The English-speaking articles published in foreign periodicals on problems of a procedure of training to foreign languages represent a necessary information resource of maintenance and constant updating of professional skill of the teachers interested in mastering the foreign language. The most part of publications is intended for teachers who aspire to comprehend the scientific information and to apply it in practice of training to foreign language.
Keywords: Parcellinga scientific articlea titlea scientific methodical discoursea syntactical model
Parcelling technique is the way of expressive syntax that consists in the dismemberment of a single structure for two or more segments separated each other from the final punctuation marks (Popova, 2014).
Taking into account several definitions of a term “parceling” a working definition of this notion has been accepted: a parcelling is an expressive stylistic device which divides the sentence into the independent parts which are graphically allocated with a colon, a point, dots, etc. The device of a parcelling in modern English is used by authors for the formation of the titles of scientific and methodical publications according to the law act of economy of language means both in respect of the syntactic organization of the titles, and for specification of its semantic content.
In conditions of globalization of industrial, scientific, sociopolitical and cultural projects of the international value there is an objective demand for an effective use of methodical base for training to English as a foreign language as today English by the right takes the leading position among languages of the international communication.
The titles of the articles published in the English-speaking magazines which are intended for theorists and experts in the field of training to English language as foreign, as well as the materials of the Internet-forums placed in a global network form the base for the research. Each edition has the Internet version which traditionally coincides with a printed one.
The titles of different magazines mention the general vital topics connected with the training to various types of speech activity, with the formation and development of the phonetic, grammatical, lexical abilities in oral, and in writing forms of communication. The titles of scientific articles from a number of contemporary Russian scientific journals have been revealed by Volovikova M. L., Strigina T.K.(Volovikova &. Strigina ., 2016). But the structure of the article titles of the English-speaking magazines on the problems of teaching methodology is not thoroughly regarded. Moreover, this kind of the article titles fulfill different functions that can be regarded through their structural characteristics. These points are in the scope of our research.
To make a complete investigation on the problem given in this paper it is important to answer the following research points:
to classify the scope of the regarded journal and also the article titles into the approaches: theoretical, practical or these combined together;
to define the main structural phenomenon in the article titles of the English-speaking journals on the problems of teaching methodology;
to point out the main functions of the article titles under discussion.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research paper is to define the main structural components of the article titles of the English-speaking journals on the problems of teaching methodology and also to find out the most popular syntactical model dealing with the corpus of the titles. We are also interested in the main function of such types of the article titles.
In the course of our investigation the following research methods were applied: a structural-grammatical approach, a method of the statistic analysis, literature reviews.
In the course of this research we have tried to investigate the purpose of the problem presented in the given paper. First of all, a thorough classification of the whole body of the regarded journals and thus the corresponding article titles of these journals has been given.
Classification of the researched journals and the article titles
All journals which are taken into consideration can be divided into the following genres according to what sort of article is included in this or that edition.
The effective training to the foreign languages is the main idea of the magazines regarded above. All the editions have both a theoretical, and practical character, they are turned to scientific researches in various areas of linguistics, including History of language, English grammar, Corpus linguistics, etc. The titles of the English-speaking articles devoted to training of the English language which takes the leading position in the sphere of languages of the international communication are under our research.
The structural-grammatical research of the article titles of the English-speaking journals on the problems of teaching methodology
It was revealed in the course of the structural-grammatical research that the majority titles of the English-speaking articles are presented by compound sentences. The most numerous group is the group of the widespread titles of the articles with the parcelling by means of which the compound sentence is subdivided on two parts: on the one hand, for simplification to the reader to perceive the given material, on the other, to attract attention of an audience (74, 6 % from total amount of examples), that is typical for publications practically of all genres.
1-a. Writing at the Graduate Level: What Tasks do Professors Actually Require? (Cooper & Bikowski, 2007).
2-a. Form-focused Instruction in Second Language Vocabulary Learning: A Case for Contrastive Analysis and Translation (Laufer & Girsai, 2008).
3-a. The Grammaticalization of Small Size Nouns: Reconsidering Frequency and Analogy (Brems, 2007).
1-b. Evaluating Web-Sources: Internet Literacy and L2 Academic Writing (Stapleton, 2005).
