In the study, the results of which formed the basis of this article, the authors proceeded from the fact that the last two decades in Russia, not only scientists, but also teacher practices are constantly discussing the problems of changing the goals of teacher education. The authors attempt to understand where and why should strive the Russian pedagogical education in a constantly changing external conditions. Research results are analyzed from the opinions of young teachers of Russia about the changes occurring in the system of pedagogical education and their relationship to transformations occurring under severe pressure trends of globalization and the emergence of the information society. The authors argue that at this stage it is important to determine the goals and values. Globalization has degenerated not in an equal dialogue of original cultures of education, but in active enforcement of modern ideals of consumer society and Western values on other cultures. Authors invite to see the emergence of a new (relative to traditional and rationalist) stage of pedagogical education development - anthropocentric - which will require a major spiritual transformation, a revision of the already established among young teachers of Russia rationalist values. A critical component of this step is awareness of the importance of the personal values of education, which involves individually motivated attitude of the individual to his education.
Keywords: Goals of teacher educationvaluesthe quality of teacher educationnew strategies in teacher educationevaluation of development of personality of the teachercompetence of the teacher in goal context
In the study, the results of which formed the basis of this article, the authors proceeded from the fact that the last two decades in Russia, not only scientists, but also teacher practices are constantly discussing the problems of changing the goals of teacher education. There are many reasons for this, so the debate about the crisis of the system of pedagogical education do not cease even for a single year. Among the main reasons for this crisis, researchers name the following: change the values of the social system (relative to the period of Russia's entry into the USSR), the rapid change of the outlook on life of the younger generation relative to their parents, values dissonance and training of students, reducing the motivation of students to receive classical forms of education, commercialization of the system of additional education of children and adults, the pervasive cultural development formalized performance in the education system, the explosive development of information and communication technologies (ICT). In reality it is a wider variability through the rejection of regulation of content of school education at the federal level, the growth of cynicism in teaching and student environments, accelerating "taken to run" the content of education, the growth of fragmentation of the teacher and the student, the devaluation of spiritual and moral values of man, the dominance of the ideals of Western rational civilization.
Thus, systemic changes in the external education environment and changes of internal relations of students, teachers, and parents require systemic changes in teacher education, the main structural components of the system of pedagogical education: objectives, content, forms and methods of training teachers (Miller & Taylor, 1993; Campos, 2004).
The goals of teacher education affect the sense of the quality of teacher education. Therefore, the authors attempt to find the answer for the question: whereto and why should the Russian pedagogical education strive considering a constantly changing external conditions.
Question 1: Is it necessary to perform the transition to continuous an individualized teacher education, in contrast to the system of mass education?
Question 2: What should be the focus of the purpose of updating teacher education?
Purpose of the Study
The main goal of the study is to determine where and why should strive the Russian pedagogical education in a constantly changing external conditions.
The object of the research
The object of the research conducted by the Department of technology and vocational education of the Academy of social controls in 2015-2016, were made by young teachers and teacher students at the age from 18 to 35 years old (total surveyed just over 500 people) from 34 regions of the Russian Federation.
The empirical base of the research
Empirical base of the study allowed highlighting the subjectively positive attitudes of young teachers to the changes and subjective upward professional mobility. It was fixed on the basis of subjective evaluations of changes in the teaching structure when answering the question about changes over the past five years. Based on the answers to these questions, we identified three types of subjective positive momentum in the relationship of young teachers for change: professional status (category); professional development; increasing professional status and professional qualifications.
There was revealed the effect of settlement type on teacher mobility. Least of all people who reported educational mobility in rural areas (83% immobile), a significantly higher level of mobility in megacities like Moscow and St. Petersburg (35% immobile). In Metropolitan areas especially high part of occupational mobility – 37%, (in the regional centers it was 15%). Part combining different types of mobility is higher among residents of big cities (23%), the village of these two times less. Gender differences had been marked – men and women are almost equally represented in all groups, although it can be noted that professional status was more marked for men and qualification for women. In the group that combines both types of mobility, representation is almost the same.
The study of problem
According to our estimates the public in mass pedagogical consciousness (up to 70-75 % of the teaching staff) is not accustomed the idea that the existing education does not meet the needs of post-industrial society and innovative economy, and does not meet the latest achievements of science and technology, primarily ICT. Parents of students (according to our estimates, up to 90 %) exist in the paradigm "as we have learned, can learn and our children".
Young teachers like a mantra, recite slogans of ensuring the innovativeness of the pedagogical process (92%); social needs of society (87%); openness of the education system (85%) and variability of educational content (90 %); compliance with the requirements of global competition (78 %). Thus the question: "In what way? » offers the most incredible arrangements. Although at the state level, in official documents, made quite specific proposals on the mechanisms needed to implement the new functions of education. This integration of learning and productive sphere, stimulating creativity, leadership and initiative, expanding organizational diversity and individual access to resources, education, focus on education throughout life and, as a consequence, the individualization of educational trajectories, the rejection of the culture of learning, creating a culture of productivity, creativity, innovation, dynamic configuration of the formed competences under a rapidly changing demand and production, a fundamental change in the role and tasks of teachers, the introduction of new technologies in education, including ICT, transparency, interaction with all social institutions of society, reducing the role of the state in education (Campos, 2004).
