The aim of this study was to show the influence of speed training over the aerobic performance of senior swimmers. 15 well-trained swimmers (aged 21+-3 years) performed two times six repeated maximal 50-m sprints (RS) departing every 2 minutes, interspersed with either in or out recovery. At the beginning of the 6-month period, the swimmers performed a 2000m test, and the lactate was taken before and after the end of the test, so the heart rate. A link was made between lactate and heart rate in order to confirm the development of aerobic capacity. Due to the importance of limiting factors during a sprint exercise, certain interdependence between aerobic indices could be expected. Our study demonstrates a significant correlation between aerobic capacity and repeated sprint exercise, with an influence on aerobic capabilities, as well as a significant correlation between general endurance and anaerobic sprint power. The high correlation between them suggests that endurance and overall resistance are related, at least partially. Similarly, the best indices of general anaerobic power are observed in subjects with the highest anaerobic power indices. On the other hand, the highest aerobic indices were observed in subjects with the lowest anaerobic power indices. To conclude, the present results confirm the beneficial effect of speed training over the aerobic performance.
Keywords: Intermittent workspeed trainingaerobic capacity
This study suggests that the factors limiting aerobic exercise differ not only according to the amount of training sessions, but also according to their intensity. However, some authors report concordances between the various structures involved in the transport, diffusion and use of oxygen (Abe et al., 2006). In this hypothesis, the maximum aerobic power and anaerobic threshold indices should, on the contrary, be strongly correlated. For anaerobic exercises, no matter of the size of the muscular mass, the limiting factors should be essentially local (enzymatic equipment, types of muscle fibres), if we exclude the motor control (Costill, Sharp, & Troup, 1980). The maximum local and general anaerobic power should therefore be a priori highly correlated if the muscle groups involved are identical (Bangsbo et al., 2000). In order to clarify the relationships that may exist between the aerobic and anaerobic parameters (Dekerle & Pelayo, 2011), we studied the correlations between the indices of lactic acid and heart rate and the general maximum anaerobic power.
Identifying the effect of training in repeated sprints on aerobic performance:
The results of this study relies on conclusions regarding the effect of training based on repeated sprints on aerobic performances;
Our research is based on repeated aerodynamic sprint training, also focusing on the technical side of the research, on the swimming index (psychological appearance) and the fatigue index (the biological aspect);
A low volume of sprint training induces specific metabolic adaptations of anaerobic or non-specific aerobic capacity.
Repeated training based on sprint improves aerobic metabolism. Repeated training based on sprint has no effect on aerobic performance.
Purpose of the Study
Our proposal towards the study is: In addition to being an accurate reference for short intermittent training (repeated sprint exercise, which is strongly correlated with the main physiological determinants of swimming performance), it could also be used to assess the aerobic potential of swimmers overall). This relationship with all specific aerobic capabilities suggests that the 2x (6x50m L) test may be relevant for regular monitoring during the season.
Arithmetic average and standard deviation were used. A variable rate percent analysis was done to compare the early stage. In addition, a bivariate correlation was calculated based on independent variables (velocity and swim index) between the 2000m test phase and competitive tests. The t-Student test was used to compare heart rates. Statistical processing was performed using the SPSS 17 (2009) software.
Data were expressed in absolute values and statistical analysis. A one-way analysis of variance, followed by t-Student test, was used to compare the swimmers’ results. The possible relationships between the different variables were investigated by calculating the linear correlation coefficients. The significance threshold was set at p <0.05 (Popa, 2008, p. 164).
Statistical data processing
In the case of quantitative (continuous) quantities, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum values were calculated. The comparison of quantitative quantities was done using the t-Student test for paired observations. The association between lactic acid and heart rate was tested with linear regression. All tests used were bilateral. The threshold for statistical significance will be P ≤ 0.05. The statistical analysis was done using the STATA 13/MP software (Table
For a relatively inhomogeneous population in terms of energy capabilities, the results of this study argue for a concordance between general aerobic power and endurance and, on the other hand, between local aerobic power and endurance abilities. The high correlation between them suggests that endurance and overall resistance are related, at least partially. Similarly, the best indices of general anaerobic power are observed in subjects with the highest anaerobic power indices. On the other hand, the highest aerobic indices were observed in subjects with the lowest anaerobic power indices.
Due to the importance of limiting factors during a sprint exercise, interdependence between aerobic indices could be expected. For example, in our subjects, there is certain interdependence between aerobic indices and anaerobic power. Indeed, it has been demonstrated a significant correlation between aerobic capacity and repeated sprint exercise on aerobic capabilities. On the other hand, a significant correlation between general endurance and anaerobic sprint power was found.
- Abe, D., Tokumaru, H., Niihata, S., Muraki, S., Fukuoka, Y., Usui, S., & Yoshida T. (2006). Assessment of short-distance breaststroke swimming performance with critical velocity. J Sports Sci Med., 5(2), 340-348.
- Bangsbo, J., Krustrup, P., González-Alonso, J., & Saltin, B. (2000). ATP production and efficiency of human skeletal muscle during intense exercise: Effect of previous exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab., 280(6), 56-64.
- Costill, D. L., Sharp, R., & Troup J. (1980). Muscle strength: Contributions to sprint swimming. Swim World, 21, 29-34.
- Dekerle, J., & Pelayo, P. (2011). Assessing aerobic endurance in swimming. In L. Seifert, D. Chollet & I. Mujika (Eds.), World book of swimming: From science to performance (pp. 276-293). Nova Science Publishers.
- Popa, M. (2008). Statistică pentru psihologie – Teorie și aplicații SPSS (Ed. a II-a). Iași: Polirom.
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18 December 2019
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Sports, sport science, physical education, health psychology
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Sabri*, J. (2019). The influence of repeated sprints over the aerobic performance at swimmers. In V. Grigore, M. Stanescu, & M. Paunescu (Eds.), Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy - ICPESK 2017, vol 36. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 192-196). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.03.25