The urgency of the problem of the research is conditioned by the radical transformation of the entire system of modern education in Russia, which is connected with the development and implementation of the concept of inclusive education. Problem statement of the research is the study of the specifics, features and problems of inclusive education in modern higher education. The conduct of sociological research aimed at studying the attitudes of students with disabilities to psychological, social and everyday problems in education. The purpose of this research is the analysis of the process of psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities in the educational area of the university. The research of scientific literature is empirical research with the use of methods of questioning, interviewing, observation. The vast majority of students have positive attitude toward persons with disabilities; however a high percentage of negative and indifferent attitude towards people with disabilities. Students with disabilities noted that they need more attention from their teachers, and support and help from their fellow students. In summary, the author can say that a lot of people treat students with disabilities as “second-class people”. The society should approach the decision of the problem “disabled person is an individual” not from the position of a pity for some phenomenon of "disabled person is outside society", but from the position of fellowship, participation, assistance, co-creation.
Keywords: Students with disabilitiesinclusive educationsociological research
The urgency of the problem of the research is conditioned by the radical transformation of the entire system of modern education in Russia, which is connected with the development and introduction of the concept of inclusive education taking into account all the necessary conditions for co-education of persons with disabilities and their healthy peers. For many years, the educational system of the Russian Federation conditionally divided children into ordinary children and children with the disabilities who did not have the opportunity to get equal education with others and to realize their capabilities and talents. Children with disabilities were forced to study only in specialized institutions where they were practically closed from the outside world. At the moment, the situation in Russia begins to change for the better. The Government and society “faced” children with the disability and the definition "inclusive education" does not become just a declaration of the rights of children with the disability to appropriate education, but a real opportunity to study in the primary, secondary and higher education like any other student.
Problem statements of the research are the study of the specifics, features and problems of inclusive education in modern higher education and the conduct of a sociological research of the process of psychological and pedagogical support for students with disabilities in Murom Institute of Vladimir state University.
In the empirical research, the author used a research methodology of the process of support students with disabilities in Murom Institute of Vladimir state University.
In accordance with the new Federal State Educational Standards in higher education institutions to implement the program of inclusive education, certain conditions should be established. “The use of special educational programs and methods of teaching and education, special textbooks, educational aids and didactic materials, special equipment of training for collective and individual using. Rendering services by an assistant who provides students with the necessary technical assistance, conducting group and individual corrective classes; with access to the buildings of organizations, carrying out educational activities and other conditions. Without them, it is impossible or difficult to develop the educational programs for students with disabilities” (Masharova, Alyokhina, Kristinina, 2014; Shipitsyna, 1996).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is the analysis of the process of psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities in the educational area of the university, which does not specialize in teaching students with disabilities.
Inclusive education in scientific-pedagogical and psychological science is considered to be the educational process which implies the accessibility of education for all. There should be adaptation to the different needs of all children and access to education for children with special needs. "Inclusive education develops an approach to teaching and learning that meets the needs of the education and child-rearing, as well as the educational environment that is most favourable to them. Objectives of inclusive education is the acceptance of the individuality of each student to meet the special needs of each child "(Sorokoumova, 2010; Alekhina, 2014).
The history of the development of inclusive education in Russia began in the XIX century. The Care Society “Blue Cross” for the sick children was founded in 1882. The Great Duchess Elizaveta Mavrikievna was in charge of it. In 1893, under this society, a department of the protection children was established, which included hostels with workshops. At the same time, with funds of a private entrepreneur A.S. Balitskaya, the first shelter for cripples and paralysed children was established. At the end of the XIX century in Russia, shelters were opened for idiot kids and epileptics. "Society of contempt juvenile cripples and idiots" had assumed such noble mission. This society opened a shelter for children with mental disabilities in St. Petersburg. In the same place, a psychotherapist I. V. Malyarevsky established a medical educational institution for children with mental disabilities (Sverdlova, 1999; Melina, 2013).
