The demand for local history material in the professional training of future teachers is conditioned not only by theoretical premises, but also by the practice of higher education - by the humanitarization and regionalization of education, by the new requirements of the state educational standard of higher professional education.
Keywords: Higher schoolvocational educationhumanitarizationfuture teacherlocal history
The system of teacher professional training is currently characterized by innovative processes related particularly to the regionalization of education. The principle of regionalization implies the provision of regional educational programs and the conduct of special scientific research in this field. Inclusion of the local history component in the process of professional training of future teachers to the maximum extent allows us to realize the leading trends in the development of world education, allowing one to move from the general education of a citizen, regardless of his place of residence, to the formation of a representative of a specific territorial sociocultural community with all its individual characteristics and abilities.
The democratic processes taking place in Russian society raised the local history to a new level, increased its educational role, and contributed to the emergence of interest in local history activities. Higher education institutions have the opportunity to choose new and interesting regional problems, publish results of local history activities, widely disseminate new knowledge in this field, use results and implement them in practice. The dynamics of the economic and social development of society raises the requirements for the formation not only of professional, but also moral qualities of the future teacher. And in solving these problems, local history studies have a great potential.
Global socio-political, economic and socio-cultural transformation in Russian society have led to the crisis in the social and spiritual life of society, associated with the devaluation of moral values, changes in the structure of social needs, social instability, alienation of young people from the institutions of education, shifting priorities towards material well-being, necessitating the development of theoretical and practical problems associated with the spiritual and moral formation of personality. Therefore, one of the urgent problems of educational theory is the definition of the science-based content, effective forms and methods of spiritual and moral education of future teachers, taking into account pedagogical possibilities of the local history.
The need to include the study of local history in the process of professional training of students - future teachers is conditioned not only by theoretical premises, but also by the practice of higher education - the humanitarization of education, attention to the problems of general and professional training of the student, regionalization processes and, in this connection, the new requirements of the educational state standard of higher professional education.
In the process of professional training of future teachers, local history helps to overcome the subject orientation to the growing differentiation of science and the appeal to culture, as well as the construction of interdisciplinary links not at the interdisciplinary level but at the life-activity level.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to justify the conceptual foundations of the spiritual and moral education of the teacher in the process of professional training.
An important methodological basis of modern education and nurture is the concept of the unity of society and nature. The local history education solves some problems of this series, both because of the complexity of the local history knowledge and the centuries-old experience of socio-cultural and ethnoecological adaptation of young generations of the Russians. Local history provides an opportunity to see nature, being and man in the context of culture ("nature is a world, national culture and a culture of the native land - I am the creator of culture"), which means finding ways of education and raising a person, his formation as a specialist and a citizen
To solve the problems posed in the study, a number of research methods were used. They are theoretical (a classification and systematization method, a generalization and systematization method, a comparative method, forecasting, modelling); empirical (an observation, method of experiment, a method of expert evaluation, evaluation and analysis of products of activity, study and generalization of pedagogical experience); diagnostic (for the study of axiological and cognitive levels - a method of diagnosing the level of subjective control of J. Rotter's self-assessment study, using the Dembo-Rubinstein method) components.
Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using a nonparametric criterion for the reliability of the differences for unbound samples - the U Mann-Whitney criterion and the reliability criterion for shifts. The results were mathematically processed using the computer program SPSS-20.
1. The main principles of the local history approach in the educational process can be:
- the principle of interdisciplinarity, according to which the use of local history materials implies a connection with other subjects (natural history, history, cultural disciplines, etc.);
- the principle of systematic, consisting in a purposeful, planned use of local history materials;
- the principle of thematic, involving the development of relevant materials on each topic;
- the principle of considering the age characteristics of students, in the selection of materials, based on the principle of accessibility;
- the principle of technology, involving the use of educational technology, the ability to model "conditionally real" communication in artificial conditions;
- the principle of cognition, involving knowledge in the learning process with the help of the local history material containing new information, new knowledge, and not only previously known;
- the principle of tolerance, involving the understanding and acceptance of other cultures, without falling into endocentrism, "entogoism";
- the principle of comparativeness, which means the presentation and use of local history materials along with other educational materials.
