Drama in Education as a technology of formation of sociocultural competence of students confirms the innovativeness of the content of teaching a foreign language to students. Drama in Education stimulates the formation of sociocultural competence among students of higher educational institutions. The main idea of Drama in Education is to bring out of the theory and practice of theatrical forms of art such forms of training and education that can be used for various purposes of the educational process. Theatrical and related forms of work are applied in the pedagogical context. The formation of sociocultural competence in the process of teaching foreign languages occurs not only in the intellectual and cognitive field, but also affects the mental and emotional processes. This situation determines the integrated nature of tasks aimed at the formation and development of competence of the studied type. The effectiveness of tasks is ensured by the use of specific principles of their creation and selection, which effectively affect the successful formation of sociocultural competence of students. Its content includes information about the culture of the country of the studied language and linguistic tools that ensure the successful implementation of acts of intercultural communication. In the course of obtaining sociocultural knowledge in various activities, the student acquires the ability to distinguish in them universal cultural and ethical, moral values and skills of readiness for communication at the intercultural and at the international level.
Keywords: Drama in Educationsociocultural competenceforeign languagestudents
Knowledge of foreign languages at the level that allows communication with foreign-speaking representatives of different countries in order to effectively interact in the implementation of interethnic and personal contacts, achieving mutual understanding between peoples made it necessary to teach intercultural communication and the formation of sociocultural competence. In the context of modern humanistic views on the development of personality, its value orientations on the essence of pedagogical activity and pedagogical training in high school actualized the problem of culture of the future specialist and its component - socio-cultural competence. Effective teaching of intercultural communication with the native speakers of a particular foreign language is possible subject to the use of various means of Drama in Education. It includes three types of activities: search, discussion and gaming, and is widespread in the West, especially in England and Germany.
Sociocultural competence is a conscious integral system that includes a number of structural components, has its own organization and has integrative properties of the whole, which is not reduced to the properties of individual parts. The essence of socio-cultural competence consists in the value attitude to the universal and national culture, the desire for dialogue with other peoples and cultures.
The formation of sociocultural competence allows the participants of intercultural communication, on the one hand - to understand the feelings and thoughts of another people and overcome national cultural centrism, on the other-to better identify themselves, to better understand their own culture in comparison with the culture of the language studied.
The main structural component of sociocultural competence is cognitive, assuming the presence of deep and systematic knowledge of sociocultural characteristics and realities of the country, norms and rules of interaction between people, patterns of speech behavior, ideas, beliefs, judgments, customs, and traditions.
Sociocultural content of the communication is hidden from the untrained to intercultural communication in foreign language of the interlocutor. Knowledge of this content and the ability to navigate it, contributes to an adequate understanding of those who communicate. Full, correct perception and use in the process of intercultural communication of linguistic facts and phenomena is impossible without reference to the ethnography, history, culture of the native speaker of the studied foreign language, since each language reflects the peculiarities of the culture of the people.
Therefore, it is necessary to introduce students to a foreign language not only as a means of communication, but also as a means of learning a different national culture (Bystrai, 2006). Thanks to this, the future citizens of the country will be able to find their place in the community of different cultures, which will give them the opportunity to participate in intercultural communication. Effective teaching of intercultural communication with native speakers of a particular foreign language is possible on condition of formation of sociocultural competence among students. Its content includes information about the culture of the country of the studied language and linguistic tools that ensure the successful implementation of acts of intercultural communication.
In various studies, different components are identified in the content of socio-cultural competence. The most important elements of socio-cultural competence, including both information (knowledge) and skills:
The formation of sociocultural competence implies the purposeful mastering of the relevant content, which should be included in the General content of teaching foreign language communication. The sociocultural competence formed as a result of the use of special methods and techniques in the learning process excludes the possibility of miscommunication during intercultural communication. The lack of socio-cultural competence among those who communicate in a foreign language can cause miscommunication (misunderstanding), which violates the course of foreign language communication and becomes a serious obstacle to achieving the goals of communication. That is why there are tendencies to increase the importance of foreign languages in modern life, reflecting the development of the culture of the peoples of the world, providing intercultural communication, "dialogue of cultures" (Kusarbaev &Vlasenko, 2016).
The consequence of this should be the formation of the personality of students - through the knowledge of other societies, other cultures, comparing them with their native culture, as well as the development of logical thinking, mental abilities of students, their intelligence, increasing the level of their General culture, expanding horizons, etc.
Any person (the individual) is a social product of society and represents a definite integral education, formed under the influence of the social sphere in which occurred the formation of a specific person, the appearance in it of those or other socio-psychological qualities.
In this complex process, the culture of society, its various manifestations play a huge role. Comprehending numerous aspects of culture (from domestic to political), a person takes possession of the general cultural fund of the nation. This helps to shape the personality, develops the ability to navigate in difficult situations, to find the right solutions to emerging problems, to establish effective contacts with representatives of the people, both their country and other countries.
In the course of obtaining sociocultural knowledge in various activities, skills are acquired to distinguish in them universal cultural, ethical and moral values that create an atmosphere of appeal to the human person, ready to communicate at the intercultural level, capable of empathy, striving for self-actualization. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce students to a foreign language not only as a means of communication, but also as a means of learning a different national culture. Thanks to this, the citizens of the country will be able to find their place in the community of different cultures, which will give them the opportunity to participate in intercultural communication. The above was fully confirmed on the basis of the Sibai Institute of Bashkir State University, Chelyabinsk State University, South Ural State University, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University in which the author used drama-pedagogical approach in practical classes of German and English languages. Drama in Education stimulates the process of formation of socio-cultural competence of students (Kusarbaev, 2017).
