workplace, economic and social well-being, spiritual and intellectual development.
So it follows that possible forms analysis of providing continuing education must consider specifics of the purposes of its providing and obtaining, and it can include, in particular: socialization of citizens; admission to the profession (it is a question of vocational guidance); extension of professional skills and knowledge in the form of advanced training; achieving a certain social status (for example, obtaining a degree and/or academic degree); realization of life goals and attitudes. The legal regulation objectives in the education sphere are the state guarantees establishment, mechanisms for the realization of human rights and freedoms in the education sphere, creation of conditions for the education system development, the protection of the participants rights and interests in the relations in the education sphere, and one task is maintaining and protection of citizens constitutional law of the Russian Federation for education.
Accordingly, today the government main actions in implementation of the regulation of adapting continuing education programs should be reduced to the adoption of legislative and regulatory acts for the modern education system, which will determine the specific conditions, guarantees of its functioning.
Analysis of the norms of Russian legislation governing continuing education.
In general, the educational law constitutional foundations are in Art.43 of the Constitution, and it establishes the right of everyone to education; Art.72 relating general education issues to joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation, as well as Art.114 establishing that the Government of the Russian Federation ensures the conduct of a unified state policy in the education field in the Russian Federation.
Nevertheless, speaking about the legal regulation of the continuing education sphere in modern Russia, we determine some problems. So, theoretically the idea of continuous education is formulated in the norms of legislation. However, understanding of the concept in the documents is different. Moreover, the very normative definition of continuing education appeared only in September 2005 in the concept of "Federal Targeted Program for the Development of Education for 2006-2010" approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation, according to it this type of education is a process of increasing the educational potential of the person throughout the whole life based on the usage of state and public institutions system considering the needs of the person and society as a whole.
Analyzing the sources, it is possible to draw conclusion that this term is used to denote the principle of state policy and/or the system of continuous improvement of the education level and quality, while the institutions of the continuing education system are indicated.
However, the Russian Federation is noted to be not an innovator in the part of innovation and application of the "continuous education" concept: domestic practice was developed in the USSR.
So, back in 1986, a joint resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On measures to improve radically the quality of training and usage of specialists with higher education in the national economy" was adopted, it formulated the requirement to provide continuing education, including the need for legal and environmental training of students.
Later in 1987, the Decree of the same bodies "On Measures to Improve the Training and Implementation of Scientific, Pedagogical and Scientific Personnel" set the task of restructuring training of scientific, pedagogical and scientific personnel, considering that it is an integral part of the continuing education unified system.
Summarizing, we emphasize that the training of scientific, scientific and pedagogical personnel during the Soviet period was to enter the continuing education system, where doctoral studies would be the crowning of the continuous education system in the state.
In 1992, the Law of the Russian Federation "On Education" was adopted, it provided for continuous professional development of employees. A Federal Law of 22.08.1996 "On Higher and Post-Graduate Professional Education" formulated principles of continuity, as well as continuity of education. It should be noted that even in documents dealing with employment issues, for example, the relevant target program, continuing education was positioned as a system where among the key activities the idea of its development and the possibility of supporting the quality of the workforce by progressive means appeared.
It should be noted that the next surge of legislative and sub-legislative activity was in 1999, when industry laws were adopted to introduce continuous education. In particular, amendments to the Federal Law "On the Prosecutor's Office" were being adopted this year providing for a continuing education system and including training and internships, to ensure high professionalism of employees, while it is clear that raising the level of professional skill becomes the official duty of prosecutors.
At the same time, the Federal Law "On Physical Culture and Sport in the Russian Federation" was adopted, and it called continuity and continuity of physical education of different citizens’ age groups as one principle of state policy in the field of physical culture and sports.
Thus, it is obvious that the idea of education continuity has shifted from one of the education components - training - to other elements of education, for example, to the educational process.
Later, the Federal Law "On the Federal Program for the Development of Education" (2000) was adopted. Among the main events there appears "the improvement of the continuous education system ".
Federal Law No 273-FZ of December 29, 2012 (current version) "On Education in the Russian Federation", education is divided into general education, vocational education, supplementary education and vocational training, providing the opportunity to realize the right to lifelong education (continuous education), which also contributes to the realization of the "lifelong learning" thesis and active integration of people into the world educational space.
Also now, there are some documents illustrating the problem of modern Russian education. For example, Letter No 06-735 of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation from 09.10.2013 "On additional vocational education" concretizing the thesis on the types of education in Russia: "general education, vocational education, additional education and vocational training, lifelong learning (continuing education)".
The model of education for 2008-2020 is noted to continue to play a significant role: lifelong learning is becoming an indispensable and increasingly important element of modern educational systems. Non-formal education - courses, training - and informal education have an increasing role, which is realized at the expense of people self-education.
