Psychological Counselling In Deviant Behavior: Articulation Of Issue
. The purpose of this study is to conduct a theoretical analysis of domestic and foreign concepts and approaches to the prevention and further correction of deviant behavior. The study reveals the main directions of psychological and social assistance to adolescents. Much attention is paid to prevention and intervention ( rehabilitation) in work with adolescents, of the institutions for the correction of deviant behavior of teenagers. We demonstrate the use of different strategies of working with adolescents: social support, neobhodimogo medical care, legal sanctions, the provision of effective psychological care. Prevention of behavioral disorders in adolescents requires coordinated work of the social and psychological institutions. Conducting effective psychological prevention and correction of deviant behavior chelovekam effectively when the conscious choice and goal setting person. A person must be an opportunity to make a choice, to contemplate the consequences of their decisions, i.e. to organize their own livelihoods within generally accepted norms which ultimately helps reduce existing personality problems as well as help its active socialization.
Keywords: "Deviant behaviourpsychological preventionpsychological intervention"
It should be noted that, unfortunately, there are not only positive but also negative trends taking place today in society (such as changing the way people live, growing class division and related to this conflicts, a growing the number of adverse dysfunctional families, increasing the number of teenagers and a contingent of young people involved in criminal activity and host-prohibited psychotropic substances). What is raising a lot of concern is that a significant proportion of adolescents and young people (and not only from at-risk families) enters informal youth coalitions with antisocial orientations (gangs). The difficult criminogenic situation prompts psychologists psychologists-researchers propose to look for the most productive opportunities and tools for prevention and correction behaviour of adolescents and youth (Akhmetzyanova, 2015, 2016; Biktagirova, 2015; Bryanta & Forsythb, 2012; Burke et al., 2007; Cava et al., 2007; Dalbert & Filke, 2007; Linfoot et al., 1999; Kleyberg, 2001, 2004; Mendelevitch& Makaricheva, 2002; Minullina et al., 2015; Minullina, et al., 2016; Nigmatullina, 2015).
Psychological assistance has two main directions. They are psychological prevention (psycho prophylaxis) and psychological intervention (overcoming, correction) (Cava et al., 2007; Linfoot et al., 1999)..
Despite a large number of studies, there is a significant gap between the theory and real practices of psychological work with deviant children and adolescents. Many of the proposed practical recommendations are focused on changing external manifestations without identifying and correcting the underlying mechanisms of the formation of deviant behavior. They are often built without taking into account specific personal characteristics of deviant children, and do not produce considerable results. The situation is complicated by the presence of a multitude of inconsistent theoretical approaches to the problem of deviant behavior. This work is an attempt to systematize methods of psychological correction and prevention of deviant behavior
Analysis of methods and forms of psychological prevention
The growing problem of ‘crime and punishment’ circle led scientists to consider the solutions for the problem of prevention of criminal behavior. The definition of prevention (prophylaxis) of criminal behavior and various forms of deviations of behavior is considered as the influence of society, institutions of social control and individuals on criminogenic factors which results in desirable social change and reduction in the numbers of deviant actions (Belicheva, 1994; Burke et al., 2007; Dalbert &; Filke, 2007).
Three levels of prevention of deviant behavior are offered in real time:
1. Basic social prevention (this identifies the environment, ecological conditions, social, economic, and political criteria, and standards of living the population for their improvement and harmonization);
2. Special measures of prevention (i.e., the necessary security measures to ensure the impact on groups at risk, address the conditions conducive to deviant manifestations;
3. Individual prevention (Belicheva, 1994).
The directions of general social prevention involve the improvement of living standards; the reduction of the gap between the richest and the poorest.
Special methods of prevention are very different and include installation of security alarm system, on-door speakerphones, psychological and social help directed to numerous risk groups, effective and efficient social policy.
The correct and sole form of prevention involves the interaction with individual adolescents who are registered in the police records as drug users, hooligans etc.
The concept of prevention is more democratic in comparison to severe punishment.
