At the moment there is a wide variety of tools for assessing the socio - economic status of society. Basically they are based on the notion of well-being. The created tools have their supporters and critics. Basically, the tools are aimed at collecting partial information and have strict boundary conditions. This is due to the structure of the conduct of scientific activity and the complexity of processing a large amount of data. In this article, we will consider the generally accepted evaluation mechanisms in psychology, management, and economics from a different angle. Consideration of criticism of these or those instruments leads us to an integral tool that is capable of solving a number of problems in the classification and evaluation of the necessary socio-economic processes, taking into account the peculiarities of each individual within the society. The basis for discussion will be the Maslow theory, which, within the framework of modernization and merging with the Ishikawa method, will receive a fundamentally different interpretation within the framework of the valuation theory.
Keywords: Research toolsmethods of evaluationwell-being tools
The mobilization of human resources is not created without external or internal interference. Being inside the society, the person receives challenges every day, which must be solved. From the point of view of science, it is necessary to understand problem areas in order to achieve a successful state and methods for its evaluation. Scientists in any field of scientific knowledge are considered to be the result of an assessment of a general phenomenon or a specific process. A deep study of these constituent parts of the concept of "knowledge" is accompanied by a generally accepted methodology. The methodology encompasses a number of methods and tools that allow researchers to fully describe the subject-object domain of interest to them.
In the world there is a huge variety of methods of evaluation. This is due to the specific nature of scientific knowledge and the goals set in the study. In this paper, key elements of assessments of related and non-contiguous scientific disciplines will be considered to provide insight into evaluation methods.
The evaluation mechanism is selected depending on the goals and objectives. Each scientific (Novikov, 2014)or pseudo-scientific discipline creates tools that can solve a specific scientific problem or collect information that is missing for researchers with the further ability to analyze or use the received initial information.
Initially, the formalization of ways of obtaining scientific knowledge was actively engaged in philosophy. The structure of work with knowledge forced the thinkers to interpret their research from the position of human activity. All actions (Novikov, 2014)of the subject are directed at a specific object in order to meet their specific needs. To evaluate the object of the study, evaluation criteria are used. They must meet the desired results set for research purposes. At the same time, they should not contradict the norms and rules adopted in society in the legal, ethical and other spheres of society.
Each scientific discipline sets itself tasks compatible with the characteristics of this field of knowledge. In this article, mechanisms and spheres of social and non-social orientation will be considered to assess and influence the mobilization of human resources to improve their lives.
In this article, the mobilization of human resources implies the initiative of a particular person or society as a whole to change their lives for the better. The initiative should lead to the analysis and correction of its mistakes using scientific approaches.
In different fields of knowledge, it is necessary to consider an optimal set of related and near-adjacent fields of science in order to implement a more accurate assessment, taking into account the development and differences in the directions of scientific research. To implement this task, we will examine the main directions of scientific activity and their evaluation mechanisms.
Faced with the issue of socio-economic sphere, we can meet such common scientific areas as: philosophy, economics, management, medicine, physics and others.
Management uses a number of specific methods to this area of knowledge. Since the main thrust of this field of knowledge relates to human resources and corporate interactions in the conduct of business. It became necessary to develop and create such basic tools as SWOD and PEST analyst, the creation of quality control methods in production in the form of Ishikawa method, Concepts of lean production to the work of the worker, resources and the work of production as a whole.
We consider SWOD analysis as a vivid example of a tool in management. This method is aimed at examining current limitations and future opportunities for production and business. SWOD is an abbreviation for four components:
SWOT analysis is to take the information from Internal and external economic environment and separate it into four parts to identify problems. This tool helps to assess the strengths and weaknesses of production and business. This process (Ommani, 2011) takes into account the opportunities and threats. The mechanism considers both external and internal factors.
Many management tools are aimed at optimizing production or business, which in turn positively affects the working relationship participant increasing his loyalty and comfort from performing his duties.
The pure economy is more formalized. Each branch of pure economic science has a clear evaluation structure. This is primarily due to the fact that it is necessary to respond quickly to problems that have been created and to find the most effective solutions to their problems.
The economy is based on the concept of analysis. Correlation, factor or cluster analyzes can be used as required and from the tasks assigned. Depending on the problem (Rašovec & Plachý, 2015), the range of admissible values and the boundary conditions for the study are determined. For example, Rudolf Plachý and Tomáš Rašovecselected the following indicators as evidence base: gross domestic product, inflation, interests rate, rate of unemployment, value of export, value of import. If necessary, the set of statistical data and factors can be changed by the authors to achieve a more correct final result.