In modern Russia, the first inclusive educational institutions appeared in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1992, the Russian project "Integration of Persons with Disabilities" was launched. Experimental sites for the integrated education of children with disabilities were organized in 11 regions of Russia. The transition to inclusive education in Russia is due to the ratification of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and the rights of the children. This is declared in The Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959), The Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded (1971), The Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (1975); Convention on the Rights of the Child (1975). So that the Russian Federation became a country with civilized, accessible education for people with disabilities, it should develop and adopt not only the Act on Integration of persons with disabilities, but also help to create positive, tolerant, good-natured and understanding relations of the society with respect to this issue.
The vast majority of Russian universities are not ready to work with students with disabilities: they have not established educational environment, adapted programs designed for educating students with disabilities.
Only in some universities, there are centres aimed at educating students with disabilities: the Moscow Institute boarding house for the students with a motor disabilities, the Institute of Social Development at Novosibirsk State Technical University, Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman, Chelyabinsk State University, Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Krasnoyarsk State University (Yakovleva, 2009; Pugachev, 2012).
For research of the problem of establishing inclusive education at university, the author has conducted a comprehensive sociological research, covering 270 students of Murom Institute of Vladimir state University. 18 students with disabilities participated in the survey (7 persons with motor disabilities, 1 person with visual disabilities, 2 persons with hearing disabilities, 3 persons with diabetes mellitus, 1 person with coronary heart disease, 2 persons with asthma, 1 person with epilepsy, 1 person with psychiatric disabilities). To achieve the research, three types of questionnaires were developed:
"Relevant to the system of inclusive education in Russia" for students with disabilities;
"Relevant to the system of inclusive education in Russia" for students studying in groups with students, having disabilities;
"Inclusive education" for students studying in groups without students, having disabilities.
The questionnaires was conducted in order to study public opinion on inclusive education in higher education, societal attitudes towards people with disabilities and also the process of adaption students with disabilities to the study at the University. Analysing the results of the sociological survey, the author concluded that in general, the attitude towards persons with disabilities in the student society is positive. The question associated with the identification of the attitudes towards different categories of persons with disabilities showed that the vast majority of students have the positive attitude toward persons with disabilities since childhood (70% of the respondents), the positive attitude towards persons with visual disabilities (68% of the respondents), the positive attitude towards persons with hearing disabilities (61% of the respondents), the positive attitude towards persons with diabetes mellitus and persons with asthma (30% of the respondents), the positive attitude towards persons with psychiatric disabilities (9% of the respondents), the positive attitude towards persons with motor disabilities (64% of the respondents).
However, there is a high percentage of negative and indifferent attitude towards people with disabilities. According to the results of the research, 24% of the respondents strongly dislike people with motor disabilities and with psychiatric disabilities, and 31% of the respondents are indifferent to persons with disabilities since childhood and to persons with visual and hearing disabilities. 57% of the respondents indicated that they have positive perception of people with disabilities who want to get the education in non-specialized universities, but at the same time, respondents are poorly informed about rights, problems of students with disabilities and about organization of their training. The majority of the respondents believe that people with disabilities are not infringed in the right to receive higher education (86% of the respondents), but according to 75% of respondents, the rights of people with disabilities are not respected.
Replying to the question about co-education with people with disabilities, 69% of the respondents prefer separate education rather than inclusive education. 25% of the respondents believe that people with disabilities do not need benefits when they try to go to the university. 35% of the respondents believe that the Government must take care of people with disabilities, and 62,5% of the respondents believe that the main task of society is to change the attitude towards people with disabilities.
Most students (25% of the respondents) believe that inclusive education will not improve their education and 10% believe that its quality will get worse if "healthy" and "disabled" will study in one group and teachers will spend more time with students with disabilities.
To the questions about co-education and difficulties of students with disabilities at the university, the author got following answers: the main difficulties are the lack of special material resources (59% of the respondents); the lack of special programs for teaching students with disabilities (46% of the respondents); the lack of psychological readiness of student with disabilities and their classmates for co-education (54% of the respondents). Besides there are also difficulties in carrying out independent work, passing exams and tests, taking notes of lectures, including insufficient assistance on the part of teachers (63% of the respondents).