1-c. Other ways of seeing; other ways of being: imagination as a tool for developing multiprofessional practice for children with communication needs (Jarvis & Trodd, 2008).
2-c. Reconceptualizing Interactional Groups: Grouping Schemes for Maximizing Language Learning (Rance-Roney, 2010).
3-c. What's Your News? Portraits of a Rich Language and Literacy Activity for English-Language Learners (Manyak, 2008).
As O. A Ksenzenko fairly noted in her research, in texts of the advertizing contents often the word standing after a colon is written from a capital letter that doesn't correspond to the rules of punctuation and spelling of modern English (Ksenzenko, 1996). In the course of the analysis of the material the similar cases have been discovered in a scientific and methodical discourse that is explained by aspiration of the authors to draw attention to the text of article, to diversify means of presentation of professionally focused text and to allocate the most important fragments of publications in the information relation. The colon allows to make the text of the title more evident and laconic, and it is necessary for its perception and an operational desemantization.
Our research showed that parcelling and its constituents are extremely various in structure, they can be expressed by a word, and by the subordinated part of a compound sentence. Parcelling of English-speaking titles has something common, namely, they are divided into the base (main) unit or structure and the cut-off part – parcelling which are "the jointed components of speech unity". The basic unit of a parcelling construction can be presented by various types of sentences from the point of view of their completeness, prevalence and communicative installation in low-format texts of the titles regarded in the paper. As a basic unit of a parcelling construction in the SFT of the titles of English-language articles one can meet incomplete, spread and unextended sentences of various types (narrative, and interrogative). The special place in this row is taken by exclamatory sentences as they are interfaced to a field of an exclamatory modality judging by the several examples.
1-a. A Register Approach to Teaching Conversation: Farewell to Standard English? (Rühlemann, 2008).
2-a. The effects of processing instruction, traditional instruction and meaning—output instruction on the acquisition of the English past simple tense (Benati, 2005).
3-a. Literacy and Disciplinary Practices: Opening and Closing Perspectives (Argaman, 2008).
1-b. Teaching Mining; Mining Teaching(Riley, 2001).
1-c. “Help! What Is Wrong With These Literature Circles and How Can We Fix Them?” (Clarke & Holwadel, 2007).
The borderline between a main part and parcelling can be denoted not only by the punctuation means which traditionally fulfill this function – a point, a semicolon, a colon, dots, but also by the exclamatory or interrogative signs.
1-a. In the Same Boat? On Metaphor Variation as Mediating the Individual Voice in Organizational Change (Argaman, 2008).
1-b. The Internet in every classroom? Using outside computers (Linder, 2004).
2-b. Tell it Again! The New Storytelling Handbook for Primary Teachers (Bradshaw, 2004).
3-b. Listening materials... and how to find them (Eastment, 2004).
1-c. Does Feeling Come First? How Poetry Can Help Readers Broaden Their Understanding of Metacognition (Eva-Wood, 2008).
As M. N. Kozhina fairly notes the question-answer complex serves in borders of the titles for a informatively staticizing purpose, it is used for transition to a new subject, the indication of the direction of contact from the reader to the author and from the author to opponents (third parties) (Kozhina, 2003). The author draws the reader’s attention with the help of the title to this or that key point of article, defining a debatable problem which solution is proposed in the published article. In this case the question plays a role of a composite beginning that promotes expeditious interpretation of the semantic maintenance of the analyzed titles. As a result the system of the linguistic markers registered as a part of the researched titles of the English-language articles constantly evolves, filling up stock of the linguistic means urged to improve formulations of the titles in scientific and methodical discourse space. It is promoted considerably also by one more characteristic of a modern English-speaking scientific and methodical discourse which consists in the constant appeal to the interlocutor for the confirmation of reliability of a scientific hypothesis or the scientific thesis offered for discussion in this or that article.
Parceling is the main structural phenomenon in the article titles of the English-speaking journals on the problems of teaching methodology. The functions of the parceling
The parceling constructions can serve as the linguistic markers of this property of an English-speaking scientific and methodical discourse in borders updating of the conative function of the title as one of "sides" dominating in the regarded titles of the fative function. In particular, it is expressed in use of imperative and interrogative structures in the titles of the articles.
