The article describes the meaningful models of commercial names of restaurant business in Moscow and Paris. A name has to attract attention of a target audience to a company in order to create and strengthen the positive image in recipient`s mind. Communicative success of the name directly depends on the coincidence or inconsistency of the nominee intentions of the author of the title author and personal subjective expectations of the addressee. The informative-associative principle of nomination contributes to the formation of a clear connection between the name of the institution and its specific commercial offer, building a more complex associative series and actualizing the national and cultural specifics. National-cultural components are embodied in naming through anthroponyms, toponyms, national names, precedent phenomena. Nomination processes in the restaurant business in Paris are characterized by the continuity of traditions and the tendency to the predominance of vocabulary from the main fund of the language. Moscow ergonomics is characterized by high lingual-creative activity using various linguistic and paralinguistic means.
Keywords: Namingcommercial nominationanthroponymtoponymprecedent name
Naming an enterprise, a person connects the possibilities of the language and his abilities of name creation, which cannot but arouse wide scientific interest in the conditions of the formation of the anthropocentric paradigm of studying human activity. Moreover, the feature of commercial enterprises to receive their own names also in addition to common names is determined by their social significance.
Since language in its essence and function is a social phenomenon, it is always realized in certain communicative situations and social contexts. «Through the name of the enterprise, the transfer of certain information by the nominator to the addressee is carried out» (Novozhilova, 2015). The addressee reacts to the interesting sign with the name by deciding to visit the company. The better it will be to understand the meaning of the word serving the name, the more likely that his reaction will be positive. Communicative success of the name directly depends on the coincidence or inconsistency of the nominee intentions of the author of the title author and personal subjective expectations of the addressee. If there is a mismatch, «there is a phenomenon of communicative failure closely associated with the language anomaly, as an unreasonable way to attract the addressee's attention» (Shcherbakova, 2009, p. 18).
The informative and associative principle of nomination contributes to the formation of a clear connection between the name of the institution and its specific commercial offer, building a more complex associative series and actualizing the national and cultural specifics.
Nomination processes in the restaurant business in Paris are characterized by the continuity of cultural traditions and the tendency to the predominance of vocabulary from the main fund of the language.
Moscow ergonomics is characterized by high lingual creativity.
Purpose of the Study
We will try to clarify the features of the formation of names of commercial enterprises in terms of their creation and efficiency. Ergonim discovers the level of culture of the nominator and indirectly affects the culture of the addressee. It is necessary to recognize that a single classification of commercial nomination has not developed yet in science, and it is rather difficult to develop, because the basis of ergons is the creative innovative activity of the nominator and the ways of forming the names are manifold.
To achieve the goal and solve several specific problems we apply a descriptive method, etymological method, componential analysis, and method of classification. The methods of study are dictated by the specifics of the subject, linguistic material, as well as the goals and tasks of the research study. The direct study of linguistic material was accompanied by partial analysis taking into consideration not only the semantics, but also a wide linguistic and cultural context.
We considered the names of restaurants in Moscow and Paris.
One of the most preferred names of own names are anthroponyms. Most of the Parisian names of restaurants are formed with the help of anthroponyms (32%), which can be expressed by the personal names of restaurant owners or their loved ones, or it can be various modifications of personal names. Moscow nominators, unlike their Paris colleagues, do not show such an interest in the process of trans-troponimization (8%).
Among such establishments are restaurants «Донна Маргарита», «Карина», «Megu» (Japanese name), «Madame Wong» (Asian surname), «GRANO от Уильяма Ламберти»; «Robert et Louise», «Pierre Gagnaire» (chef and owner), «Paul Chêne», «Restaurant Mathieu Pacaud – Histoires», «Le Madeleine C.», «Le Chardenoux», «Claude Colliot», «Pur'- Jean-François Rouquette», «L'Atelier Etoile de Joël Robuchon». Often, a model with the preposition «у» is used: «У дедушки Вано», «У Пиросмани», «У Петровича». In French, this is the pretext of «chez»: «Chez Jaafar», «Chez Lili et Marcel», «Chez Bébert». On the one hand, such names are perceived by consumers easily and at ease, creating cozy and positive associations. Personal names that are used at home or in another informal environment, have a buyer for their ease and «friendliness». But there is flip side of the coin because most of them cannot determine the specifics of the restaurant, and besides, there are too many such names not only in the restaurant business market, but in general, among the ergons of other spheres. Thus, one of the criteria of a successful commercial nomination is violated – memorability of the name. The visitor, most likely, will not distinguish between them, and, accordingly, it will be difficult for him to remember it.
