The article touches upon the issue of communicative activity of student youth in the Internet and the advantages of applying modern information technologies in higher education institutions in the process of teaching the discipline "Physical Culture". Internet communication today is one of the priority ways of communication among students and undergraduate students. The authors tried to determine the main characteristics of the communicative user, the students' opinion about the role and the place of the Internet in their daily lives, a list of goals and objectives for implementation of which respondents use information technologies, as well as the motives and preferences of students - Internet users. Analysis of the data of the social survey made it possible to classify general trends in students' behavior in the network. The use of computer programs and Internet technologies, as well as training in cooperation, allow solving the tasks of activating the performance of each student in the process of training, the formation of situations for their creative activity, establishment of interpersonal relations in the network, and uniting into communities by interests. The authors suggest ways to increase the communicative activity of students in the informative space of physical culture throughout the entire period of training.
Keywords: Internetcommunicationcognitive activityphysical culture
Features of the Internet as a means of mass communication form the style of human relations, and new information technologies offer unlimited possibilities of Internet resources in all spheres of human activity. Modern forms and types of communication are an informationally saturated environment in which, according to numerous opinion polls, the main users are young people aged 18 to 24, most of whom are students (Krasova & Neugodnikova, 2014). Student youth is a social group which is characterized by ambitiousness, has its own ideas and interests, and aims at independence and self-realization. A high educational level, scientific and cognitive motivation, social activity are distinctive characteristics of the student community. They are the ones who are the most active in taking advantages of the swiftly developing information technologies. Students easily adapt to the capabilities of the Internet as a source of information, informal communication, virtual entertainment, a way to find friends by interests, order goods from anywhere in the world, etc. (Sazanov, 2010).
The relevance of studying the communicative activity of students is conditioned by the necessity of using the Internet in the process of study at the University (Krasnova & Popova, 2016), as a means of improving the quality of education in modern conditions, including the field of physical culture. Communication is the technical process of the information exchange between two or more individuals (or groups). The essence of communication as a communicative process is not just mutual information, but the joint comprehension of the subject, the impact on the partner (Sushko, 2009). The Internet allows one to carry out an unlimited number of contacts and options for communicating with different people, thus motivating students to active information exchange, and therefore to active discussion. The Internet acts as an effective resource for the development of communicative activity of students in the scientific and educational process, it forms the qualities by which interpersonal relations are established. It is owing to the fact that network communication, in addition to interpersonal communication, has been significantly expanded now. Socially significant communication undergoes this process too, and it is complemented by such communication genres as electronic communication, including professional ones, directed at certain topics, teleconferences and forums, various forms of distance learning and teaching, chats and guest books (Danilov, 2012).
The authors conducted a sociological survey of students on the role of the Internet in their daily lives. In the questionnaire the statements of each student are recorded; in the future, the total number of judgments of all respondents is taken into account. All questions in the questionnaire are formulated in such a way as to obtain maximum information on the following areas:
characteristic of the student-Internet user;
the role of the Internet in the educational environment;
Internet, as a means of communication, the establishment of interpersonal relationships, priority forms of communication;
leisure activities in the Internet environment, entertainment;
сommunication activity of students while studying the discipline "Physical Culture" and a healthy lifestyle.
The use of modern information computer technologies (ICT) in the Internet network allows students to realize many types of educational and cognitive activities - such as searching, processing information, acquiring knowledge. In this educational environment, the communicative activity of the student community is activated by the exchange and discussion of the acquired knowledge.
218 full-time students took part in a sociological poll. The survey found that all students have the technical capacity to use the information and communication tools of the Internet and 99% of the respondents go online every day. Despite the fact that 72% of students spend more than three hours a day on the Internet, they do not have Internet addiction. Therefore, to the question "Can you do without the Internet for a while", the respondents answered: yes, for a couple of days - 55% of the respondents; quietly live a month - 21%; no, I need the Internet every day - 24%. 88% of students identified themselves as sufficiently experienced users of the network who coped with many tasks assigned. However, high time costs are associated with a long search for necessary information - 63% of respondents. Ability to work with information resources contributes to the formation of user qualities among students, while they act not just passive recipients of information, but become its active participants (Oleynikova, 2015; Rassadyna, 2015), 79% of respondents rated themselves so.
