Subject-Oriented Approach As Methodological Basis Of Solving Communicative-Interactive Tasks In Foreign Language

Abstract

The article studies the theory and practice of using subject-oriented approach in an educational process of students of Orenburg State University who specialize in literature and foreign languages. Communicative-interactive task served as a technological unit of teaching a foreign language in terms of the given approach. Subject-oriented approach ensures students’ independent orientation activity on the basis of the orientation points system – aims, principles, knowledge, experience, stimuli and characterizes the communicative-interactive tasks solving process as directed with its further transformation into self-directed. Reference points are dynamic; they form different hierarchical structures on different stages of interactive students’ activity in the process of communicative-interactive tasks solving. Orientation points help students plan and monitor their actions, choose the most suitable way of communicative-interactive tasks solving, correct and evaluate the result in accordance with the corresponding aim. Such «reflexive management» ensures any communicative-interactive task solving – problem, project, research or creative. The appropriateness of the approach has been proved by the results of the pedagogical experiment which included three-stage procedure and presented a positive dynamics of students’ communicative skills and personal qualities being developed in the process of communicative-interactive tasks solving in a foreign language. The diagnostic research of Orenburg students conducted by the author underlines the importance of the given problem and proves the reasonability of a specially organized communicative-interactive tasks solving on the basis of subject-oriented approach as resource of education quality elevation.

Keywords: Subject-orientedapproachcommunicative-interactivetaskorientationactivity

Introduction

The 21st century changes the profile of the specialist with the higher education, to be more precise it concerns the determination of the acquirements, personal and professional qualities. As the result of the education it becomes important not only WHAT knowledge a future specialist has, but HOW the specialist applies it. From this point of view teaching students a foreign language may be performed as a process of setting and solving specific communicative-interactive tasks (cognitive, researching, projective and others) by students (Basem, 2006). The particularity and nomenclature of the tasks are defined by the forming competences and the sphere of their realization.

Problem Statement

We understand a communicative-interactive task solving by means of a foreign language as a goal of learning process subjects’ co-activity, which is achieved through the foreign-language communication. Such a task concerns a setting of a problem as a correlation of something new and well-known, specification of environmental circumstances, presence of a verbal stimulus, educational-cognitive demand, student’s capacity to solve this task and possibility to reproduce it several times (Zimnia, 2007). A student is engaged into the situation of an intellectual problem. To find the way out of this problem a student should cooperate with the other students in a pair or group work. It is very significant for the modern paradigm of competence-oriented education that the goal and the result of the group solving communicative-interactive task consist in the transformation of the acting participants but not in the transformation of the objects they act with (Klarin, 2014).

Research Questions

Purposeful process of acquisition the ways of solving increasingly complicated communicative-interactive tasks appropriately guarantees achieving the planned results of foreign-language education, as communicative-interactive task activates a concerned dialogue, logical thinking, admitting the existence of different viewpoints of its content and the way of solving, mutual analysis and evaluation (Platova, 2014). Here for methodology of teaching foreign languages and language pedagogy appears the problematic research field connected with methodological comprehension of modern approaches determining conceptual basis for educational work.

Purpose of the Study

The article deals with the theory and practical experience of using subject-oriented approach in an educational process of students of Orenburg State University who specialize in literature and foreign languages. Communicative-interactive task served as a technological unit of teaching a foreign language in terms of the given approach.

Research Methods

The research was held with appliance of theoretical, empirical and mathematical methods (analysis of psychological, pedagogical, language pedagogical and instructional literature, watching, questioning, testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical analysis of the obtained results).

Findings

Approaches in pedagogy.

In our understanding, the approach in pedagogy is the initial position, determining content, principles and methods of education according to the goal. As for the linguistic education, the approach is a realization of leading, dominating teaching idea, relying on the data of the theory of education, psychology, social studies, cultural studies and language theory and determining a practical strategy of teaching represented in specific didactics (methods of teaching).

