Innovations In Foreign Pedagogical Education At The Modern Stage

Abstract

This article contains the analysis of experience gathered from foreign countries and their innovative processes in pedagogical education systems implementation. The article clarifies the primary conditions for innovation and improvement of teaching, i.e. the continuity of basic and additional education, the interrelation of different forms of education and self-education, the optimum answer to the real teachers’ needs on the basis of differentiation, individualization, problematization and education forms and content variability, the combination of the humanitarian preparation and professional pedagogy, the reliance on the modern achievements of the psychological and pedagogical science.This article gives the examples of the coursers for future teachers, notices the tendency to the creation of special innovative organizational structures such as; the Office of Innovation and Improvement at the US Department of Education or special educational committees at the regional levels.The preparation of teacher-researcher implies the realization of the fact, “the teacher is not only a knowledge user, but also a knowledge producer for himself/herself”. The primary condition for an effective teacher preparation is teaching practice at schools which is considered as one of the main components of teaching preparation process. The innovative forms of pedagogical education appears and functions as a flexible structure which responds to the situation requirements both in the education and market systems. Such ability of a flexible response to the changing society is a creative and developing factor for the appearance of new innovative forms of the pedagogical education.

Keywords: Pedagogical educationinnovationsforeign experienceteaching practicetutorship

Introduction

Just as the society changes, so the paradigm of education undergoes significant changes. If previously the main aim of training was the mastery of a certain amount of knowledge, nowadays the development of thinking, mind and personal qualities of students by means of a specific training subject is at the forefront. Thus, personality-oriented pedagogy puts the person, his/her values, personal liberty, the ability to control and predict his/her own life first. The main objective of teachers should be the organization of student's activities for independent mastering of knowledge and ways of working (Solovyanuk, 2009). The twenty-first century’s conditions of human existence urgently require an expeditious transition to a new strategy of the society development based on the widespread use of knowledge and information as strategic resources development, as well as high-performance technologies as the main tools of this development. That is the reason for recent clear realization of the increasing role of education in the process of further development of civilization in the world scientific community. The education system is perceived as a strategic factor to the survival of civilization at that. Special attention is paid to the problems of development of pedagogical education, its goals and values (Sokolov, Kolesnikov, 2016).

Currently, the students are demanding that Universities form such skills as critical thinking and analysis. Such skills as fast reading and assimilation of materials, the ability to give convincing arguments through mass media provide adjustment for the flexible labour market. At the same time, various reforms of the established system of education developed in the past century are being carried in many countries of the world. The socio-economic issues are at the forefront now (Sokolov, Kolesnikov, 2016). In the strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020 one of the main tasks of innovative development of the country is the creation of conditions for the formation of citizens competencies for innovation activities. According to this document the competencies of innovative activity are manifested in the following properties:

- the ability and readiness for continuous formation, constant perfection, retraining and self-education;

- the ability to critical thinking;

- the ability and willingness to reasonable risk;

- creativity and initiative;

- ability to work independently;

- willingness to work in a team and in a highly competitive environment;

- knowledge of foreign languages, involving the ability for professional training ( www.garant.ru).

Problem Statement

Nowadays forecasting of the development of pedagogical education is an urgent task in all countries.Issues relating to teachers are exacerbated in education policy because of the teachers concern about the future of their profession with no regard for whether they are young or experienced teachers and whether they are fully appreciated in their profession. Enthusiasm and morale of today's teachers have an important influence on the future training of teachers. There are a number of problems in this area:

- concern about the attractiveness of teaching as a career;

- concern about the image and status of the teacher, i.e. teachers often feel that their work is undervalued;

- concern about the development of knowledge of teachers and their abilities. Almost all countries have expressed concern about the existing lack of knowledge of teachers who do not meet the requirements of the new school, about professional development of teachers, which is determined not only by their basic education. Many countries lack systematic programs of introduction to the profession for teachers-beginners;

- concern about the imperfect system of teachers selection at schools, schools often do not have direct involvement in the appointment of teachers;

- the problem of retaining effective teachers at schools. Teachers complain of overwork, exertion, express dissatisfaction with work and lack of efficiency of teaching. In most countries, there are very limited funds for teachers’ fees;

- concern about "aging" of teachers (Sokolov, Kolesnikov, 2016).

