The Transformation Of Terms Of Modern Education Based On The Continuity Principle

Abstract

The large-scale processes of renewal of Russian education and a new look of the education system calls for the necessity to addressing conceptual and terminological issues. The article highlights the need to consider the phenomenon of continuity in the formation of a conceptual and terminological system in education. The authors single out the common and specific factors that influence the development of the conceptual and terminological system through the analysis of the Russian and foreign literature on the problems of development of education and glossary of terms for pedagogy. They refer to a completed manuscript of the "Addition to the Encyclopaedia of professional education" (ISRO RAO, 2016). The introduction of the new terms and withdrawal from traditional vocabulary the obsolete ones is connected with controversial processes of globalisation. The authors consider as examples processes of origin and transformation of terms and their definitions which are widely used in the theory and practice of the continuous professional education today: craft education, corporate training, cluster, media education.

Keywords: Termcraft educationlifelong learningclustercorporate educationmedia education

Introduction

The process of gaining, transferring, transforming and learning from social experience, along with the learning process, has an important place in the education system. It is based on the principle of continuity. The adherence to the principle of continuity is the pillar of creating the necessary conditions that will ensure the constant updating of knowledge, which is required today and in the future and will help to become familiar with the professional terminology, which is used in academic circles, to a considerable degree. Thus, it may be argued that the phenomenon of continuity has been and still remains a key factor in the development of modern education system, and it plays an important role in the formation of modern conceptual and terminological system.

The relevance of addressing conceptual and terminological issues is dictated by large-scale processes of renewal of Russian education and a new look of the education system. It presupposes the emergence of the new specialised vocabulary and the need for its scientific interpretation in order to make it unequivocal and suitable for use in professional activity of experts.

Research Questions

At the moment, the terminological issues are numerous and diverse, they are being addressed both in Russia (Bolshaya Rossiyskaya Enciklopediya, 2016; Fedorov, 2010; Lobanov, 2004; Lomakina, Yakovleva, 2015; Lomakina, Peshkov, Novikov, 1999; Moskovskaya deklaraciya, 2013; Multimedia v shkole: spravochnik, 1994; Polonskiy, 2001) and abroad (Council of Europe, 1977; Fernig, 1980; Iljon, 1974; Lauterman, Lazarescu, 1980; National Institute of Education, 1999; Lam, Park, 2016).

In Russia, terminology as a science in its own right first appeared in 1931, which was closely connected with the publication of the first conceptual article by Lotte on the problems of the unification and standardisation of technical terminology, "Immediate tasks of scientific technical terminology." Linguist and academician Vinokur (1939) continued the work on the solution to this problem by publishing the article "Some phenomena of word formation in Russian technical terminology”. This publication made it possible to highlight the formation and development of Russian terminological school that combines logical, linguistic and philosophical approaches. The problem in question is definition and verification of the newly introducing terms connected with continuity in the sphere of education.

Purpose of the Study

The precise and unambiguous nature of conceptual terminological framework is of particular importance for pedagogy since it helps to analyse and design various theoretical models, explain the phenomena of the learning and nurturing processes, and highlight the prospects of development of education. This issue is becoming particularly relevant today, when education system is constantly being modernized and its certain aspects are being reformed (the restructuring of the chain of educational organizations, the reorganization of general and vocational schools, the implementation of federal and regional standards, etc.), there is free access to domestic and foreign information, an opportunity to cooperate and interact with scientists and educational organizations of different countries. These processes have led to the emergence of new terms, while the content of previously used ones has modified. The purpose of this study is to single out the common and specific factors influencing the development of the conceptual and terminological system on the problems of development of education.

Research Methods

Approach to the definition of conceptual terminological system of a new concept that is generally accepted in pedagogy (Bezrukova, Makhmutov, Novikov and others.) involves: tracing back the origin of the main term of conceptual terminological system and conducting vocabulary analysis; confirming scientific validity of the concept’s content, measuring the comprehensiveness of the definition and determining the word-stock of conceptual terminological system - the derivatives formed from the base of the terms and concepts used in the theory of pedagogy and in the development of education systems.

