This article deals with interlingual relations somatic phraseological units of Different Languages. The analysis is performed in comparative aspect: analysis of phraseological units of Russian and Kazakh languages. When comparing the phraseological units in languages of different systems, we consider the following types of interlingual relations: phraseological counterparts SPU Russian and Kazakh languages that match the semantics, but having a partial or complete various in the lexical composition and imagery; Russian SPU, to express which only unsomatic PU can be found in the Kazakh language; Kazakh SPU semantically equivalent Russian unsomatic PU. Identification and PU definition of the general and specific to the field of somatic phraseology compared languages makes it possible to obtain new data on the system unit of language and differences in their systems, contributes to solving the wider problem – phraseological universals and unique unrelated languages. The methodological basis of this article was the work of well-known domestic linguists. This study used comparative-typological method, contrastive method phraseology identification method. The data obtained show that in the culture of the language is spoken most somatic phraseological units of similar meaning about, but there are interesting cases of discrepancy values. The results of the comparative study of PU help to identify general and specific features of their structural models, identify patterns of PU translation from one language to another.
Keywords: Phraseological unitsomatic phraseological unitcross-language relationslanguages of differentunsomatic phraseological unitsunrelated languages
Scientists-linguists began to investigate the somatic lexicon in more detail only in the end of XX – beginning of XXI century, despite the fact that the words of parts of the human body, are one of the most ancient course of any laguage (Vacc, 1964).
Under the PU to the component-somatism or SPU understood idiom, dependent component of which is a word denoting not only the physical form of the human body (nose, head, arm), but also elements of the cardiovascular, nervous and other systems (liver, blood, brain). It nouns that indicate names of body parts. Such SPU appear unexpectedly in the language and have a common basis in the study of man himself, the parts of his body. Scholars such as A.M. Chepasova, V.A. Lebedinsky partially explored SPU; more detail SPU researchers examined data in the works Dolgopolov, F. Vakk and others. Many of them are of the opinion that the SPU belong to the oldest stratum of vocabulary.
Somatic vocabulary is one of the universal lexical groups in any language. As G.E. Kreidlin points out, people's notion of body and body objects, their formation, structure and functioning, ways of interaction of the body with the external world and internal human systems, such as the psyche and mind, have been formed for a very long time. These representations, forming in the aggregate a fragment of the naive picture of the world, are reflected both in texts of different genres and styles, and in the corporal sign non-verbal code (Kreidlin, 2013).
Syntactic properties of phraseological units were a subject of the description in works of L.R. Sakayeva (Sakaeva, 2008), D.S.Sknaryov (Sknaryov, 2006) and other scientists. M.A. Averina (Averina, 2013) and E.I. Boldyreva's (Averina & Boldyreva, 2013) articles are devoted to the comparative analysis of idioms with a component-somatic.
Generation and use of somatic phraseology helps a person to learn the world and his own qualities through himself, parts of his body, common physical and mental signs (Suein, 2013).
Of great interest in the last decade is the question of conceptualization in the language of the human body in general and somatisms in particular. A number of studies were carried out on the material Both Indo-European, Turkic and other languages, and interest in somatic lexicon, including in the composition of somatic phraseology, not is getting worse. Both domestic and foreign scientists point to an important the role of somatic vocabulary in the language, that is caused by a number of factors: somatisms are productive, frequency and play a dominant role in the languages studied (Chertykova, 2014).
Analysis of FE in unrelated languages reveals interlingual similarities and differences, promote deep penetration into the essence of phraseology process in compared languages, reveals the general laws of formation and development of phraseological phenomena, reveals the total phraseological core and specific features for each language helps to the study of national problems expressions-cultural identity of a particular language. Research material PUlearned from lexicographical sources of Russian and Kazakh languages. It is fixed in dictionaries somatic idioms and widely represented in it, which must certainly be studied and engaged as a linguistic object material raznostrukturnyh languages. We consider the study data etymological dictionaries should be considered necessarily as many somatism have changed, it is described in detail in the work of the Kazakh scientist B.V. Kramarenko somatism investigated from the standpoint of etymology in identifying so-called constructs – common parts with the same semantics of words from different languages. He hypothesizes that somatism system in different languages, has been seen as a "social contract".
The Russian and Kazakh languages as PU components used different names for body parts, which are mainly dependent on the semantic system of the given language. Somatic lexicon in these languages is the most widely-used, since it describes the subject himself, a native speaker, it is huge role in the linguistic world.
Somatic token Russian language in Kazakh somatic token corresponds to the same value. Such as:
The analysis SPU compared languages we have been identified:
A group of phraseological counterparts SPU Russian and Kazakh languages that match the semantics, but having a partial or complete various in the lexical composition and imagery (Kozhakhmetova, 1988):
Group Russian SPU, to express which only unsomatic PU can be found in the Kazakh language (Kozhakhmetova, 1988):
A group of Kazakh SPU semantically equivalent Russian unsomatic PU (Kozhakhmetova, 1988):
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this article is to study somatic phraseological units on a material of bilingual dictionaries. To achieve this goal done systematic study SPU Russian and Kazakh languages.
Specificity of the material the tasks set in the article caused variety of methods and techniques of research-oriented synchronous parallel comparative description of the studied material, lexicographical analysis method (analysis studied dictionaries), and others.
Thus, a comparative approach, one of the oldest methods of cognition, in a study of somatic phraseology allows to comprehend the world, to detect differences phraseology units somatic component in Russian and Kazakh. Studies show scientists idioms with the component parts of the body in both languages occupy a significant place in the phraseological fund, the differences are primarily in the component composition and structural and grammatical organization, in varying degrees of activity of the structural and grammatical models presented in these languages. The human body, its parts and organs, are comprehended in these language pictures of the world with varying degrees of detail, from the perspective of different cultural traditions, somatic idioms are the most "tenacious" in the language and enter the cultural code of the nation.
Comparative studies presented in Russian-Kazakh dictionary of phraseology showed "continuity of language, culture, history and customs of ethnic groups, a deeper understanding of the laws studied linguistic phenomena, to understand the uniqueness of language" (Zhunusova, 2013). At the same time, the study of phraseology in linguistic-cultural aspect expands an idea of the similarities and differences in idiomatic way helps to penetrate the essence and traditional idiomatic processes.
Comparison of somatic phraseological units has shown that there are many similarities in intravenous verbalization component parts of the body, allowed to reveal the origins of universal creation and functioning of somatic phraseological units in compared languages.
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30 April 2018
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Zhunusova, Z., & Telmurzaeva, A. (2018). Interlingual Similarities And Differences In Somatic Phraseologisms Languages Of Different. In & I. V. Denisova (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 39. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 292-298). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.02.43