Research Questions

The experience of foreign education institutions can be useful and instructive, provided that the local conditions, mentality and traditions are taken under consideration. The world and the education system which are inextricably bound up with society are dynamically changing. The personality of the teacher has always been and remains the center of attention of scientists and researchers throughout the existence of human civilization. Quintilian, Socrates, Plato and many other thinkers have written about teachers and their essential qualities. Now matter permanent changes happening along with the shift of the paradigms of education the person of the teacher always remains as the central figure in the educational space. "The teacher of all Russian teachers" Ushinsky would emphasize: “Education should be based on the personality of the teacher, because the educational power generates only from the living source of the human personality. Neither the statutes, programs nor an artificial body of the institution, no matter how delicate it might be organized, can replace the personality in education” (Ushinsky, 1941). For this reason the training of teachers and their present inherent immanent qualities are of great importance. This is due to the society and education system reorganization. In the context of the stated theme, it is essential to refer to the experience of the foreign countries and their systems of pedagogical education, where efforts at innovative processes development and implementation have always been made.

Purpose of the Study

An American psychologist, R. Gersberg, found that the real motives of teaching are the variety of work, independence, professional development, realization of the importance of teacher’s activity, the wealth of social relationships, etc (Smirnov, 2003).

The new thinking is characterized by the following features:

- the multiplicity and heterogeneity of truths;

- contextualization of the knower (the inclusion of self-reflection);

- pluralism, meaning the equality of truths.

The system of knowledge should be a heterogenesis-chaos and order which consists not in the reduction to a common basis, but in the generation of diversity (Deleuze). Different thinking is a means of an "open" identity formation. Permanent world redescription (Jacques Luc-Nancy) becomes the form of manifestation and a means of creative thinking development (Sokolov, Kolesnikov, 2016).

The development of the teacher profiles is also required. Countries need to have clear and concise regulations, which describe what teachers know and are able to do, and these teacher profiles should be used both in pedagogy and school systems. Teacher profiles should cover the area of teacher’s required essential knowledge, pedagogical abilities, and indications of effectiveness in working with different learners and colleagues which are aimed at assistance at schools, professional development and career growth of teachers. In this case, a more flexible system of teacher education is to provide more ways of introduction to the profession at different levels.

The system of teachers training should be based on ties with schools, including the direct support to teachers at the early stages of their careers (Sokolov, Kolesnikov, 2016). The results of the study by M. Hergen showed that teachers experience during the first years of their professional activity significantly determined the course of their career.

Many indicators of professional development of the teacher testify that they depend on the beliefs of teachers, relationships, biography, experience and flexible context perception (Sokolov, Kolesnikov, 2016).

The foreign scientists say that one of the indicators of the modern education system is the existence of two special units in future teachers training. The first one develops the ability to create information, to simulate the processes of information search and checking the results, etc., the second one trains to plan a curriculum by teachers themselves (Belyaeva, 2006).

The main content of the priority traditional and innovative strategies to improve pedagogical activity of teachers In the U.S. is as follows:

- more correspondence of education system with the needs of society;

- orientation of teachers to continuous quality education improvement;

- intensification of teaching activity by increasing technologization of education;

- more successful socialization of teachers;

-humanization of teaching activity by means of a thorough study and consideration of interests and needs of the student;

-increase the creative component in teaching activity (Belyaeva, 2006).

In light of the education technologization increase the important criteria are considered to be those which teaching methods, training of students, pedagogical training for teachers and innovation development in educational institutions are based on, namely:

- the information quality;

- whether the multimedia context motivates;

- whether the multimedia contains a variety of tools for presentation and analysis of this information;

- the degree of interactivity;

- the possibility of establishing or changing the system of pedagogical methods by means of these tools.

In teacher training these components represent different approaches to professional training of teachers:

- interest in the various techniques and methods (information);

- the exchange of practical experience;

- the increase of motivation and values of pedagogical activity;

- seminars, experimental activities;

- the interaction in the group during projects scenario;

- the stimulation of projects.

This approach arouses interest not for the fact that it contributes to only one method unlike others, but for its capability to put together the parts of the puzzle of professional training of teachers into a unity (Lebrun, 2004).

The association Syn Lab which has been working with Higher School of Teachers and Education (ESPE- Ecoles Supérieures du Professorat et de l'Education) in the school district of Créteil (France) since 2014 offers the following program of the module "Introduction to pedagogical innovations” for master's degree.

The aim of the module is to make students realize the fact that pedagogy is the subject of consideration, "discussions", that it is not monolithic, it can develop. Thus, the module helps students to see their profession in the future.

The module.

The module is on the electronic platform of МООC and is divided into 5 subjects:

- creation of a positive, creative and friendly climate in the class;

- interaction in the class;

- the involvement of students in awareness of the meaning of teaching;

- the increase of students’ attention and concentration;

- stimulation of creativity and design thinking discovery.

Every module has theoretical support for research into the Educational Sciences on the topic of study:

- analysis of specific cases, in which discussion the module participants can take part, statements of teachers and experts, and a variety of practical teaching tools.

Students get acquainted with the contents of the module in advance, and then use this knowledge or tools in their classes, changing the elements of their behavior. Each full-time class in Higher School of Teachers and Education is to get back, analyze the experience in pairs, look at it from the outside, use the additional resources on the part of the Methodists and members of the Association Syn Lab ( www.syn-lab.fr).