The young teachers recognize that there is no strategic outcome and strategic goal of the new system of Russian education (67%). They don't see a real qualitative change (73%), transformation to a fundamentally new solution of contemporary problems (81%).
The consolidation of pedagogical universities and schools regarded as quantitative rather than qualitative changes (91%), leading to the extensive, not intensive development (54%).
We were not able to see in the expectations of young teachers that when occurring in the system of teacher education reforms will be resolved in an evolutionary, value, mental problems of Russian education.
What happens to the quality of teacher education?
The interviewed young teachers in the oral debate agree that the issue of "quality education" today is the key. Recognize that as soon as change the meaning and purpose in the educational space of the school, the old (established) quality of teacher education becomes unusable (64%).
At this stage of the analysis of the quality of education it was important to determine the understanding of the goals and values of teacher education. If the changes taking place in Russia are within the established values of modern technically advanced civilization, we should rely on these values and save them. If we consider the announced information society as a simple transitional stage to a new type of civilization development, it is reasonable to proceed to a radical revision of the current fundamental values of teacher education. Different evaluation of these changes involves the different goals of teacher education and the strategies of development of educational space in general.
Most young teachers (62 %) accept the traditional paradigm of teacher education which is based on the idea of a conservative, sparing the functions of educational space. Is important to convey to students the cultural heritage, knowledge, and skills, now and competence, ideals and values that contribute to creative personal development and maintaining social predictability companies (Bates, 2005). The content of education both at school and at the pedagogical University should be based on time-tested values, established knowledge and skills.
Rationalist paradigm of teacher education, relevant scientific and technological type of civilization, taking 24% of young teachers. They agree that teacher training content of teacher education should not be standard. It is important to form a "behavioral repertoire" and effective skills of "assigning" student’s teacher’s wide range of knowledge and competences ("measured units of behavior" by R. Meijer).
Approximately 50 % of respondents believe that globalization has degenerated not in equal dialogue original cultures, but in the imposition of modern ideals of consumer society and Western values on other cultures. As a result, the youth take selfishness, individualistic morality; family ties impaired, a growing number of promiscuous extramarital and same-sex relationships, there is an increasing trend to depopulation and immorality.
All of this moves us to talk about what you need to see the emergence of new (in relation to traditional and rationalist) stage of development of pedagogical education (Blackmore, 2002). In its framework will have to solve environmental and other global problems that were generated by previous scientific and technological development. Deeper in relationship with nature to consider the human factor, information and human creativity, to move on to the dominance of intangible assets, it is reasonable to limit the unrestrained growth of material and energy consumption, to increase information consumption. It is time to talk about the anthropocentric stage of development of pedagogical education (the basic idea, which is the presence of the human dimension in any knowledge about nature, society and in the knowledge).
Anthropocentric stage of development of pedagogical education will require a major spiritual transformation, a revision of the already established youth teachers of Russia rationalist values. There are already seen the seeds of new ideals for teacher education: a nonviolent strategy, the value of individual freedom, the necessary reliance on the principles of environmental ethics and scientific rationality. A critical component of this step is awareness of the importance of the personal values of education, which involves individually motivated attitude of the individual to his education.
Consequently, the educational environment of Russia for the training of teachers should be substantially amended targets humanitarian component in the broadest sense, focusing on philosophical knowledge. Unfortunately, there is a reverse process.
Assessment of the quality of education of the teacher then is carried out through comparison of the extent to which comprehensive result of teacher education meets, first and foremost, values, and, as a consequence, conditions, standards and requirements (Codd, 2005).
As soon as it comes to the quality of teacher education from the point of view of its goals, a dominant position has the student, designed to consciously strive towards them (Kennedy, 2007). The goals of teacher education inevitably affects the understanding of the quality of teacher education, which itself depends on the interests, risks and success of the student teacher.
Summing up we can say that the upgrading of teacher education inevitably requires an awareness of new goals, the development and introduction of educational standards aimed at obtaining a new quality of pedagogical education in the new civilization configuration.
Today we can say that, as a minimum, it is necessary to ensure the availability of quality services teacher education and professional development, using deep target, structural and technological modernization, the transition to continuous an individualized teacher education, in contrast to the system of mass education, characteristic of the industrial economy. Certainly relevant is the strengthening of the humanitarian component of teacher education, a departure from the rationalist direction, and a focus on values anthropocentric stage of development of pedagogical education.
The purpose of updating teacher education should focus on the transition from the utilitarian and pragmatic teacher education which is directed mainly on knowledge, skills and competences to the humanistic and pedagogical education in the development of the personality of the teacher. Humanistic teacher education, when implemented, will ensure the formation of humanistically oriented personality of the student. In addition, it is important that the personality of the teacher was accepted as the natural task of maintaining a high level of readiness for mobility, their social and occupational functions in a dynamically changing environment.
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18 December 2019
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Cognitive theory, educational equipment, educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), psycholinguistics
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Kalney, V., & Shishov, S. (2019). A View Of The Change In The Objectives Of Teacher Education. In S. B. Malykh, & E. V. Nikulchev (Eds.), Psychology and Education - ICPE 2017, vol 33. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 156-161). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.12.16