Professional Competences Development Of Experts In The Field Of English Language
This article presents the analysis of intercultural communication in forming professional competences. The process of studying a foreign language implies new psychological factors coming into existence. Generally, it should be taken into account since complex relationships between associations and knowledge, cognitive and affective aspects of development of young people lie in the heart of language educational process. Insufficient linguistic-sociological and cultural knowledge about foreign society in the process of translation can lead to “communicative failures” or a communicative barrier. In the process of developing the perceptive-communicative competence of future translators, the learner overcomes such intercultural barriers. Socio-ethnic barriers are based on cultural differences of misunderstanding and disbelief due to differences in the meanings of the same language units in different languages, ignorance of sign language and traditions. During the analysis of the process of intercultural communication we distinguish three levels of penetration of communicants into contacting cultures: cultural interaction; cultural understanding; cultural interconnection. Successful intercultural professional communication represents satisfactory communicative behavior in the process of mutual knowledge and understanding of relationships and consequently, involves the ability to adequately interpret and accept the sociocultural diversity of communication partners. Thus, studying the strategies of communicative behavior of English-speaking representatives, their culturological characteristics, contributes to association with foreign language speakers culture.
Keywords: Intercultural communicationcultural interactionprofessional competence
Intercultural communication in forming professional competence of specialists in the English language is analyzed in this article.
Preparation of translators should be considered, first of all, in terms of intercultural interaction, since the majority of translation studies scientists consider the translation to be “an act of intercultural communication” (Schweizer, 1999).
Intercultural communication means “the specific process of interaction of different cultural options through verbal and non-verbal communication of one’s own and other bearers of culture and language” (Furmanova, 2017). At the present stage of the development of society the main task of intercultural communication is to intensify the humanitarian potential, to focus it on the development and adoption of the conceptual priority of universal values, rapprochement of different countries culture. In its content, the following interaction is traced a) language, reflecting the culture of people and acting as a specific form of cultural behavior; b) culture, that conveys the peculiarity of socio-historical conditions and the specificity of cultural life; c) person, as the bearer of language and culture.
Indisputable is the fact that mutual understanding of a foreign language communicant can be achieved only when the interlocutor has an idea on the vision of global picture of another language. We fully agree with W. von Humboldt that “through the diversity of languages, the wealth of the world and the diversity of what we know in it are revealed to us; and human being is becoming wider for us, because languages in clear and effective features give us different ways of thinking and perception” (Humboldt, 1985). Therefore, preparing an interpreter for real intercultural communication requires a dialogue of cultures.
As N.D. Galskova underlines, the concept of dialogue of cultures means that in the process of studying a foreign language, the learner should possess an idea of “understanding the linguo-ethno-cultural specifics of the bearer of the language being studied while preserving the individual natural style of communication, which is intended to distinguish his speech and non-verbal behavior in intercultural communication” (Galskova, 2013). Therefore, in the process of developing the perceptive-communicative competence of future translators, in our opinion, it is necessary to build professional training by comparing the studied and one’s own culture. Comparing different conceptual systems, students acquire the following knowledge:
the national picture of the world, which means the possession of a system of concepts in a foreign language, which leads to the assimilation of information necessary for the professional activity;
mentality of partners in the communication process.
Intercultural knowledge covers information on the nature of cultural universals, their interpretation in different cultures, mechanisms of cultural reflection in language and speech, psychological features of intercultural communication (attribution processes, stereotypes, prejudices). It is the perceptive-communicative competence (knowledge of the original language culture and language of translation and other extralinguistic skills) and presentability (the ability of an interpreter to express his translation professionally) determine the skill of an interpreter in many ways.
Intercultural skills of future translators include ethnographic skills of determining the cultural value component of life facts, competences of a mediator between one’s own culture and the culture of the intermediary, verbal negotiation skills in accordance with the cultural norms of the speakers of the language being studied, in order to create a general meaning of what is happening, specific skills (communicative competence, the skill of bilingualism and translation, well-developed memory, the ability to use universal shorthand writing).