Both foreign and Russian scientists single out the following basic conditions for the improvement and innovation of pedagogical activity of the teacher:

- the continuity of basic and additional education;

- the interaction between different forms of education and self-education;

- the optimum answer to the real teachers’ needs on the basis of differentiation, individualization, problematization and education forms and content variability;

- the combination of the humanitarian preparation and professional pedagogy;

- the reliance on the modern achievements of the psychological and educational science (Churikova, 2001).

Innovation has become an important member of the modern pedagogical education, along with the process and result. Innovations in education are considered as new significant and systematically self-organizing forms that appear on the basis of initiatives and innovations diversity which become prospective for the evolution of education and influence its development and the development of a broader multicultural space of education positively. The innovative process is understood as an activity of novelties creation, development, usage and distribution. UNESCO distinguishes two types of innovations: global (for the whole education system) and partial (in different types of schools or subjects). The most important characteristics of innovation processes are the criteria for their effectiveness: relevance, usefulness, practicability (Churikova, 2001).

In the detailed article by Polupanova (2007) on innovations in teacher education in the West, it’s clearly seen the following considerations, which we fully share. So the creation of new models of teacher preparation takes place at the crossroads of conflicting directions of unification on the one hand and diversification on the other. Since the end of the twentieth century there have been distinguished two other main directions in the innovation process of the foreign education: intensification and restructuring.

Abroad teachers seek to be taught through "doing", through the experience, in the process of their activity and what most important in our opinion is that they are taught at workplace. It’s considered to be essential that the work of teachers and school staff is in the team, at the stage of the development of partnerships and the participation in collegial tutorship.

It’s worthwhile noticing that there are qualification improvement courses for school administrators, which are viewed abroad as the leaders of the process of innovations implementations. At the same time the tendency to the creation of the special innovative organizational structures such as The Office of Innovation and Improvement at the US Department of Education or special educational committees at the regional level is increasing abroad as well as new posts which provide supervision of innovative developments and their implementation at universities are being created.

We would like to emphasize that we consider the following core courses which represent the professional component of teachers training to be very important for the American future teacher:

"Formation of a professional", "Constructivist reflective model”, “Teachers engaged in the development," "A student who studies all his life ", "Skillful and reflective teacher", "Teacher as a catalyst for the successful development of the information society", "Teacher as an active learner and a person who takes decisions”, “Teacher as an active leader in the multicultural society", " Thinking, involved, and collaborating teachers ".

Thus, we can affirm that the foreign researchers realize the necessity for the formation of the 3rd millennium teacher as a constant student who coordinates his/her own professional career with nowadays challenges and demands as well as the permanently changing market requirements. It proves the fact that the conception of education during a lifetime has become the main one in the system of continuous pedagogical education and improvement of teacher’s qualification.

It should be noted that more than two decades ago the foreign scientists came to the understanding that future teachers should be involved in research activities. Similar motifs are decisive for students of German universities. In close connection with interest in the future profession the desire for mastering a certain amount of experience and knowledge in terms of future professional work is increasing. German students prefer to achieve this during scientific research activities.

In France much attention is paid to the use of scientific knowledge in professional practice. Higher School of Teachers and Education (L'ESPE) strives to enhance future teachers professional practice with learning of skills in scientific research for education systems.

In terms of the difficulties future teachers (interns) have in establishing connection between research in education and their practical professional activities as interns, a project has been developed aimed at the interconnection between these two parameters of professional teachers training.

Methodology is of great importance for teachers. According to the scientists it involves the following:

-understanding of the methodological principles of pedagogy and expertise in using them;

-understanding of the methodological content and the experience of teaching of the science, its current problems and prospects of development, its place in the system of Sciences and in the system of the formation of theoretical thinking and professional abilities of a future specialist;

-ability to turn the methodological content and the content of science into expertise of a future specialist, the factor of the development of his/her thinking, scientific outlook and attitude to life;

- knowledge of methods of activating and developing the intellectual, educational, vocational and social activities, direct influence on the formation of the spiritual values of a future specialist.

Nowadays expertise in methodology is to keep up with demand. This especially concerns those teachers whose teaching should be considered as a unity with their research work. It’s not for nothing that in 1955 the famous German educationalist H. Loman came to the fundamental conclusion: "The teacher can't teach to teach, if he hasn’t studied the methodology"(Ratner, 1999).

The preparation of teacher-researcher implies the realization of the fact, “the teacher is not only a knowledge user, but also a knowledge producer for himself/herself”. In relation to this the appearance of action research concept is of great importance (Polupanova, 2007).