The social sphere has a more applied nature. But this discipline can apply similar methods of research on an equal basis with economic disciplines. An example is the medical industry, where the main ideology is the "Do no harm" principle, which puts the researchers of this discipline in a strict moral framework and increases the share of responsibility in research. Medicine has incorporated the methodology of philosophy in the field of deduction and induction, physicians use theoretical and empirical methods to achieve their goals.
For example, clinical studies are one of the methods of medical research. This type of research (Mohamadi, Asghari & Rashidian, 2014) can be conducted only if there is a special infrastructure. They are often held in academic medical centers and in specialized medical institutions. Academic medical centers often have their own internal institutional control councils that monitor the ethical conduct of medical research.
To some extent, physicists have moved away from the concepts of responsibility for the sake of achieving ephemeral goals, but joint cooperation with related and non-contiguous disciplines allows solving the decades of problems that have accumulated.
Joint developments of physicists, chemists, sociologists and other scientists allow solving centuries-old problems, such as cancer treatment, biosphere purification and others.
Scientists (Drucker, 1969) have examined the integration of research methods, the dissemination of vital information, which led them to the need to consider the concept of a "knowledge society", in which a specific economic system is formed based on the information surrounding us.
In turn, with this trend, every scientific field of human activity is aimed at improving and progressing the entire society. Everyone inside the society wants to use the available opportunities at the maximum. He wants to be happy, successful, healthy, prosperous and prosperous. The need to provide these desires has pushed researchers to develop mechanisms that are different from those that are generally accepted. Studies of the socio - economic state of the society from the perspective of mobilizing resources to ensure satisfaction with life compels researchers to resort to the creation of specifications, boundary conditions and areas of assumptions for the studied field of knowledge.
Researchers (Muha, 2015) have divided the evaluations into two large groups to facilitate work within the scope of the assumption: objective and subjective. This specificity of the division in the study is caused by the discrepancy between the real picture of life and the existing assessments applied to it. This discrepancy generates a "paradox of satisfaction".
Objective estimates include quantifiable criteria. They can easily be obtained from the external environment. A necessary and sufficient condition for these quantities is the possibility of a clear and accurate calculation.
Subjective assessments are multifaceted. They include both the desire to satisfy their basic material needs, and complex interrelations and perceptions of a psychological nature due to the specifics of the individual and the society as a whole. Basically, when researching subjectivity, they turn directly to a person's self-esteem. Self-evaluation (Muha, 2015) of a person participating in research allows an individual to describe his attitude to his own well-being or well-being, without interference of opinions and meanings imposed by researchers. Thus, self-evaluation of one's abilities becomes an important element of subjective well-being.
The basic problem of subjective measurements is the influence of cognitive distortions (expectations and adaptations) that cast doubt on the initial data obtained.
Among the researchers there is an opinion that it is necessary to combine objective and subjective indicators when assessing such a complex phenomenon as well-being.
The consideration of only subjective and only objective criteria did not show all the problems of society as a whole. In this connection, a number of researchers decided to integrate these concepts into one tool.
Examples of such studies can be: the Quality of Life Index, the international happiness index, the index of well-being and others.
Each of these indices is tuned to a comprehensive study of the influence of external and internal factors on the life of the individual and the society as a whole.
So, in turn, a group of researchers united in the New Economic Foundation (NEF) set a goal to transform the economy in such a way that it would bring benefits to people and the world around them. They proposed an evaluation mechanism called "Happy Planet Index" as the realization of their ideas and confirmation of their hypotheses. The essence of the method is to assess the feasibility of implementing sustainable development both in individual countries and in the world as a whole. The index (Happy Planet Index)identifies problem areas, the correction of which should in theory help in achieving a long and happy life. The Happy Planet Index combines four elements:
Inequality of outcomes;
Each element has its own internal structure. In particular in «Wellbeing»" use the mechanism «Gallup World Pol». The goal is to identify historical trends in the development of all societies around the world. The structure of the study includes the interrelated elements.
For example, the Quality of Life Index created by the Economist Intelligence Unit consists of 9 main factors that include: «Material wellbeing», «Health Life»«Political stability and security», «Family life», «Community life», «Climate and geography»,«Job security», «Political freedom» and «Gender equality». But in turn, the authors (The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality-of-life index) acknowledge that the creation of such a mechanism raises the problem of finding the factors that most fully and closely show the real picture in society.
Purpose of the Study
The existing integral methods of evaluation in the form of indices have a number of problems that distort the sought-after real meaning of the things that have taken place, which has been confirmed by the authors themselves.