The survey of numerous approaches detached in present-day scientific literature relating to teaching foreign languages prove the variety of factors which are taken into account formulating an approach (Pavlova & Kashaeva, 2016). As the result we see that the approach to the linguistic education determining the strategy of it, may rely on the coinciding theory of the language (linguistic basis of teaching): structural, lexical, grammatical, formal approaches; theory of teaching (didactic basis of teaching): integrated, differentiated, individual or learner-centered approaches; psychological basis of teaching languages (behavioral, cognitive, global approaches) or cultural studies basis of the linguistic education (sociocultural, linguistic and cultural studies, ethno-communicative, communicative and anthropological approaches). Due to it we suppose that one should discuss an approach to the linguistic education in a broad and in a strict sense. In a strict sense it is based on one of the approaches mentioned above (linguistic, didactic, psychological, culturological) determining an approach to the linguistic education. In a broad sense it means the presence of all the components (Osiyanova, 2015).

Subject-oriented approach.

Not denying the role and significance of the known approaches of the past and those that are relevant in modern conditions we apply to the characteristics of the subject-oriented approach. We have chosen this approach as the methodological basis of solving the communicative-interactive tasks in a foreign language (Osiyanova & Vdovichenko, 2016). We underline that the relative adjective “oriented” in the title of the approach points out the characteristics of a subject’s activity based on the using of significant orientation points and it is not a synonym for the passive participle “oriented” meaning orientation realized by someone to something or someone. Consequently what is meant here is the possibility of the organization the process of teaching foreign language communication based on the approximate subjects’ activity. Such organization of the educational process helps overcome the effect of the expropriating teaching, restricting individual’s self-development and self-actualization (Osiyanova, 2017).

As it is known, the oriented activity may accompany various types of activity: productive, cognitive, mnemic, the activity of mastering skills. It also accompanies the process of solving foreign language communication tasks as the way of solving communicative-interactive tasks is defined as the result of subject’s orientation activity to its (task’s) content.

The subject-oriented approach developed in our research is aimed at conducting the students’ orientation activity to solve the foreign language communication tasks. It is based on the orientation points encouraging the development of individual’s subjective qualities. It appeals to provide a purposive optimization of a mutual controlled and self-controlled students’ activity in solving communicative-interactive tasks in certain drilling situations requiring adequate communicative-interactive actions. The orientation points allow working out some useful stereotypes of cognitive and evaluating aspects of foreign language activity, increasing the quality of verbal communication designing due to enlarging practical experience. They form a set of basic orientation actions which help regulate the communicative skills development process minimizing discomfort, overcoming communicative barriers, increasing verbal communication productivity that allows students to construct and support foreign language communication with “their own tools” and get their personal results.

Orientation points.

The following orientation points are admitted as significant markers, regulators of internal actions in the process of solving variable communicative-interactive tasks: aims, principles, knowledge, experience, stimuli.

Aims play a principal role in communicative-interactive tasks solving. They ensure students’ acceptance or independent goal setting according to the motive of verbal communication and their moral will. The success in achieving the aim set is determined by the correct articulation of a communicative assignment, its significance and availability for students. The aim also defines the corresponding methods and aids.

Principles suppose the consideration of an addressee, age related and individual peculiarities of interlocutors, the consideration of their interests, needs and system of values, person-to-person relations and also temporal and space conditions of communication.

Knowledge serves as a kind of information database necessary for students in the process of successful solving communicative-interactive tasks in a foreign language within the act of communication. This group of orientation points includes knowledge of the main language aspects (phonetic, lexis, grammar), background knowledge, knowledge of useful clichés and set expressions, idioms, speaking etiquette formulas, the body language.

Experience presents a generalized experience of solving searching, cognitive, researching, creative communicative-interactive tasks with people of different social status, age, sex, occupation. The given orientation points are characterized by practical orientation. They are used to overcome communicative obstacles, ensure the ability of self-directed activity and enrich the personal experience in solving communicative-interactive tasks in a foreign language.

Stimuli have a fundamental significance at the stage of preverbal orientation creating a positive motive for solving a communicative-interactive task. They provide the feeling of self-importance in finding a proper way of solving the given task and inspire self-analysis, self-assessment in accordance to the results achieved. Stimuli encourage student’s personal self-actualization as a subject of the foreign language communication on the basis of his needs, interests, believes and value orientations.