Unlike traditional anthroponyms, «national names effectively cope with the task of influencing the consumer and allow him to pass on any communicative message» – about the specialization of the restaurant, its concept and those or other characteristics (Shatalova & Medvedeva, 2016, p. 168). Note that they also include a method of metonymic transfer. We can observe the connection of the chosen name / surname with the specialization of the institution.
Among the Moscow restaurants we met the following names: the German pub «Ганс и Марта», the Georgian cafe «У дедушки Вано», the Caucasian restaurant of Armenian cuisine «Gayane's», the Georgian restaurant «У Пиросмани», the French restaurants «Мишель», «Люсьен»; Russian restaurants «Олюшка», «У Петровича». Paris restaurants based on national names and talking surnames are the following: French restaurants «Chez Lili et Marcel», «Chez Bébert», «Georgette», «Le Père Claude», «Robert et Louise». We also met one restaurant, in the name of which the name of Armenian origin was used – it is «Restaurant Petrosian Le 144» (Armen Petrosian, owner of the restaurant).
In our opinion, the names based on national names and surnames are much more advantageous names, formed from simple anthroponyms i.e. they differ in originality and allow the visitor to form in his head a certain image and expression about the institution. Such names are understandable to the consumer, they cause the necessary associations and are well remembered.
The next category of proper names, which form the basis of ergonomics, are toponyms. In both cities, the nominations of restaurants, which go back to toponyms, are widely enough represented. Among them are the following names in Moscow (8%): «Узбекистан», «Мюнхен», «Иерусалим», «Азия», «Азербайджан», «Москва», «Москва Купеческая», «Венеция», «Корё» (the state on the Korean peninsula), «Золотая Бухара» (one of the oldest cities of Uzbekistan), «ГОГИЕЛИ» (the ancient name of one of the most beautiful places in Georgia), «Воронеж», «Баку» and others.
Toponymic names in Paris (10%) are the following: «Paris-Rome», «Léon de Bruxelles», «Crète» (Greek island of Crete), «Rech» (commune in Germany), «Le Bon Saint Pourçain» (Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule – commune in France), etc. The title «Léon de Bruxelles» uses two categories of proper names: anthroponym (name Léon) and toponym (capital of Belgium).
This type of naming includes the names of establishments oriented in their positioning on a certain geographical region or city. This can be expressed by the desire to emphasize the specifics of the institution or the cuisine. Names of this type are widely distributed in the field of commercial nomination. The national component is concentrated in them due to which the national atmosphere is formed. With the choice of this kind of name, you need to be as cautious as possible so that the toponymic nomination is not false, when the chosen as a name is related to a particular culture but does not reflect the specificity of the menu.
In a separate subgroup it is necessary to allocate the ergonims formed on the basis of names of streets on which restaurants are located, i.e. names based on the urban toponymy: «Высоцкий» (Vysotsky Street), «На Шаболовке» (Shabolovka Street), «XIV» (house number), «18.12» (1812 Street), «B-12» (12), «LeninGrad» (Leningradsky Prospect), «Суворов» (the restaurant is located on Suvorov Square); «16 Haussmann» (16 Boulevard Haussmann), «Le Voltaire» (27 Quai Voltaire), «L'Opéra Restaurant» (the restaurant is located in the Opera Garnier theater), «LE 23 CLAUZEL» (address: 23 Rue Clauzel). Such names are used in the names of restaurants for the purpose of binding to the location of the institution. Such a choice of the name has its disadvantages. Choosing as the name the name of any street or any other territory, the nominator limits his geographical space. Then, in the process of expanding the activity, the restaurateur may have problems, if in another chosen city there are no streets with the same name.
It is interesting that almost all Parisian ergonics formed by transtoponimization we have met were based on geographical objects within the territory of France. At the same time, Moscow ergonism-toponyms can relate to any point of the globe, which creates a sense of multicultural space in the city.