TALIS-2013 (Teaching and Learning International Survey) was conducted in 2013 (Pinskaya, Ponomareva, Kosaretsky, 2016). On the basis of the data obtained in this study, the foreign scientists came to the conclusion that future teacher training is at the root of the problems faced by young teachers as it lacks some important components. First of all they pointed out lack both of continuity of theoretical training and practicals, and Universities and schools.

The primary condition of an effective teacher preparation is teaching practice at schools during education. For example, the US National Research Council defines this practice as one of the main components of teachers preparation during which they gain such essential professional competence as skills in class management and mastering of assessment tools and data assessment analysis methods. It’s noted that future foreign teachers spend less time on the study of the content of the subject; they are more occupied with teaching methodology and practice, which abroad lasts for more than a year. During the practice the aim of development and approbation of the innovative methods, techniques and the fulfillment of independent research is set. The development of analytical and research skills is considered to be the basis of training in Finland and China. Moreover, tutorship is common and widely used abroad, there is a special institution of tutors. Within from six months to two years graduates have the so-called period of entering the profession when they are under the supervision of experienced tutors and go through a stage of “refinement” or take additional courses that extend the capabilities of specialization. These courses are characterized by the multidisciplinary approach, practice orientation and participation in multidisciplinary projects.

In the UK, for example, "The Professional Development Organization (Association)" is a form of professional “refinement” of young professionals. Lawyers, architects, pharmacists and representatives of other professions work under expert guidance of a member of a professional association for the first year. Then he/she can become a member of the Association, too (Ratner, 1999).

A number of young teachers who go through an official stage of adaptation and practice are significantly larger abroad than in Russia. Du ring the survey one-third of young Russian teachers said that they had a mentor, which is much lower than abroad (Matushevskaya, 2000). In Canada, for example, the proportion is more than 80%; in the Netherlands, Australia and Japan it’s more than 90% while in Singapore 100% of young teachers go through this official stage of adaptation. (Pinskaya, Ponomareva, Kosaretsky, 2016).

Research Methods

Methods of professional pedagogical training of students depend on the choice of the priority competencies that are correlated with a particular paradigm of professional pedagogical training. The “dogmatic” or “expositive” methods which are based only on the technique of content presentation are increasingly giving way to “active methods”, when the teacher seeks to involve the learner in the learning process with the help of modeling, role-playing and other methods. The range of competencies is very wide. Priority competencies are those which improve didactical and epistemological knowledge as well as disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge, competencies aimed at realization of practical activity, analysis of its effectiveness, and innovative tools creation. The paradigm of “an active participant in social life” has become of particular importance recently. Its priority competencies are the analysis of “anthroposociology purpose of everyday life” and participation in collective projects, including research and innovation. Pedagogical practice plays a great role in professional pedagogical preparation of future teachers. It contributes to the professionalization of reflective future teachers as situations which might occur during practice are often a very productive starting point for anthropological, sociological, psycho-social analysis.

Findings

Teachers are regarded as professionals in their field, which involves development of independent intellectual activity. Their art and techniques are acquired over a long professional training. The teacher not only controls his/her actions, but also directs his/her own teaching by means of practical analysis of his/her own practice and its results.

In modern conditions the social role of teachers is increasing: the teacher is involved in planning, collective projects, development of common tools for students assessment which require mastering new competencies: the ability to analyze the system which the teacher works in in all its forms (interpersonal, organizational, legislative, political, economic, ideological, etc.), to create plans on the basis of this analysis, introduce and organize their collective implementation. Practice of professional pedagogical training through video provides opportunities for reflection and better understanding of pedagogical situations in order to install a more effective interaction between theory and practice. Evaluation of the effectiveness of professional pedagogical training is one of the most important means of its improvement. Besides formative assessment prevails which pedagogical orientation is strongly emphasized by French scientists. The methodology of assessment correlates with the following components of pedagogical activity: planning lesson objectives, accomplishment of objectives, planning upcoming teacher interaction, adaptability, methods and technology used at lessons, self-analysis aimed at professional education of a future teacher. First years of work at school are momentous for a teacher-beginner since during this period his/her social-psychological adaptation occurs. A new system of professional pedagogical training involves a reasonable combination of theory and practice; it is practice-oriented characteristic contributes to a better professional adaptation of young teachers (Matushevskaya, 2000).

Conclusion

The innovative forms of pedagogical education appears and functions as a flexible structure which responds to the situation requirements both in the education and market systems. Such ability of a flexible response to the changing society is a creative and developing factor for the appearance of new innovative forms of the pedagogical education.

So, the foreign and Russian researchers have come to the conclusion that the teacher is still at the forefront of the educational process. Any reform of education will be ineffective if it’s not supported with the teacher’s eagerness, professionalism and personal qualities.

Acknowledgements

The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.79

Online ISSN

2357-1330