First of all, this is due to the use of gradations within the structure of the index and the possibility of ensuring the completeness of the surrounding picture as a whole.
The main question posed to researchers concerns the whole choice of the constituent parts of the indices and their expert assessments.
Consideration of problem areas in the study and variations of socio-economic interactions leads us to the need to use integral multidisciplinary mechanisms with expanding areas of assumption and boundary conditions. The expansion of research tools will allow a more complete assessment of the social picture, taking into account its proximity to the realities of society. But increasing the limiting factors for misuse can cause the accumulation of critical errors, which will lead to the loss of the significance of the study.
To provide a more complete qualitative analysis of the society and the individual as a part of it, it is proposed to merge the methods used in philosophy, economics, management, medicine and other related and non-contiguous branches of science with a rethinking of object-specific scientific interpretation, taking into account the criticism of the currently existing instruments.
This study on the types and methods of assessing the socioeconomic environment was conducted with the aim of revealing the inconsistency of the real picture of what was happening with the existing evaluation tools. On the basis of already existing methods, an analysis was conducted that showed the feasibility of creating a new integrated mechanism with a rethinking of the study of society from the standpoint of philosophy. Within the framework of the research, it was revealed that the only possible mechanism for assessing the state of the individual and society as a whole can be a multidisciplinary integrated tool aimed at the knowledge of each element within society, rather than the whole of its structure as a whole. The division of society into constituent parts according to the principle of preferences allows us to identify problems and try to assess the subjective and objective component of this issue.
In this work used two common basic methods for creation a new integrated mechanism. The Ishikawa method will be used as the basis of the tool. As a filling, Maslow's basic needs will be used, which later became known as the Maslow Pyramid. The merging of these two instruments is possible only if the research direction is clearly defined. Well-being is the result of the activity of a person or society in this study. Well-being is expressed as a result of consumption. The result can be interpreted as a final product, which consists of a specific set of elements (Part of the basic needs of the person).Each such element must obey the basic principles of the "bone" in diagram of Ishikawa method, so as not to violate the integrity of this mechanism and to be able to use it correctly. In the first approximation, when creating this mechanism, we will get a "fish skeleton" consisting of 7 bones, each of which will designate the component that provides the current level of well-being.
The essence of the integration of methods lies in the initial meaning of the authors' primary works. The set of available elements in a certain percentage should produce a significant, clear and clear final product, taking into account Ishikawa's method (Ishikawa,1982). All stages of the creation of this product will be created according to the principle of the "Swedish table". This assumption is described by Maslow himself. According to the scientist, each person has his own percentage set of basic needs. Within the framework of the new model, all the basic components are known. Dissatisfaction with the end result can be changed in the process of adjusting weakly expressed or problematic constituent parts.
This cause-and-effect diagram allows us to systematize all the potential causes and problems associated with changing the current level of well-being, considering this complex result with the possibility of conducting a step-by-step search for existing problems.
Assessment of well-being in this context is always considered in percentage terms and is equal to 100%. The main purpose of this method is to identify the constituent parts of human activity. Evaluation of the same constituent parts in a subjective and objective form will reveal positive or negatively affecting the final result of the segments, which eventually will be modified to achieve a sense of well-being of the individual as a whole.
Using strict boundary conditions and target constraints, we distinguish the main groups for a detailed study with a clear-bound classification within the framework of the maximum generalization of the model.
Every human is a biological creature. He will be forced to consume those or other benefits to maintain his body in a viable state in any case. Therefore, within the framework of this scheme, the physiology block will be present in each of the classifications.
The remaining 6 components of human needs can undergo serious changes up to including exclusion from the system.
When we use this tool, we need to rethink the basic philosophical rule about the interference of the subject's opinions with respect to the object. In this case, the subject should be an individual member of society. He structures the missing criteria, using a common structure on his own. The influence of the object of research on the subject of research, which is the result of its activity, triggers an endless cycle of self-improvement, aimed at finding mechanisms and opportunities to improve one's life.
Equally, the mechanism can be used by the society in the person of territorial associations (city, country and region) to ensure the correct use of available resources and improve life in general.
This work was performed by the author in collaboration with Tomsk Polytechnic University within the project in Evaluation and enhancement of social, economic and emotional wellbeing of older adults under the Agreement No.14.Z50.31.0029
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16 April 2018
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Social welfare, social services, personal health, public health
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Potiagailov, S. (2018). Mobilization Of Human Resources To Increaseprosperity. In F. Casati, G. А. Barysheva, & W. Krieger (Eds.), Lifelong Wellbeing in the World - WELLSO 2017, vol 38. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 356-363). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.40