Subject-oriented approach realization.

Consequently the process of solving communicative-interactive tasks on the basis of subject-oriented approach is ensured by the system of orientation points introduced above. The given orientation points manifest themselves as dynamic parameters which build various hierarchical structures on the different stages of mutual students’ activity aimed at communicative-interactive tasks solving. Moreover the experience shows that orientation points provide solving of any communicative-interactive task: problematic, designing, researching or creative (Bebeshko, 2017). The orientation points help students design and control their actions, select an adequate way of actions in communicative-interactive tasks solving, correct and evaluate the final results from the viewpoint of their correspondence to the task set.

The theoretical basis for realization subject-oriented approach to solving communicative-interactive tasks in a foreign language constitutes the theory of a gradual (step by step) formation of intellectual actions developed by P.J. Galperin and N.F. Talizina (Galperin, 2000). In the practice of communicative-interactive tasks solving the given theory opens up the possibility to enrich knowledge, develop habits and skills with the required characteristics through organization of productive person-to-person communication. The search for solution is carried out in the external form with its further transformation into internal under the teacher’s management. In other words while acquiring the orientation basis of actions a student is firstly taught how to act according to the sample given by the teacher and then exercises a transition to the independent planning and realizing his educational and cognitive activity. So, orientation points initially serve as a tool for managing the orientation students’ activity then appear as a basis in their independent search carried out under a teacher’s control and afterwards grow into value orientations of foreign language communication which ensure self government in the process of group communicative tasks solving.

In the course of the pedagogical experiment devoted to the implementation of subject-oriented approach in solving communicative-interactive tasks in a foreign language by students of Orenburg State University who specialize in literature and foreign languages we singled out three stages: designing (preparatory), executive and subjective-activity (Osiyanova & Platova, 2013). The use of orientation points at all stages was obligatory. They helped guide and regulate students’ activity.

Designing (preparatory) stage supposed the introduction of the orientation points system to students and formation of motivation for their acceptance and use in practice. This stage contained orientation in the learning environment. It included diagnosis of knowledge level, communicative and interactive students’ skills, their attitudes; results forecasting; designing of the communicative skills development in the process of communicative-interactive tasks solving.

The executive stage ensured students accumulation of linguistic and cultural knowledge, improvement of communicative and interactive skills necessary for solving communicative-interactive tasks based on hierarchy of orientation points built by a teacher. This stage presupposed the learning of productive verbal communication in the atmosphere of cooperation. Variable methods, forms and aids were used. Assessment, evaluation and mistakes correction were carried out. Points of orientation helped create a dynamic situation and provide psychological links with interlocutors. However students’ actions in the process of communicative-interactive tasks solving were not independent.

Subjective-activity stage included setting and solving the communicative-interactive tasks needed independent students’ actions, their activity, initiativity and creativity (Klarin, 2014). At this stage a teacher only outlined the problem and students realized an independent creative activity of its solving based on required knowledge and skills with the help of orientation points. Assessment, evaluation and mistakes correction were also carried out at the given stage.

The reflection was held at the end of each class. It gave an opportunity for both a teacher and each member of a group to share their opinion on the things which were good or bad and set the future tasks. The system of orientation points helps students evaluate themselves and each other. They managed to find out whether they reached the aim, used adequate knowledge and experience, found the original way of solving the task according to definite principles of orientation. Thus, a teacher played the role of a tutor and facilitator who helped students find out their own ways of solving the task. He evaluated the effectiveness of the process from the viewpoint of subject-oriented approach.

Conclusion

Summing up, it is important to emphasize that the use of subject-oriented approach requires including communicative-interactive tasks in the process of foreign language learning by university students. These tasks should suppose not only the correct use of lexical units and grammatical structures but also the ethical response, cultural and world-view self-determination. In this case the education quality noticeably grows due to the new personal sense. It appears as an effective students’ environment for extension their personal experience. The positive dynamics of changes proved by the results of our experiment witnesses the justification of subject-oriented approach as the methodological basis of solving communicative-interactive tasks in a foreign language.

References

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.02.67

Online ISSN

2357-1330