Purpose of the Study
Concept of Drama in Education refers to the means of formation of sociocultural competence. Drama or (theatrical)-pedagogy in the educational process is used as a traditional occupation, through the use of pedagogical techniques and various forms of exercise; it means the organization of a section of the General training course on the principles of drama (theatrical)-pedagogics.
Drama in Education can act as a central field for learning a foreign language with the help of a guiding formula: "we teach and learn the language with our heads, hearts, hands and feet." The main idea of the drama-pedagogical concept of teaching is to bring out of the theory and practice of dramatic (theatrical) forms of art such forms of study, training and education, which can be used for various purposes of the educational process. The concept of Drama in Education is mostly combined with the concept of theatrical-pedagogical, which is more commonly used to point out the theatrical-related forms of work and is used in the pedagogical context.
To organize classes on the rules of drama (theater)-pedagogics, you need to have drama-pedagogical educational qualifications. You need to keep in school, their additional training your own experiences with the participation in various roles, with the management of the gaming process, with the production of game projects and reflect these experiences in particular from the point of view of the corresponding item.
Drama (theatrical) - pedagogical possibilities of teaching students more effectively if the teacher's training is understood exclusively not only as a science, but as an art in teaching a foreign language. The teacher must have the skills of an actor, a director, a playwright. As an actor, the teacher must control and consciously use his own "conversational instruments" - voice, breathing, experience the action of sound, rhythm, intonation, articulation, and experiment in various conversational manners. As a director, the teacher should understand the concept of staging, critically analyze their work, and contribute to a positive climate, the atmosphere in the group. The main task of the teacher is to design of fictitious notes, in which he's verbal and non-verbal acts. The teacher can create moments of surprise in the classroom, awaken interest, cause tension, push students into a decisive situation and cause them to express their opinions, actions, transfer knowledge.
The founder of Drama in Education can be considered H. Johnson, the head of the village English school, which introduced its system into its integrated, drama-oriented educational process. She believed that every subject, be it history, geography, arithmetic or other subjects, should be “dramatically adapted”.
H. Johnson substantiates her position as the cause of the natural and dramatic instinct of children, and they are still shared by many teachers of drama pedagogics. For them, the process of dramatization is more important than the product itself, the result. The formation of socio-cultural competence of students should turn into a permanent educational process in which the process and the result should be on an equal footing. This does not mean striving for results, striving to stimulate the continuity of the process, in which the result is naturally, not artificially. Drama pedagogy is based on this.
On the basis of the scientific literature analysis the general functions of Drama in Education, which are typical for innovative technology in the formation of students ' sociocultural competence, are established:
Drama pedagogy takes place in three phases: the warming-up phase or the warming-up phase, the game phase or the action phase, and the discussion phase or the final phase. The total duration is 3 hours. After the 3rd phase you should leave about a half hour of free time. This allows all members of the group to discuss sufficiently and resolve acute problems during the game
Before applying drama - pedagogical techniques, the teacher must answer the following six questions, which are related to the effectiveness of training (Kusarbaev, Dovgopolova, Demakova, & Mukhametshina, 2017).
The technique of "teacher in role" suggests to give the chance to the teacher, freed from his usual role of the teacher of the future specialists and to positively change the dynamics of learning (Schewe 2001). The teacher who uses this technique should think ambiguously: on the one hand, as a character within his role, on the other hand, he should have a General idea of the dramatic universal action. In the center of the drama (theatre)-teaching areas are "mental organization" (stage improvisation, sculpture, mime and artwork, sound collages), students largely work in small groups in the creative process. Students are not only actors and spectators, but also directors, playwrights. This is typical for drama (theatrical) - pedagogical training. Students use all expressions that are at their disposal, not only verbally, but also to a greater extent non-verbally. The fact that students want to express gestures, facial expressions or through movement in the room is an incentive for further training. Body movement is active, it counteract fatigue and promote concentration and receptivity. Frequent work in small groups, frequent changes in social form and a special preference for synchronous work in small groups (all speak; act simultaneously) and becomes the reason to achieve a high degree of interaction. Training time is used optimally. Not only to learn from the teacher, but also from each other, social learning is of high importance. With the designation "drama-pedagogical" the pedagogical orientation of the corresponding subject is emphasized.
At the heart and in the centre of attention is the appearance of a person who is not reduced to "mechanical training", the student is perceived as a person with multilateral development. In the process of work, the student gets a chance to express themselves in an ever-changing group situation. This tool involves almost all the features, namely: in the first place - communication, which manifests a creative approach to the educational process of students. The relationship of professionalization, self-regulation and socialization of the young man is an integral part of the pedagogical process, which manifests itself in this tool, is very significant.
Drama in Education as an innovative technology shows its innovativeness during its application. The teacher can supplement drama - pedagogical activity with their developments, which can only enrich the lessons and make it even more effective. Drama in Education can be considered as a concept of education and upbringing of young people, in which such concepts as "active method", "self-expression", "naturalness of the student" are significant, which is important for the formation of sociocultural competences of students in higher education.
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30 April 2018
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Kusarbaev, R. I. (2018). Drama In Education As A Technology Of Sociocultural Competence Formation By Students. In & I. V. Denisova (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 39. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 754-759). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.02.108