The remarkable results achieved by weightlifters at the 2017 European Championships held in Split, Croatia, demonstrate once again the need to find methods and means that help the human body to cope with mental and physical overexertion and to shorten the preparatory period necessary to reach European and World performances. The current level of sport performance in weightlifting requires reconsiderations of the training structure and design. We shall make these means available for specialists and athletes, focusing on a crucial issue in achieving weightlifting performances, namely the execution time. Given the particularities of this sport, where there are classes related to age, weight, gender and competitive level, but also the athletes’ anthropometric and psychological particularities, it can be stated that the duration of execution times has a large variability. The research uses imaging techniques. The recording and measurement were performed with the AviSynth software made up of: electronic computer, JVS digital video camera, tripod, laptop, video-monitor and mini-video cassettes. The research presents the recording and analysis of execution times in the snatch event for European weightlifters from the value group A, heavyweight class +105 kg. The research includes eight male athletes (aged 19 to 32 years) from various countries, namely two athletes from Russia and athletes from Armenia, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Hungary and Ukraine, with one athlete each.
Keywords: Performance sportexecution timemale weightlifters
Commentators in today’s written and audio-visual media state that we are living in an era of information explosion. Due to the efficiency and speed of modern technology applications, such as computers, cameras, laptops, television, satellites and new printing methods, the latest discoveries, ideas, facts and theories come into our homes every day. It is increasingly difficult to keep pace with this, but it is even harder to understand what they mean (Spangenburg & Moser, 2001, p. 196).
Sport, in all its forms, can ensure not only the physical and mental health of the members of society, but also new ways of socialisation and personal fulfilment (Cristea, 2013, p. 394). In this context, the weightlifting sport, through its increased performance-related exigencies, requires the reconsideration of training. In this regard, we propose computerized assistance and video equipment as technical means of research within the specific training. Sport performance results from the interplay of a particularly large number of factors, whose weight is different both structurally and circumstantially. Performance is therefore the excellence (optimal) aspect of the human being regarded as a whole (Epuran, 2013, p. 249).
Behaviour can be modelled through computer programs derived from observations: in this case, the research process underlying the program starts from the behaviour observation, which can generate a theory (Paraschiv, Tănase, & Manea, 2014, p. 107).
Significant contributions to the study of intermediate execution times for the weightlifting events have been brought by the following researchers: V. I. Fronov, S. I. Lenkov, H. N. Efimov and M. P. Vangas. It is worth mentioning that the Italian weightlifting school has developed a model that divides the snatch style into 4 periods and 8 phases, and the clean and jerk style, also into 4 periods and 8 phases, when the barbell is separated from the platform and lifted to the chest, and 3 periods and 6 phases, when the barbell is lifted overhead (Urso, 2011, p. 28).
Video recordings were processed using the AviSynth software program, which was made available to us by the managers of the National Institute for Sport Research. It is about a Windows frame server developed by Ben Rudiak-Gould and Edwin van Eggelen, under the GNU GPL license (AviSynth, 2014).
Some authors believe that the speed with which the barbell is lifted depends on its weight and the athlete’s sport mastery. With a heavier weight, the speed decreases, and the duration of initial acceleration decreases in direct relation with the sport mastery (Dvorkin, 2005, p. 230). The video method application by experts highlighted that the level of technical training has improved for each indicator assessing the phases of technical procedures (Ulăreanu, 2014, p. 108). The athletes’ level of preparation for competitions is related to sufficiently stable characteristics which are not subjected to sudden fluctuations (motor qualities, potential of the most important functional systems, level of technical and tactical training, etc.) (Platonov, 2015, p. 386).
Taking into account the rapid evolution of sport performance, it is necessary to reconsider all the factors of training and consequently the barbell lifting technique, more specifically to identify the time needed for lifting the barbell. This study brings to discussion the recording and analysis of execution times (from the moment when the weights leave the platform until the upper limbs are stretched with the barbell above). The study is part of an extensive research that aims, in a first phase, at all categories of athletes participating in weightlifting competitions. The research presents the recording and analysis of execution times in the snatch event for European weightlifters from the value group A, heavyweight class +105 kg.
The identification of execution times in the snatch event provides the opportunity to make comparisons between weightlifters, establish correlations and make observations on their performance.
Purpose of the Study
To check the possibilities of using the computerized imaging technique in barbell lifting, for the snatch event.
To identify execution times in snatch weightlifters through recording and measurement, using the AviSynth software program.
The research uses imaging techniques. It was conducted in two main stages: stage 1, from 03 to 13 April 2009, during which the selection took place (eight male weightlifters of international value from various European clubs, namely two athletes from Russia and athletes from Armenia, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Hungary and Ukraine, with one athlete each, aged 19 to 32 years and competing for the heavyweight class +105 kg) and the participating athletes were video-recorded; stage 2, from October 2016 to March 2017, when the results obtained from recordings (sorting the data, number of frames per execution, converting the frames into seconds, etc.) were processed and analysed using the AviSynth software program; drawing conclusions and making observations (based on the obtained results).
The most experienced competitor in this weight class is the Polish athlete aged 32 years, while the Czech competitor, who will take a deserved 5th place in the finals, is the youngest athlete, only 19 years.
To facilitate the identification of terms mentioned in the tables below, we give the following explanations: Time 1 (first contact of the soles with the competition platform); Time 2 (the feet are planted under the barbell axis); Time 3 (the hands grip the barbell); Time 4 (the barbell is separated from the competition platform); Time 5 (the barbell is fixed overhead); kg (lifted kilograms); S (successful attempt); F (failed attempt).
This research is part of a broader study, which is revealed in the structure of Tables
The research results highlight the following aspects: Structure of the two-hand snatch technique and duration of times – first attempt. Average execution speed for the first attempt is 3.63 sec. The difference between the fastest and slowest execution speed for the first attempt is 1.6 sec. (Table
After analysing the research results, some issues related to the technical execution have been highlighted, and among them we mention: average execution speed for the three statutory attempts; average execution speed for each attempt; the ratio between barbell weight and execution speed.
Regarding the results obtained in this research, we mention the following aspects: average execution speed for the first attempt is 3.63 sec.; average execution speed for the second attempt is 3.97 sec.; average execution speed for the third attempt is 4.23 sec. The increase in the barbell weight leads to increased execution speed. The difference between the fastest and slowest execution speed is 3.4 sec.
Average execution speed for the three attempts is 3.94 sec. To determine the duration of times specific to the technical execution, we used the AviSynth program. Computerized technology, specifically the AviSynth software, provides the best premises for a multifactorial analysis, with a real impact on the achievement of top performance.
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18 December 2019
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Sports, sport science, physical education, health psychology
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Murărețu*, D. C., Petre, R., & Teodoru, M. D. (2019). Technical Profiles of the Execution Times in Weightlifting, Class +105 Kg. In V. Grigore, M. Stanescu, & M. Paunescu (Eds.), Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy - ICPESK 2017, vol 36. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 177-183). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.03.23