The need for students to access the Internet was analyzed. To the question "What makes you enter the Internet?", the answer "information search" is one of the main motive for all respondents (Fig.
It can be said that more than the half of the students use actively the possibilities of Internet resources. For the youth, the «virtual reality» has become an integral part of their lives. It is very important for young people to be at the center of all events, to acquire their own life experience, to be aware of all current trends, to be an active member of society. First of all, communication for them is a direct source of information (Kuimova, Kiyanitsyna & Truntyagin, 2016; Sazanov, 2010). To the question "Would you be able to give up social networks?" 86% of the respondents answered negatively.
Based on this, it can be assumed that most young people are attracted to social networks, which indicates a certain dependence caused by the frequency of their use (Dinh Tan Xu, Polyakova & Shipilova, 2016). The study has shown that social networks, opening unlimited opportunities for communication, have become a real part in the life of student youth. 42% of young men and 46% of girls have noted that they use social networks more often for communication and information exchange, rather than for educational purposes. The role of social media is essential for 66% of respondents, they write about themselves, place messages, photos, videos and other information, register their presence in a certain place, i.e. the student realizes himself as a subject with his own activity (Ageeva et al., 2016).
Students have noted the following forms of communication that they use in everyday life: e-mail, forums, chat rooms, blogs, etc. According to the survey results, such social networks and applications are popular as VKontakte, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, My World and Classmates, as well as Skype, WhatsApp and Viber. The overwhelming majority of respondents are united in thematic communities on the basis of personal interests, for example: study groups, trade union organization of students of Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University, science in Polytechnic, panel game in Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University, Sports Club Polytechnic, etc.
Thus, the results of the questionnaire have shown that the Internet is used by students as an active means of communication, ICTs allow one to activate communication, realizing oneself in social networks. At the same time, most respondents prefer real communication. Only 6% are ready to sacrifice a meeting with friends, 4% - to sacrifice going to the theater or cinema, 11% - to sacrifice reading a book for the sake of a well-spent evening on the Internet. 78% of the interviewed students have answered that they have fewer acquaintances in the network than in real life. The majority of respondents consider real communication important for themselves, preferring it to a virtual one.
The Institute of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism of Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University has created a website that can be a powerful tool for building ICT competencies for teachers and students (Okushova, Stakhovskaya & Sharaev, 2016). However, the survey has found that only 6% of respondents regularly visit the site. Among them, only 18% of students answered positively to the question "Are you satisfied with the information received on the site?", and more than the half of the respondents (68%) have not visited the site ever. The reasons of low attendance of a site by students are revealed. This is absence of:
information about the curriculum of practical training sessions on specializations;
video presentations and video films about the activities of the department;
packages of test tasks for physical and functional preparedness with methodological instructions for their implementation;
tasks for independent work;
concrete requirements for obtaining the examination, etc.
At the same time, the authors believe that ICT can expand the advertising activity of the department in the field of physical culture, attract students' attention to a healthy lifestyle, and use an effective way of presenting information.
To ensure a productive educational process in the discipline "Physical Culture", it is necessary to introduce didactic materials in electronic media, available for viewing and discussion on the Internet. These are the following materials:
multimedia training programs;
multimedia electronic textbooks on discipline;
multimedia monitoring programs and tests;
databases of educational purpose with the inclusion of audio, photo, video and animation for each sports specialization, which the student has chosen for training sessions;
multimedia lectures-presentations on the theoretical section;
digital video films on the practical section of the curriculum;
training simulators for mastering and consolidating individual skills;
methodological and practical developments for independent preparation of students for studies;
courses for distance learning, etc. (Keksela et al., 2016; Krasnova & Popova, 2016; Yakobashvili, 1993).
On the basis of the joint work of the teachers of Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University and Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, a multimedia electronic textbook of the discipline "Physical Culture" was created, recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for university students. The electronic textbook is intended for studying theoretical material on physical culture, it allows one to increase the amount of independent work of a student, to develop skills for maintaining a healthy lifestyle, helps to evaluate individual parameters of the student's physical and mental state using inbuilt computer programs (Volkov, Volkova & Lutchenko, 2014).
At Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University, the study of the theoretical course of the discipline "Physical Culture" is organized remotely through the portal of open education. Students use Internet resources to study lecture material, prepare for testing and pass a theoretical test, establish interpersonal connections between themselves and the teacher.