No less popular are the precedent nominations, based on historical, cultural, mythological, literary, cinematographic allusions (Vasyukova & Fedotovskikh, 2016, p. 276). «Behind the precedent phenomenon there is always a certain idea about it, a general and compulsory one for all bearers of this or that national cultural mentality» (Krasnykh, 1997, p. 15). These commercial names are focused on attracting attention with the help of big names and names that are important for representatives of a particular culture. The question of the use of names, which are symbols of national culture, as names of restaurants, causes a lot of controversy and discussion. Many people question the relevance and ethical use of such a device, and believe that commercial names, expressed by the names of personalities that are well-known and significant for national culture, can be viewed as contrary to the public interest, the principles of humanity and morality.
Such names imply that the consumer has extralinguistic cultural knowledge whether it's literature, art or history (Fedotovskikh, 2015, p. 6). First, I would like to mention the names associated with phenomena, events or real people who have left their mark on history or culture. In Moscow, these are the following restaurants: the restaurant «Жан-Жак Руссо» (French writer and philosopher), the restaurant of Serbian cuisine «Н. Тесла» (inventor of Serbian origin), Russian cuisine restaurant «Пушкинъ» (Russian poet), restaurant «Чайковский» (Russian composer), restaurant «Бабель» (Russian Soviet writer), restaurant «Нани» (Soviet Georgian singer), «Ермак» (Historical PP). Among the Parisian restaurants are the French restaurant «Chateaubriand» (French writer), «Le Baudelaire» (French writer), «Le Jules Verne» (French geographer and writer), «Bouillon Racine» (French playwright), «Caillebotte» (French painter).
To the next subtype of precedent nominations, one can include literary precedent nominations. Among the Moscow names: the restaurant of Italian cuisine «Pinocchio» (the character of the Italian fairy tale), the restaurants of Russian cuisine «Добрыня», «Илья Муромец» (heroes of Russian fairy tales), the Italian karaoke restaurant «Джельсомино» (the hero of the Italian fairy tale), «Жизнь Пи» (the world-famous novel by Jann Martel), «Монте Кристо» (novel by the French writer Alexandre Dumas). Among the Parisian restaurants, we met only one example of the use of the precedent nomination –in the name of the restaurant «Le Petit Prince de Paris» (The Little Prince – the hero of the French story-tale).
This also includes precedent phenomena from cinematography: restaurants «Жестокий романс», «Берегись автомобиля», «Семен Семенович», «Белое солнце пустыни», «Кавказская пленница». In Paris, such names have not been met.
The precedent nominations in the sphere of restaurant business reflect the traditions of the national cuisine and cause positive associations. The appeal to precedent phenomena in the name choice for the restaurant reflects the specifics of the methods of speech influence, which are based on the appeal to internal installations aimed at activating the mechanisms of image transformation, serving to attract and retain the attention of the addressee. Thus, the names of restaurants that include names that have national and cultural components are quite common and in almost every case are examples of successful communication and speech impact.
Analysis of ergons has shown that most of the precedent phenomena used are cultural realities: the Uzbek restaurant «Сандык» (a chest), the Mexican cuisine restaurant «Сомбреро» (Mexican broad-brimmed hat, part of the national costume), the French restaurant «Буйабес» (traditional French fish soup). Among the Parisian institutions are the following restaurants: «Paso Doble» («double step», Spanish dance), «Fajitas» (fajita, a dish of Mexican cuisine).
We have also met several cases of using mythonyms, the names of fictional objects of any sphere of onomastic space in myths and fairy tales, including the theonyms: «Сирена» (sea creature from ancient Greek mythology), «Джаганнат» (deity in Hinduism), «Тануки» (traditional Japanese werewolf animals, symbolizing happiness and well-being). Among the restaurants in Paris we met a restaurant called «Apicius» (semi-legendary Roman gourmet and gluttony).
Thus, the names of commercial enterprises are an important component of the city language, which in turn determines the worldview, the culture of its inhabitants and forms its personality. In addition, the title contains the essence of the organization, its function and reputation. The name should correspond to the profile of the company's activities and produce a favorable impression on the audience. An unsuccessful name can damage an organization’s reputation, and a successful name is a value, a public capital that generates profit. Properly chosen name plays a very important role in the success of the company, because the first contact with a consumer takes place through the company’s name.
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30 April 2018
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
Cite this article as:
Lyapkova, E. (2018). Lingvocultural Features Of Naming Restaurant Business Institutions. In I. V. Denisova (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 39. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 602-607). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.02.86