The question "Which form of higher education do you think is most suitable for teaching students with disabilities?", most students answered that “distance education” (58% of the respondents). However, 60% of students with disabilities prefer full-time education.
81% of the respondents believe that students with disabilities will need their help, but only 57% of the respondents will be ready to provide it. 36% of the respondents prefer to ignore their classmates with disabilities because they are uncomfortable in dealing with them.
The respondents noted some positive qualities: goodwill (69%), persistence to succeed (65%), patience (70%). And among the negative qualities, there are distrust of others (60%) and excessive feeling of self-pity (34%).
Students with disabilities were responding to a special questionnaire. 80% of students believe that the main impediment to receiving education is the lack of special material resources, although 70% of the respondents with disabilities said they need help and support from their fellow students.
92% of the respondents with disabilities consider education as the main value of life; 81% of the respondents believe that a stable job is the main value of life, and 79% of the respondents think that the presence of friends is the main value of life.
Answering the question about the difficulties in assimilating new material, 67% of students with disabilities noted that they need more time to learn new information than ordinary students do.
At the same time, 87% of the respondents with the disabilities are categorically against the condescending attitude towards them during testing and examination.
The author analyzed the resulting data and concluded that students with disabilities do not require special attitude. They do not focus on problems and difficulties, but they try to overcome their problems, arising in the process of education independently. They do not need a special attitude, they consider themselves as ordinary persons and they do not want to create unnecessary difficulties and problems for other people.
In conclusion, one can say that the both pedagogical and student societies are not ready for the widespread introduction of inclusive education. A lot of people treat students with disabilities as “second-class people”. The society should approach the decision of the problem “disabled person is an individual” not from the position of a pity for some phenomenon of "disabled person is outside society", but from the position of fellowship, participation, assistance, co-creation.
The organization of the educational process and corrective work with students with disabilities provides for the need in special training not only in the student community but also in the teaching staff of the university who realize inclusive education. Teachers of higher education should know and take into account in their work the psychological characteristics of the development of personality of students with disabilities. They should have basic knowledge of correctional pedagogy and special psychology, as well as a complete understanding of the features of physical development of students with disabilities. They should know about the methods and forms of organizing the educational process, because they are necessary for the development of an active and harmonic personality.
Inclusive education as part of the general education system that allows more completely realizing the rights of persons with disabilities to higher education, social development and a decent life.
- Alekhina, S.V. (2014). Principles of inclusion in the context of changes in educational practice. Psychological Science and Education. 1, 19, 5-16.
- Masharova, T.V., Alyokhina, S.V., Kristinina, I.A. (2014). System model of the integrated support for inclusive forms of education for children with disabilities. Kirov: OOO "Printing house" Old Vyatka.
- Melina, E.V. (2013). Inclusive education at the University: creation an accessible educational environment for students with disabilities Collective Monograph. Kazan: pub. Center of the University of Management "TISBI".
- Pugachev, A.S. (2012). Inclusive education. Young scientist, 10, 374-377.
- Sverdlova, A.L. (1999). Patronage in Russia as a social phenomenon. Sociological research, 7, 11.
- Sorokoumova, S.N. (2010). Psychological features of the inclusive education. Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 11, 45-51.
- Shipitsyna, L.M. (1996). Actual aspects of integrated education the children with developmental problems in Russia. St. Petersburg.
- Yakovleva, I.M. (2009). Professional and personal readiness of the teacher to work with children with disabilities. Vestnik MGOPU. Series "Pedagogy", 6, 140-144.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
19 February 2018
Print ISBN (optional)
Business, business innovation, science, technology, society, organizational behaviour, behaviour behaviour
Cite this article as:
Evgenyevna, F. O. (2018). Psychological And Pedagogical Support Of Disabled Students In University Educational Area. In I. B. Ardashkin, N. V. Martyushev, S. V. Klyagin, E. V. Barkova, A. R. Massalimova, & V. N. Syrov (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 35. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 368-373). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.02.43