Findings

The development of the conceptual and theoretical system of Russian vocational education with regards to the transformation of terms and their definitions in the conditions of the new postindustrial pedagogy is connected with an interplay of theory and practice of vocational education, which combines the world of work and education. The key factors in the development of education terms are globalisation, diversification and educational processes of integration. Specific factors that deal with vocational education are as following: standardisation of the educational program, the extending rights of educational institutions; the development of the partnership, reorganisation of educational systems and the development of the system of lifelong learning.

In Roman mythology, the term is regarded as the "the deity of confines... which is to clearly define a notion and its relation to other notions within the confines of this or that particular area" (Bolshaya Rossiyskaya Enciklopediya, 2016, p. 69). In this respect, the process of forming conceptual terminological framework is of social contract, or conventional, nature, which is connected with normative acts and the question of standardisation, the development of educational programs and conditions for their implementation (Bykova, 2014). Practice is the source of innovative trends; it is usually the first to address the urgent demands of society development, either by introducing new terms and notions or by modifying the existing ones, updating their meaning in a new fashion. With that said, the new terminology needs a comprehensive scientific and pedagogical analysis, while, as V.M. Polonskiy (2001) noted, ‘we should avoid by any means a situation when there is no new content to this new terminology’.

The emergence of new terms and withdrawal from traditional vocabulary is also connected with controversial processes of globalisation, when English phraseology, being most accepted in the world, is becoming one of the most popular means of academic and pedagogical communication. Taking into consideration the growing terminological expansion in the conditions of globalisation and integration of Russian education in international education space, methodological base and an Addition to the "Encyclopaedia of professional education" were developed. The latter reflects modern state of a conceptual and terminological system in the area (Lomakina, Yakovleva, 2015). Terms and their definitions were selected following such principles as information should be comprehensive, statements should be organised, academic, unbiased, factual and trustworthy. This provides for a considerably comprehensive interpretation of terms and their definitions; helps to correlate semantically and logically the terms and definitions with the systematic principle of subordination; reveal the fundamental nature of theoretical basis of lifelong professional education, practical forms and ways of their implementation through the content of terms; ensure the consistency between the content and the accepted notions of vocational education. Thus, the following functions of the Addition were fulfilled:

interpretative - it is represented in articles by explaining the terms in the author's wording or in the form borrowed from other sources;

reference - it helps to understand nuances of the term under consideration with the help of additional information;

worldview - provides for the development of scientific worldview in the particular field on the basis of encyclopaedic information;

information-regulatory - broadens knowledge in the field of state acts and laws.

In the work, the origins and transformation of more than 200 terms widely used in the system of professional education are considered in detail.

Quite frequently, terms are ahead of the actual emergence of this or that field of scientific knowledge. For example, the terms "lifelong education" and "lifelong professional education" came into scientific and general use way before these research areas been institutionalised.

The term craft and related terms craft activities, craft apprenticeship, craft education (Romancev, Efanov, 2016) have a long history since it is the earliest form of social organisation of manufacturing process. Craft production has come a long way and has influenced the formation of social institutions and social relations while transforming in line with the periods of social division of labour. The scope of definitions in specialised literature is covering the features of craft from presenting it as repetitive, routine work to the activity similar to art. At the moment, craft activity is a legitimised type of vocational activity, and the related terminology is used in the legal and regulatory environment by subjects of international and domestic trade. This terminology is also used by the leading structures of the UN and WTO.

In Russia, craft apprenticeship, which was, in fact, the first form of organising vocational training of the youths, was developed at the end of the 17th century and existed until the early 20th century. Craft apprenticeship, which was based on the close relationship between the manufacturing and pedagogical components of learning, was obtaining features of the pedagogical process that included elements of nurturing so that the learners were mastering both social and legal provisions, as well as professional skills. As a result, the institution of craft education was developed, existing as a form of vocational training that exercises training of skilled workers in the field of trade.