Essential characteristics of the continuous education system in the Russian Federation.
Thus, analyzing the practice of some continuing education programs, identifying their legal basis, one can summarize as follows:
in "lifelong learning" concept declared homogeneity is missing, and it is often used in different senses, even contradictory;
having long enough history and having been developed in the USSR, this concept recently become a practice, including law enforcement in the Russian Federation. In connection with its potential to be fully realized in the education system;
increased interest to the issue of education in the framework of international integration in recent years, Russia has once again updated the possibility of continuous development and improvement of education programs, the process of application and, accordingly, the regulatory consolidation.
Nevertheless, the process of increasing the amount of the costs (for example, economic, intellectual), increased requirements for the general level of culture, professionalism of staff, allows to speak about the process of labor intellectualization, which gradually covers all areas of human activity. Today the need for continuous improvement of knowledge and skills becomes apparent. In fact it is fixed as part of a model worker competency. Accordingly, one of the most important functions of continuing education, based on the analysis of studies in this field mentioned may be mandatory creation of conditions for each person in the field of his individual abilities self-realization. Thus, the essential characteristic of continuous education is that it represents, first of all, a holistic process that considers, according to the Russian concept of lifelong education, training of human activities as an essential element of his lifestyle.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the study is based on analysis of materials and legislation to define essential characteristics of the implementation process of continuing education programs that promote international integration. So it is necessary
to analyze the legal aspects of the continuing education programs implementation in Russia;
to identify influence mechanisms of the continuing education programs implementation in the Russian federation within the international integration framework.
General scientific and special methods were used for writing the article.
Among the scientific methods there were used analysis and synthesis of materials and logical method.
The special methods used in the study include:
method of expert evaluations.
Based on the above, the Russian federal education policy can be considered as formulated and announced possible actions of the state in relation to education as a system, as a kind of own behavior rules accepted with management subject in relation to the control object.
6.1 With regard to the implementation of continuing education programs the state must consider the peculiarities of this particular education as an object of public control and/or regulation, remembering that continuing education at first represents an educational process that allows through a variety of technologies and especially information, techniques, including gaming, to improve the efficiency of service delivery.
6.2 Creation of institutional and legal frameworks at the field of education is simultaneously both policy at the area of continuous education; this education having some features related from the possibility of multiple entering of the person, the citizen into educational process. This opportunity is to enter repeatedly into educational sphere, determine his educational vector on his own and become a specialist in his field of knowledge.
Thus, one can say, as follows.
The implementation of lifelong learning programs from the standpoint of international integration, first of all - in the world educational space, in the context of globalization processes is a system of education that provides a person, a citizen ability to be mobile and continually receive education and training.
The implementation of continuing education programs contributes to formation and consolidation of skills throughout life or in its different periods and in general increases the competitiveness of experts today, when modern man can fulfill his potential, to apply successfully his knowledge in a virtual world. An example is Noveck’s idea of wiki-government creation, the authors presented in the work (Noveck, 2012). The authors, in fact, offered a modern approach to the management of the state by means of information technology, aims to bring to the remote operation of citizens, owning unique competencies, and willing to offer their knowledge and experience to meet the challenges at all levels of government, thereby increasing the efficiency of public institutions as a whole.
- Bromwich, D. (2015). Trapped in the Virtual Classroom. Retrieved from http: //www.nybooks.com/articles/2015/07/09/trapped-virtual-classroom/
- Korneva, О.Yu., & Plotnikova, I.V. (2015). Student academic mobility: social issues, Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 6, 111-115
- Kuznetsova, O., Kuznetsova, S., Yumaev, E., Kuznetsov, V., & Galtseva, O. (2017). Formation and Development of the Training System for Innovative Development of Regional Industry, E3S Web of Conferences, 15, 04019. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20171504019
- Neborsky, E.V. (2017). Development of university education in the context of globalization processes, Pedagogy, 2, 102-105
- Noveck, B. (2012). Wiki Government: How Technology Can Make Government Better, Democracy Stronger, and Citizens More Powerful. Washington, US: Brookings Institution Press.
- Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile Project Management with Scrum. Sutherland: Microsoft Press.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
16 April 2018
Print ISBN (optional)
Social welfare, social services, personal health, public health
Cite this article as:
Zhuravleva, I., Kuznetsova, O., Kuznetsov, V., Galtseva, O., & Muratov, K. (2018). Implementation Of Continuing Education Programs In The Process Of The International Integration. In F. Casati, G. А. Barysheva, & W. Krieger (Eds.), Lifelong Wellbeing in the World - WELLSO 2017, vol 38. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 502-509). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.58