This article is devoted to urgency of creative personality development, ability to self-development and self-improvement and formation of professional competence in future pedagogues in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design. The theoretical fundamentals of the competence approach in higher education are considered; the essence and structure of the general cultural, professional and special competences are revealed. The professional competence is an important constituent of person’s professionalism. For the future professional education of pedagogue in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design, it is the development of skills and habits of creative activity, creative thinking, creative abilities that are considered as the constituents of a creative component in special competences for this area of training. The creative component reveals itself in the creative approach to the solution of any professional problems. As a result of the analysis of theoretical literature, standards, programs, practical experience of pedagogues in this field and of the authors’ own experience, the pedagogical conditions for the effective development of the creative component in special competences for a profile of Decorative and applied arts and design are proposed. The pedagogical conditions are experimentally verified at practical classes. The students made practically oriented projects in the course of their professional training and then they participated with these projects in various creative contests and exhibitions. In the article, there are examples of the creative projects made by the students under the guidance of the pedagogues-practitioners, folk masters of the Republic of Buryatia.
Keywords: Pedagogue of professional educationdecorative and applied arts and designspecial competencescreative componentpractically-oriented project activity
The programs of the development and modernization of higher professional education determine a necessity of organizing in the Russian higher educational institutions such educational environment that would fully promote the formation and development of graduates’ professionalism. The social order and the modern competence-oriented paradigm of education aim higher educational institutions at a number of complex problems, and the success and comfort of future specialists’ activities in the rapidly changing world mainly depend on solution of these problems. (Bazarova, 2012)
The most topical and significant among them are the priority of the development of creative personality, its ability to self-development and self-improvement and formation of the professional competence. (Dulchaeva, Korytov, 2016)
Objectives of the study are: the study of professional competences in future pedagogues of professional education in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design, opportunities for the development of creative component of special competences in the process of training pedagogues of professional education.
The achievement of the objectives reveals the following research questions:
the urgency of the development of creative personality and formation of professional competence in future pedagogues of professional education in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design;
creative abilities as the constituent of a creative component of special competences for this area of training;
pedagogical conditions of development of the creative component.
Purpose of the Study
The study is aimed at theoretical substantiation and the experimental testing of the pedagogical conditions of the effective development of the creative component of special competences in future pedagogues of professional education in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design.
Theoretical analysis of historical and pedagogical, psychological and pedagogical and didactic literature; analysis of current standards, norms, programs and manuals on teaching students special disciplines; study and generalization of experience of lecturers of higher educational institutions aimed at improvement of methodology on the development of creative abilities in students of professional education; observation of a pedagogical process and its analysis; questioning; testing of students; conducting conversations and discussions with them; use of project technologies; modeling of curricula and teaching manuals; pedagogical experiment; qualitative and quantitative analysis of results obtained in the course of experiment. (Dulchaeva, 2014)
The theoretical background
In the Federal State Educational Standards of higher professional education, the competences are identified, which graduates should acquire – general cultural and professional, that allow a graduate to be competitive at labor market and be ready to continue educational activity. The professional competence is the most important constituent of person’s professionalism. The issues of formation of the professional competence are considered both in the works of homeland and foreign scientists. The modern approaches and interpretations of the professional competence are rather different. The definitions of the professional competence in the foreign literature as “deepened knowledge”, “state of adequate performance of task”, “ability to actual performance of activity” (G.K. Britell, R.M. Jueger, W.E. Blank) and others do not fully specify the content of this concept. The problem of the professional competence is actively studied by homeland researchers. (Landsheer, 1988; Hutmacher, 1997; Hutorskoy, 2003; Zimnaya, 2004)
The authors consider the professional competence of the graduate as possession of theoretical knowledge and practical skills and habits, necessary for a further professional activity, ability to apply them in practice and a constant desire to self-development by him.
The third group of competences in the educational programs of higher professional education comprises special competences, which are the main competences that form knowledge, skills and habits according to the chosen profile of training. FSES provide the higher educational institutions with a wide range for creativity in constructing these sets of the special competences, which reflect the features of graduates’ professional activity. For example, the special competences for the students of the specialization “Professional education”, majoring at “Decorative and applied arts and design”, reflect knowledge, skills and habits in the Decorative and applied arts and design.
The training of professional education pedagogues in the field of decorative and applied arts and design differs from the training of the pedagogues of other specialties and designers-professionals. The training of professional education pedagogues has “biprofessional nature, because the educational program is aimed at the training of specialists for two directions of professional activity: pedagogical and projective” (Shelten, 2001).
The implementation of the program of professional education pedagogues on the basis of the Pedagogical Institute majoring in Professional education, 44.03.04 (Decorative and applied arts and design) allows one to give the training of future professional pedagogues of practice-oriented nature. The acquisition of specialized knowledge and skills in this case will occur both in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design and in the field of pedagogy and methodology of teaching special disciplines.
The pedagogue of professional education in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design organizes and conducts theoretical teaching of general professional and special subjects, as well as practical teaching of groups of related professions in the field of design.
The theoretical and technological component includes basic knowledge of special disciplines by the profile of Decorative and applied arts and design. The operational and activity component represents techniques, practical skills in drawing, painting, decorative and applied arts, computer design. The personality component is motivational and value purposes, emotional and volitional properties, psychological features and personality potential.