Craft education went through the several stages of organizational forms - from factory-apprenticeship schools (FZU) at the beginning of the 20th century to vocational, or trade, schools in the 1940-1950s, which provided for mass training of qualified workers necessary for industry, including arms industry, and later they were reorganized to professional technical schools (PTU). Since the middle of the 1990s, at the new stage of the development of craft education in Russia, training was implemented through integrated education programs of two-level education - primary and secondary vocational education. In the last few years theoretical and methodological framework of vocational craft, education was formed, and legal and regulatory framework was developed for the institutionalization of craft activity and craft education.

Nowadays, however, social and economic demands for handicrafts industry in general and for craft education, in particular, are getting more prominent. It is conditioned by the fact that there is a rise in a number of small craft enterprises, individual entrepreneurs and a growth of self-employment among a population, which need special attention and support from social and state institutions, including the system of vocational education.

Therefore, there is the need to modernise and renovate educational programs, which should be supplemented by the corresponding modules and competencies focused on the development of professionally important qualities of a craftsman. Basically, we are talking about the creation of a new branch of vocational education, but this new area is addressed by a long used term – craft education. Thus, in terms of the conceptual and terminological system, the transformation that took place consists in the fact that the familiar term is filled with new content.

In the field of vocational education connected with the training and professional development of industry workers, training of mid-level professionals in a particular field of industry activity, there are such terms as corporate training and education, corporate vocational training, corporate network of lifelong professional education (Novikov, 2013). Here, the term corporation happens to be the new semantic element, which is typically used to define a body of people, joined by a common goal and forming a legal entity. In this sense, the above-mentioned terms refer to the sum of educational structures and training programs of enterprises, companies that are designed to create industry needs in skilled workers and specialists for the successful functioning and development of financial and industrial components of customer corporation.

The peculiarities of corporate education and training lie in the development of behaviour rules and moral principles of workers, skills of being responsive to any innovative changes in industry and industrial relations , as well as to emerging educational needs and demands of the company, for example, the reduction of adaptation period and the training of new employees for a professional activity in a particular organization.

The term cluster and its derivatives date back to the cusp of the 90s of the last century and are widely used in Economics to define a group of interconnected and complementary business entities, scientific research institutions and educational organization, concentrated in a certain area, that are in a relationship of functional dependence in the process of production and realization of goods and services in a particular field.

Analysis of literature in pedagogy (Danilov, Lukyanova, 2014; Bykova, 2014; Lomakina, Yakovleva, 2015; Sokolova, 2014; Esenina, 2016) shows that such terms like education cluster, scientific-educational cluster, as well as their unity with the term innovation, identify current trends in lifelong professional education. In addition, there is a good reason to assume that the concept of a corporate network of lifelong professional education is also used in the scope of these terms, its main issue being the organisation of interaction between corporate training structures and state system of vocational education.

It should be pointed out that at the present moment the term education innovation cluster is, in fact, a synonym to the new model of Russian education that presupposes a systematic consolidation of various organisations with a view to using the advantages of cluster cooperation.

In the twentieth century, the system of teaching aids was developed in such a way that the textbook was the core of the system and served as the basis for the study of science. Additional teaching aids (posters, educational films, slides, records, exercise books, etc.), necessary for solving particular learning objectives, were developed with respect to the textbook. Later, the book and audiovisual media were replaced by digital media that create their own media environment, in which the work with the content, presentation and information resources is computer-based. Filmstrips, slide films, and educational films were replaced by media presentations and video clips.

In the pedagogical community, there is no common understanding of the way media environment should be organised for educational purposes. Therefore, the conceptual framework is in a state of constant transformation - a huge number of new terms is introduced, many of them are borrowed from other fields for no good reason, and more often than not the meaning of the concept is changed. For an instance, in 1994 the term "new information technologies" was introduced. Today it stands for information and communication, computer, telecommunication, media, and digital technologies.