Local history, as well as the sphere of education and training in general, is subject to the need for targeted, systemic regulation. The need for problem-programmed, complex-organized cognition and management of the socio-pedagogical process, which proceeds mostly spontaneously, often in contradiction with the objective laws of individual and personal development, is becoming a reality.
Many researchers note that the use of the local history material in the professional training of future specialists contributes to the acquisition of new knowledge, introduces to research activities, improving pedagogical skills.
2. The process of training includes two vectors. The first is aimed at self-realization of the individual, the development of one’s spiritual culture. The second is aimed at the formation of readiness to perform the professional functions of the teacher. The totality of these areas makes it possible to effectively implement the professional and personal development of a future specialist.(Tukshumskaya, Bakhchieva, 2013; Levanova, 2008).
3. Local history education as a value component of the professional training of a specialist is a set of stable values, mastering which the students prepare themselves not only for professional but also for active civil activity.
Local history material is widely used in higher education institutions when studying various disciplines. In the course of local history education there is not only the development of knowledge about the native land, but also the development of practical skills. Local history knowledge, skills, demanded social experience of the nearest human community are formed into the educational system in parallel with the receipt of systematized knowledge in the process of general education, as well as in the disciplines of the future specialty. Embodied in knowledge, skills, creative activity and an emotional value attitude to the world, the significant experience of mankind is the basis for the development and self-development of the individual, a necessary condition for the development of material and spiritual culture.
4. In the authors’ opinion, in the process of professional training of teachers, local history material has the following potential:
- Local history enrich the system of general pedagogical knowledge of students, introducing them to the history of their native land, realizing the principle of historicism and continuity in the work of higher education institutions and schools in teaching students, taking into account the pedagogical possibilities of local history, providing the opportunity to use the local history material in practical professional activity.
- It promotes the acquisition of scientific and research skills, attract students to active research on local history topics (for example, a synthesis of the experience of advanced teachers and the experience of the whole school staff).
- It substantiates the necessity of applying the local history material in teaching all the subjects of the pedagogical cycle, the active inclusion of students in local history practical activities, performance of creative thematic tasks in local history studies.
- It is a means of improving the professional orientation of future teachers, using effective forms of work: the monitoring of the work of teachers; excursions to schools and local history museums; meetings with teachers; correspondence with teachers; work with teachers' archives; study periodicals describing the work of local teachers; acquaintance with the literature of local history content; writing essays on pedagogical study of local history and others.
- It has a significant educational potential, contributing not only to the formation of local history competence, including certain local history training, the formation of local history culture, becoming a part of the personal and professional growth of the future specialist, performing a nurturing function in the process of forming the spiritual and moral values and spiritual and moral culture of the future teacher.
5. The teacher's professional training system is a functional system that solves certain tasks, while using certain educational tools and activities. Local history preparation of the future teacher in the university should be based on the general principles of education (system, integrity, consistency, scientific, accessibility, etc.), the implementation of which requires the efforts of teachers of various disciplines, and the most effective one, in the authors’ opinion, is the integrative system of teachers’ training in local history.
It is quite obvious that the future teacher should possess competence in local history, which presupposes certain local history preparation, the formation of local history culture, becoming a part of the personal and professional growth of the future teacher. Local history culture has a huge educational, educative and developing potential. Inclusion of the local history material in the process of teacher’s training does not only teach students to understand and love their native land through the study of its history, to use this knowledge in professional activities, but also contributes to the spiritual and moral education of the future specialist. (Artamonova, 2008).
6. According to researchers, the content of local history education is aimed at:
- Education of patriotism, citizenship.
- The revival of interest in local and all-Russian values.
- Formation of national self-consciousness.
- Development of respect for the historical and cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia and the world, for historical figures, for human rights.
In the course of professional preparation of the future teacher, when the specialists must master the necessary teachings and skills, the moral and motivational attitude to pedagogical activity, the problem of spiritual and moral nurturing becomes especially important because the teacher can become a sort of an exemplar only by forming special moral qualities of personality, by being a spiritually mature individuality, possessing high culture, the spiritual and moral potential.