Forms of social control are one of the methods of preventive measures is directed at the immediate social environment of deviant people (the punishment of deviant people, their behaviour correction, motivation and values revaluations etc.). Social control is law enforcement using coercive methods, by various social institutions and organizations which impose organizational or economic sanctions in response to deviant behaviour; alternatively social control may be expressed through public opinion and ostracism (Kleyberg, 2001, 2004).
The following list of eight important determinants that form a system of social control (they have been defined and described from various perspectives (Gilinsky, 2004) in Russian scientific literature):
Individual actions which are taken in the process of active interaction of an individual and his/her social environment.
Significant reaction of society to the actions committed by the individual is determined by objective social scale rating system derived from the important social values of the interests of numerous social groups and society as a whole.
Implementation of actions in relation to a particular category (socially acceptable or disapproved) is the result of the functioning of sociall rating scales.
The categorization of actions depends on the nature of the manifestations of social relations and consciousness, which includes the public a unique self-assessment and the existing assessment of the social group circumstances in which it directly operates (social perception).
Features of the content of social actions, performing the function of positive or negative social sanctions depends on the state of public consciousness.
Relationship and direct response in the form of reaction of the individual on the social impact generated are defined by unique and individual scale estimates obtained from the real system of values and motivational sphere of personality.
Personal self-categorization is the result of the work of their own rating scale (the formation of roles and identification with a specific group of people).
The self-categorization of an individual depends on self-assessment and the assessment of the situation within which this individual takes action (individual understanding and perception). Personal characteristics of individual consciousness determines the individual action which is a reaction to social impact.
Parson J.L. (1990) suggested three methods of social control. These are: is isolation (deviant people get segregated from the rest of society; isolation does not provide opportunities for redemption), separation (implies that a deviant person has very limited contact with other people, however he or she is not fully isolated from society; this allows deviant people to redeem themselves if they demonstrate that are ready to follow the norms of society), rehabilitation (the process of helping deviant people to prepare for the return to a crime-free life and fulfil their roles in society).
It is wrong to take preventive measures only from the standpoint of social control. It is appropriate only in the case when there are deviations in social behaviour, criminal manifestations, as human activities are among his reference group.
Thus, for example in order to stop the process of criminogenic development among people it is necessary not so much to make efforts for their destruction, but to their reorganization that comes through constructive change in their lives (2007).
The prevention of deviant behaviour is effective through the correction or change of moral values. Behavioural deviations in behavior are mostly closely connected with the existing problems in the family and family relations. The importance of any age period in this context will increase in the formation of psycho-correction tools, as the formulation is determined by the age characteristics of the offender.
On this basis, S. A. Belicheva offers to share the negative impacts that a person receives from the immediate environment in direct and indirect desocialization impact (Belicheva, 1994):
Direct desocialization influence is an influence coming from the immediate environment that directly demonstrates examples of deviant behaviour within the context of destructive social norms and values which defining the deviant person.
Indirect desocialization impact of the social environment on personality is determined by social and psychological factors, psycho-pedagogical characteristics of the process of social and educational components.
This is important not only to eliminate direct desocialization impact of the social environment, but also create the necessary space in the school, family and reference groups, with the aim of preventing desocialisation. This gives them the opportunity to absorb the preferred environment of communication and activity.
Therefore, early prevention must be considered from the position of preventive process of desocialization and the significant role of the management process of socialization of teenagers. This is required to neutralize the direct and indirect types of desocialization and their impacts and the creation of corrective actions and measures for socio-psychological rehabilitation.
Methods and forms of psychological forms of correction
Psychological support must be understood as the unique information on the mental condition, the causes of its manifestations and main mechanisms of the manifestations of psychological complexes or allocated psychopathological behavior. Is the most active and significant psychological impact on the person to achieve a state of harmony within his mental life, the successful adaptation within the social environment, the elimination of psychopathological symptoms and improvement of personality with frustration tolerance and stress tolerance.
In our study, we offer strategic ways to achieve the goal of provision of psychological assistance to teenagers with deviant personality type:
- providing conditions for the formation of constructive motivational sphere of personality (socially approved values, social responsibility);
- increasing stress and extension of inner resources of an individual;
- the development of vitally important skills;
- the elimination or reduction of non-adaptive behaviour;
- the expansion of social communications and positive social experience of an individual;
- the increase in social adaptation.