And one of the important components of the special competences of the future pedagogue of the professional education of Decorative and applied arts and design is the creative potential, that reveals in the creative approach to solution of any professional tasks (see Figure
As a result of the conducted research, the pedagogical conditions were proposed and substantiated, contributing to the development of the creative component of the special competences of the future pedagogue of professional education in the field of Decorative and applied arts and design during study:
teacher’s activity aimed at development of the creative component in students by means of their motivation to the solution of the non-standard professional problems, initiation of acquisition of the methodology and methods of solving the creative problems, demonstration of their own creative approach to the development of the professional projects.
support of project development based on the real professional problems, consulting with experts on Decorative and applied arts and design;
successive complication of the projects according to the degree of heuristics of the dominating activity and a finished product (reproductive and creative, creative and reproductive, creative); level of completeness and degree of detailing the finished product (fore-sketches, creative sketches, product prototype); the number of disciplines which is used in the development and realization of the product. (Reznikova, 2012)
To develop the creative component of the special competences in students, future pedagogues of Decorative and applied arts and design, the psychological methods of their motivation to solution of professional problems have been used at classes:
motivation by a personal example. The interest of students in a studied discipline is determined not only by a professional presentation of educational material, but also by teacher’s personal properties, i.e., skill to self-organization, friendly attitude in communication and others;
formation of a positive attitude to profession, special attention has been paid to important professional competences, which are formed while performing projects;
provision of a maximum range of free will to the students; they have been given an opportunity to choose, discuss a form of performing an individual independent work, project’s theme.
praise, especially in public, with a description of advantages and distinctive features of the performed work raise student’s self-confidence, his inner motivation and a desire to attain the same result once again, enhancing it over time.
use of modern teaching techniques (projecting, problematic, teaching in cooperation, multilevel teaching and others); their diversity in the arranging of academic activities increases students motivation.
To develop the creative abilities, the authors also involve students in the practical oriented project activity in the course of their professional training. The use of the technology of project activity aims modern students not only at the simple acquisition of knowledge, but also at the ways of acquisition, patterns and ways of thinking and activity, development of cognitive activity and creative potential of every learner. According to the practice, in the course of the projects performing, students enlarge their range of perception and representations, develop and improve their cognitive abilities, form the general processes of mental activity, work out the skill of acquisition knowledge independently and use it on practice. And as the practically oriented project, the authors have considered the project aimed at specific practical aspects of activity. (Polyakov, 2003)
The aim of practically oriented project activity is (Dulchaeva, Korytov 2016):
formation of being competent in students while making projects, their practical significance, direction and acceptability;
familiarization of students by means of subject and interdisciplinary material with social, scientific and practically meaningful problems that are characteristic for their future professional activity and with the ways of solution these problems.
One of the interesting trends of project activity is the project “Heritage”, because a great layer of culture is of Buddhisn and Buddhist tradition. This layer contains Buddhist teaching, including philosophy, Tibetan medicine, astrology, Buddhist painting and Decorative and applied arts. In this project, the works of Decorative and applied arts meet several characteristics: they have aesthetic value; designed for artistic effect; form creative abilities, thinking. The project is made in the quilling technique with the use of the Buryat ornaments, symbols and elements. The works of students are done in the form of Mandala. This symbol often has round shape that means personification of the world and a model of the Universe. The Mandala also promotes faster spiritual, aesthetic and creative development of the students. The project "Birch bark fairy tale" is of great interest. While working on this project, the students have developed a design of "Birch bark fairy tale" workshop, performed creative items made of birch bark, prepared technological cards to make items for the further pedagogical activities.
When making projects, teachers from schools, institutions of secondary vocational education consult students, folk masters in decorative and applied arts, conduct master classes for them. Under the supervision of the folk masters of the Republic of Buryatia: Valeriya Tsybikova, Nataliya Oskorbina and Konstantin Strizhkov, the students made various projects of birch bark, carved items, in the “Quilling” technique, etc. (see Figure
The authors disclose the essence and the structure of the special competences in future pedagogues of professional education in the field of decorative and applied arts and design, pedagogical conditions of the developing the creative component: teacher’s activity aimed at the development of the creative component in students; support of project development based on the real professional problems, successive complication of the projects according to the degree of heuristics of the dominating activity and a finished product. The pedagogical conditions are experimentally verified at practical classes.
The implementation of the proposed pedagogical conditions in the course of the professional training of the future pedagogues of professional education allows one to stimulate the development of the creative component in the social competence in the field of decorative and applied arts and design through the introduction of the real professional tasks. As a result, the creative abilities, skills, habits, imagination and creative thinking in general are developed in the students due to the staged implementations of the projects with the gradual complication of tasks, allowing one to pass systematically from reproductive and creative activity to creative and reproductive one and then to the creative activity. The abilities for creative self-realization and self-esteem are also developed in students as a result of their participation in various projects, contests, presentations with master classes for teachers and pedagogues of additional education in decorative and applied arts, teaching needlework to participants in the project “Dialogue of Generations”.
As a result of the creative component development, the students take top places in the creative contests at the republican, all-Russian and international levels, for example “Rainbow of talents”, Olimpiada in computer graphics, various contests for arts and applied creativity.
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19 February 2018
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Dulchaeva, I. L., Korytov, G. A., Erdyneyev, A. T., Zhalnina, O. L., & Khaltueva, A. M. (2018). Development Of Creative Component During Training Pedagogues In Professional Education. In I. B. Ardashkin, N. V. Martyushev, S. V. Klyagin, E. V. Barkova, A. R. Massalimova, & V. N. Syrov (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 35. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 290-296). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.02.33