Purpose of the Study
Intercultural relations mean the availability of new information, desire and willingness to understand “somebody else” as a representative of foreign culture, respect for foreign culture and in-depth knowledge of oneself, ability to put oneself in place of a communication partner, imagination of his way of thinking, ability to find areas of common interest in the process of communication.
As M. Byram points out, in the process of studying a foreign language there are basically “new psychological factors” that must be taken into account, since “the complex interrelationship between relations and knowledge, between affective and cognitive aspects of development of young people are in the heart of language and culture educational process” (Byram, 1994). We believe that the possession of precisely these psychological components is necessary for the development of perceptive-communicative competence of future translators.
Insufficient linguistic-sociological and cultural knowledge about foreign society in the process of translation can lead to “communicative failures” or a communicative barrier. There are linguistic, linguopsychological, socio-ethnic barriers. Language barriers arise from the wrong choice of language tools for expressing thoughts in a foreign language. First of all, they are caused by phonetic, lexical and grammatical mistakes. Linguopsychological barriers arise due to individual psychological characteristics of students (unreasonable shyness, latency and social awkwardness) or due to the various psychological relationships that have been developed between students: unfriendliness, dissatisfaction (Alekseeva, 2013). Socio-ethnic barriers are based on cultural differences of misunderstanding and disbelief due to differences in the meanings of the same language units in different languages, ignorance of sign language and traditions.
In the process of developing the perceptive-communicative competence of future translators, we propose the following measures to overcome intercultural barriers:
to bring the process of studying foreign language in its basic parameters to the process of mastering the language in a natural language environment. This is achieved when authentic materials and audio-visual teaching aids are used to stimulate the interests of students, to develop the desire for practical usage of a foreign language;
to affect the personality of a student at large, involve his emotions, feelings, experience in educational process, stimulate verbal and creative abilities;
to teach, not just to build their speech behavior with foreign language native speakers, but to strive for mutual understanding;
to introduce the rules of verbal and non-verbal etiquette adopted in the country of studied language;
to activate the student, making him the main character in the learning process, actively interacting with other participants in this process;
to use creative homework to compose texts, glossaries on certain topics: (distinctive features of language behavior and etiquette, speaking etiquette of intercultural communication in English; information on the culture of countries of studied language and their contribution to the world culture; information on traditions, rituals, behavior stereotypes of English native speakers in countries of studied language; information on the organization of everyday life and leisure time activities in the countries of language being studied; sociocultural vision of Russian students of the English as a bearer of certain ethnic culture).
Any fact and process of intercultural communication can be characterized by the level of penetration of communicants into contacting cultures. From this point of view, the following levels can be distinguished: cultural interaction; cultural understanding; cultural interconnection.
The goal of the first level will be to guarantee mutual cultural tolerance; therefore, for those who enter professional communication with representatives of a foreign society; along with linguistic knowledge, the knowledge of behavioral, sociological and cultural disciplines is needed that would facilitate awareness and implementation of mutual intentions of communicants in the exchange of information, establishment, maintenance and development of social ties of partnership based on mutual understanding and dialogue.
The aim of the second level is to provide a mutual culture of adaptation, that is, the introduction of the “non-speakers” of the language to the conceptual system, the picture of the worldview, value orientations of foreign language speakers, rapprochement of intercultural distance, building preparedness to adapt to the business culture of another people, and the other socio-cultural context of interaction and impact with the aim of developing an optimal strategy for professional cooperation in a foreign language.
The goal of the third on is to achieve mutual cultural association. Studying the strategies of communicative behavior of the English-speaking society representatives, their linguosociological and culturological characteristics, promotes the association with foreign language speakers culture.
Thus, successful intercultural professional interaction means adequate communicative behavior in the process of mutual knowledge, mutual understanding of relationships, and, consequently, involves, along with a fairly high level of foreign language skills, the ability to adequately interpret and accept the sociocultural diversity of communication partners in solving practical problems.
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VolumeEpSBS / Volume 39 - WUT 2018