In the process of educating a student as a resident of his native land, it is important to emphasize the student's attention to the material and spiritual component, which carries a significant spiritual potential. Perception, development and preservation of the spiritual culture of the native land are facilitated by:
- the organization of pedagogically expedient interaction of the student with his native city, the native land, capable of forming his ideas about the world around him, his style of behavior, his thinking;
- the development of emotional value guidelines through the comprehension of the history of culture of the native land in the context of world and Russian cultures.
7. Culturological preparation presupposes the development of a person-oriented relationship of a person to reality. Its main indicator is the level of personality formation, its cognition, spirituality, intellectual and moral freedom, creative individuality.
Cultural and historical traditions as a basis of study of local history, education of citizenship and patriotism have a number of essential signs:
- Universality (traditions are recognized by society as correct and necessary in the process of their own reproduction);
- Strength (traditions, in their development become a solid collective skill, cementing pedagogical collectives);
- Vitality (a tradition is not a speculative scheme of activity, behavior or relations, but a fact of social reality, manifested in the beliefs and actions of people);
- Longevity (expressed in a long-term commitment to the historical accomplishments of our ancestors);
8. At the core of the principles of scientific and pedagogical substantiation of the spiritual and moral foundations of local history, there are the main features of local history as a factor of spiritual and moral education. They are represented by the sense of the motherland, responsibility to it; boundless faith in the future of Russia, active love for their cultural and genetic roots, comfort in the midst of life; a sense of duty, expressed in the readiness to defend the Motherland, awareness of personal responsibility for the country; adherence to ideals, values, traditions of their people, etc.
Along with solving the problems of spiritual and moral education of the individual, local history offers great opportunities for nurturing the patriotism and citizenship of individual, development of independence and an active life position.
The interaction of man with nature is a spiritual and moral task, dictated by the need to educate the spiritual and moral culture, the formation of a value attitude to nature, history, culture, based on the historical and cultural heritage and natural wealth of mankind.
Spiritual and moral culture is considered as an internal position of the individual, including moral attitudes, a value attitude to the culture and history of Russia, the formation of highly moral, professional and ethical standards of conduct, moral qualities of the individual, etc.
The effectiveness of local history education and upbringing depends on the attitude of the teacher, who should not only be scientifically competent, but also focused on humanistic values, have a civil position, morality and spirituality, general, professional, pedagogical and local history culture. (Baydenko, 2004).
In the teaching of local history, new trends must be taken into account:
- the expansion of regional scientific research, the demand for local history knowledge in connection with the increased role of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the economic, socio-political and cultural life of the country;
- the diversity of approaches in covering the historical past of Russia;
- an increase in the volume of the local history material in the academic disciplines;
- avoiding the pointedly publicist and controversial nature of teaching, which is peculiar to the first post-Soviet years;
- increased interest in the past, pre-Soviet history of local history, a calmer and balanced consideration of problems of the Soviet period;
- the rejection of rigid determinism, mainly the socio-economic history of the country;
- active interest of young people in studying the social and domestic life of Russia, including the issues of spiritual existence.
The activity of teachers in the spiritual and moral education of students by means of the local history material contributes to the development of the student's psychological readiness for the period of entry into society. It also guides the future specialist professionally, forms a system of values, a type of thinking, behavioral characteristics. In addition, it helps the student to join the pedagogical culture of the region, to develop such professional qualities as a creative approach to the pedagogical process; the desire for professional growth; the need to organize their activities taking into account the specifics of their native land. Besides, it allows the students to admit to the history of their homeland; to rely on significant views of authoritative teachers, to become involved in their professional activities; to develop interest in archival sources, etc.
Local history activity contributes in full to the spiritual and moral education of the individual only when it is purposefully included into the educational process (cognitive, research, and practical), providing the most favorable conditions for the formation of intellectual activity, spiritual and moral culture, development of relationships with people, self-realization, self-assertion in society, the acquisition of significant moral qualities and social experience.
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19 February 2018
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Bahchieva, O. A. (2018). Integrative Opportunities Of Local History Within Spiritual And Moral Education Of Teacher. In I. B. Ardashkin, N. V. Martyushev, S. V. Klyagin, E. V. Barkova, A. R. Massalimova, & V. N. Syrov (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 35. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 100-106). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.02.12