Modern students represent an active and mobile social group, which strives to use new technologies in everyday life (Nikolaenko, Grakhova & Rakhimov, 2016; Oleynikova, 2015). The role of the teacher of physical culture is to organize the educational process in such a way that students act as active participants in preparing for classes, in performing independent work, in discussing the results of their motor activity, in conducting research work (Krasova & Neugodnikova, 2014; Selyutin et al., 2016).
An example of such organization of the learning process is the long-term activity of aerobics specialization teachers in Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University. Created with the help of students engaged in aerobics, the community is registered in the form of an open group "VKontakte", where video blocks display all the practical development of training programs. This database is constantly updated, adjusted and discussed, actively used by students in self-preparation for training sessions (Bushma, Zuykova & Lipovka, 2017).
Since the survey was conducted on the basis of the Department of Sports Disciplines with students who were engaged in both general physical training and aerobic specialization, the authors included a set of questions characterizing the educational and social activity of students in the subject "Physical Culture" on the Internet. The questionnaire has revealed the increased communicative activity of students specializing in Aerobics, in comparison with students engaged in general physical training (Fig.
Discussion activity in social networks about the importance of the type of motor activity in choosing a specialization was noted (72%) between students of the first and third years of study. Recommendations, tips of undergraduates help the newly arrived students to make a decision in choosing a specialization in physical education.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is the research of communicative processes among students with the use of Internet resources to activate the cognitive and social activities of students in the information environment in the process of studying the discipline "Physical Culture".
Objectives of the study:
To study students' opinions about the role and place of the Internet in their daily lives
To identify the purpose, motives and preferences of students - Internet users
To analyze the results of a sociological survey of students of different courses.
To formulate practical suggestions on the activation of the communicative process by means of the Internet among students by the example of the discipline "Physical Culture".
The subject of the research: Internet resources and information computer technologies in the student's life.
The object of the research: the study group of students of 1-3 years of study (218 people) who are studying at Peter the Great St.-Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU).
Research Methods: the study of scientific literature, the conduct of a sociological survey among students, the processing of the results of the survey using the methods of mathematical statistics.
The Internet is demanded by student youth as a means of communication and formation of an information community.
Identified as an adaptation to stay on the Internet, students consider their life meaningful and interesting. The Internet audience among them is homogeneous. The frequency of using the Internet was determined mainly by the active type of users.
All Internet resources are demanded by the student community, which increases personal motivation in their use. ICT development implements communicative activity of students in various forms of communication in social networks, raises the level of independent cognitive activity.
The ways of increasing the communicative activity of students in the information space of physical culture are suggested:
creation of electronic textbooks and teaching aids filled with the subject content of the studying discipline;
creation of a base of program and methodical support of the educational process on physical culture using ICT, visual representation on the screen of general developing and special physical exercises with demonstration of their performance, complexes for the development of physical qualities with sound;
activation of the advertising activity of the departments' sites in the field of physical culture, sports and a healthy lifestyle of student youth;
increasing the importance of distance and open education of students in the field of physical education.
ICTs provide an opportunity to bring the process of training in physical culture to a qualitatively new level. To create a fundamentally different educational environment that optimizes the educational process in the discipline "Physical Culture" is impossible with low-level technical equipment of educational institutions. The problem of the material and technical base is fundamental and consists in using modern computer classes, connected by internal networks, at institutes and faculties of physical culture and the possibility of access to the World Wide Web.
Learning activity of the student becomes controlled by the teacher. Using immediate feedback, one can adjust the learning process, get additional information, choose the mode of operation, move on to an individual learning path. The purposeful application of ICT in the practical work of the physical education teacher creates the conditions for establishing a communication process between users, which is realized through the image, text, video, graphics on the monitor screen, sound, etc.
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19 February 2018
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Bushma, T., Zuikova, E., Lipovka, A., Cherkasova, A., & Volkova, L. (2018). Internet For Improving Students Communicative Activity While Studying "Physical Culture". In I. B. Ardashkin, N. V. Martyushev, S. V. Klyagin, E. V. Barkova, A. R. Massalimova, & V. N. Syrov (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 35. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 193-200). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.02.22