It is worth mentioning that in translation there is a shift of meaning in terminology. For example, “media education” is changed to “media literacy” in English-speaking countries, to “media pedagogy” (Medien paedagogic) in German-speaking ones, and stays the same in French- and Spanish-speaking countries (Sokolova, 2014). The three terms are understood differently by us:

- media literacy – «the result of the process of media education» (Multimedia v shkole: spravochnik,1994);

- media pedagogy – «the study of media education and media literacy that reveals the patterns of personal development in the process of media education (Multimedia v shkole: spravochnik,1994);

- media education is connected with all types of media (print and visual, audio, digital, etc.) and with various technologies, provides an opportunity to evaluate the use of mass communication in the society, to master the user’s ability while communicating with other people. All of the above provides for the development of skills, such as 1) analyzing, judging and creating media texts; 2) determining the source of media texts, their political, social, business and/or cultural interests, their context; 3) interpreting media texts and underlying values; 4) selecting a relevant media for creating and distributing your own media texts and for getting an audience 5) gaining free access to media both for perceiving it and for producing.

Nowadays it is highly recommended to introduce media education into national curriculum of every country, into the system of an adult, non-formal and lifelong education (Moskovskaya deklaraciya, 2013).

In 2013 UNESCO introduced the new term “media and information literacy» (MIL), which is defined as the level of information competencies that enable the learner to access information and knowledge, analyze, evaluate, use, create and share them in the most effective manner in accordance with legal, ethical principles and human rights. Therefore, MIL is the result of media education, which is essential for personal, social, educational and professional activity (Terminologicheskiy slovar, 2016).

The analysis of terms and definitions made it possible to single out several groups.

The first group of notions combines means, tools and forms of learning. These are mass media, social media, media technologies, media education technologies, information, text, media text, information resources, information education resources, information technologies, information and communication technologies, telecommunications, distance education (as a form of learning), distributed learning, blended learning, etc.

The second group includes conditions that influence personal development: information space, information environment, information and education environment, media environment, media educational environment.

The third group describes the level of knowledge and skills in the field at hand, which is: media literacy, media education, media and information literacy, information culture, media culture, a media creation.

The fourth groups highlight didactic research area: media education, mainstreaming media education, media pedagogy, computer science, open education, distance education.

The fifth group should include such notions that provide for achieving particular results in media education training: methods of media education, media text's analysis, methods of information perception, media language learning, media criticism, critical thinking, visualizing technologies, methods of journalism, information ethics, information safety, copyright in media environment, media psychology, media agency, media category, media technology, media audience, media representation.

Conclusion

Advances in scientific reason and social practice make it necessary to further develop the language of science, which would express the meaning of a particular term with utmost clarity and univocacy. The whole modern context should be taken into consideration in developing the conceptual terminological framework for pedagogy: the use of the term in academic papers, dissertations; the definitions that the existing pedagogical encyclopaedias and dictionaries provide. It is important in terms of professional competence of workers, for whom language skills in a particular science could be a measure of the level of teachers' and researchers' qualification. Moreover, it is important to regulate conceptual and terminological framework of Russian pedagogy so that the country could step into international education space, which is accounted for by the fact that there are considerable differences between Russian and foreign conceptual systems.

Examples under consideration show that:

  • pedagogy uses notions which are addressed simultaneously in this science and in the related scientific fields, as well as in the disciplines that have no connections with pedagogy;

  • the conceptual and terminological framework helps not only to clarify historical and linguistic aspects of the terms and definitions but also provides for the understanding of their place and role in the development of education;

  • world of work and vocational education today form general terminological field that is based on the learning outcomes approach.

Therefore, it can be said that pedagogical vocabulary will continue to be enlarged as long as there are science and practice of education.

Acknowledgement

The work was conducted under the State Assignment of the Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education for 2017-2019 (№ 27.8472.2017/BCh).

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18 December 2019

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Future Academy

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Education, educational equipment, educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), study skills, learning skills, ICT

Cite this article as:

Gudilina, S. I., Lomakina, T. Y., & Yakovleva, M. B. (2019). The Transformation Of Terms Of Modern Education Based On The Continuity Principle. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 28. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 303-311). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.37