1-a. Assessing Proficiency Through Word Associations: is there still hope?(Wolter, 2002).
1-b. Negotiating the Syllabus: a Win-Win Situation? (McDevitt, 2004).
1-c. Interactive Read-Alouds: Is There a Common Set of Implementation Practices? (Fisher, Flood, J., Lapp, & Frey, 2004).
Obligatory function of a parcelling is to create a new rheme center. Parcelling attracts attention of the listener to logically significant detail and substantially defines it. As a rule, parcelling contains the most important information in the title of the article, it develops a new meaning of something, presented in the main sentence (Papina, 2002), therefore, according to O. V Alexandrova's terminology, it acts as "a secondary subject" (Aleksandrova, 1999).
Thus the grammatical intermittence of connection observed in a subject and in a rheme acts as the special grammatical legalized means of semantic orientation: one can define here the element for the semantic disclosure of which the statement itself and the phrase framework which is structurally "tightened" to it which is under the alternating influence not only of the sentences, but also under the whole statement that forms the title of the analyzed articles.
Scaffolding Beginning Readers: Micro and Macro Cues Teachers Use During Student Oral Reading (Cole, 2006).
Using the Web as a Research Source: Implications for L2 Academic Writing (Stapleton, 2005).
The second part of the sentences acts as a peculiar rheme of the statement, structurally fitting into thematic part of the statement, substantially concentrating round logically leading element of a subject, defining its semantic importance. This component of the titles reveals the contents of articles thoroughly, deciphering the first part of titles in detail.
The use of various types of sentences as a part of the titles of scientific articles are observed, but the presence of the considerable number of the constructions marked by a parcelling (colon) is a characteristic for publications of a scientific and methodical genre. The "developed" title (the use of a point, colon, semicolon, interrogative or exclamatory signs) explains what will be discussed in the article. For the articles of the educational and methodical and combined genres the titles presented by simple spread and non-spread, complete and incomplete, imperative and interrogative sentences, it is quite often to meet parcelling constructions the basic units of which are presented by interrogative, exclamatory sentences, a dash, a point, a colon (28,6%).
1-b. Negotiating the Syllabus: a Win-Win Situation? (McDevitt, 2004).
1-с. Synonym Success — Thanks to the Thesaurus (Mountain, 2007).
As a result of the material research it was revealed that for the last decade the phenomenon of the parceling as a part of titles of articles on a scientific and methodical perspective has been widely spread. It is confirmed, first of all, by expansion of professionally focused range of publications. If originally the parcelling was actively used by the authors of the articles of the scientific contents, in recent years titles with a parcelling make out practically all types of English-language articles, including not only scientific, but also practical development in the field of a technique. It, in turn, assumes the expansion of the audience of consumers of professionally focused information because they receive more exact explanation of reasonings, scientific positions of the author directly from the title. As a result the addressee can draw a conclusion on, whether this area of research falls within the scope of its scientific activity, its scientific interests that can serve as a starting point for the subsequent actions with article: expediency of detailed acquaintance to this or that theory, a position of the researchers mastering methodical space of modern educational process on a foreign language.
Use of options of a parcelling in registration of the titles is directed on improvement of presentation at perception of the text, it serves for allocation of the most significant parts of the title of the article, adding dynamism and expressiveness to it, it creates imitation of direct and easy communication with the reader. In other words, along with effect of pragmatical influence the parcelling as a part of the title possesses serious potential for strengthening of expressivity of the text of the title and its emotional influence.
The structural-grammatical analysis allows to draw a conclusion that the main part of the titles of the analysed articles is presented by nominative constructions, they precisely inform the reader on the contents of the publications. Nominative constructions in the form of sentences with a parcelling are the most widespread in the titles of the English-language articles. Such titles with the syntactic structure completely cover the aims and problems of the scientific work – to inform the reader on its contents, on a didactic orientation of publications on a methodical perspective which are urged to share experience of training in English. The latest educational technologies are discussed with the help of such articles.
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30 April 2018
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Vladimirovna, I. N. (2018). Parcelling In The Titles Of The English Articles On The Teaching Methods. In I. V. Denisova (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 39. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 349-355). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.02.50