In order to counter deviant behaviour the following forms of psychological work are usually used: consulting, psychotherapy, socio-psychological training and reorganization of the educational environment. Organising special sections in hospitals for delinquent adolescents with mental disorders is a relatively new form. In these departments much attention is paid to the psychological rehabilitation of the person. It is recognized that an effective method of social influence to counter delinquent behavior are community service and behavioural therapy in its various forms (Bryanta &; Forsythb, 2012; Cava et al., 2007; Gilinsky, 2004; Kleyberg, 2001, 2004; Linfoot et al., 1999; Mendelevitch, 2004; Mendelevitch & Makaricheva, 2002$; Ribakova .& Biktagirova, 2015).
Psychological correction in institutionalization is primarily aimed destruction of certain views, motives and values, patterns of behaviour and formation of new ones which help individuals achieve self-realization. Correctional work is designed to resolve conflicts for both sides ‘an individual – society’, ‘an individual – social environment’, ‘an individual – group’, ‘personality – an individual’.
Thus, the main purpose of psychological correction of deviant behaviour is understood as the achievement of positive behavioural changes (Dalbert & Filke, 2007).
Penitentiary psychotherapy (psychotherapy in taking place in the places of deprivation of liberty) is a poorly developed form of intervention.. Its determined by the fact that people are placed in extremely stressful situations; they are often surrounded by asocial individuals and this inhibits the process of their rehabilitation. The conventional methods are ineffective in this case. In this regard, new specific methods need to be developed that are effective in the context of penitentiary environment (Gilinsky, 2004) are employed.
The number of tasks solved by conducting psychotherapy in private enterprises. It is primarily the establishment of what the specific needs of an individual are in terms of psychological assistance. Further, it is important to identify the personal characteristics of individuals with the use of methods appropriate for the penitentiary environment.
An important task is to create ‘a psychotherapeutic oases’, and so protected from the consequences of destructive actions. An important factor need to be achieved: the removal of psychological tensions (primarily achieved through relaxation) and the decrease in perception to criminal, stressful influence (Zmanovskaya, 2007). Finally, there is a need for social training aimed at enabling individuals to develop an ability to solve problems within his/her current environment in a constructive way. In some cases, psychological work can be effectively together with religious psychotherapy. However, it should be noted that the penitentiary psychotherapy often experiencing serious difficulties, so you may have to resort to the help of the priests, that can lead to positive outcomes for on an individual who is serving a sentence.
The efficiency of psychological influence in the case of delinquent behaviour depends on the efficiency of the complex of organizational (e.g. the organization which brings order and humane atmosphere), pedagogical, medical, social economic (e.g. social rehabilitation after release) measures (Kleyberg, 2001, 2004).
Creating positive disciplinary educational environment (in all places where young people spend time) is the most effective method though difficult for realisation (Minullina, 2014). The main purpose of this approach is to separate people from damaging environments. Organising labour groups for adolescents with deviant behaviour is an example of such a form of a disciplinary educational environment. Living in a disciplinary educational environment implies following a number of rules (which usually include independent life support, mutual aid, strict obedience of leaders and elected bodies, strict obedience of norms, rules).
Must be taken information about the subjective attitude of an adolescent to oneself, behaviour.
Rogers believes that the subjective attitude is important, because honesty and deep understanding of deviant young people and their environment are the defining factors affecting the prediction of future behaviour of underage offenders (the socio-psychological atmosphere in their family, friends, , genetic predisposition, physical development etc.) (Rodzhers, 1986).
Self-correction is effective in cases when adolescents with deviant behaviour assess themselves and their social environment in accordance with the reality. The self-correction is possible if the teenager accepts the aims, takes into account the operation conditions capable of programming and evaluation of results. In addition, self-correction possible the rational use of personality individual capabilities, adequate self-assessment
Various social mechanisms underlie self-correction (Mendelevitch, 2004). One such mechanism is the use of their developed abilities. The self-correction is effective when the implementation of certain social conditions, such as: knowledge of social norms, pedagogical and psychological influence, knowledge of the conditions and requirements of the implementation of the activities. Self-correction should be considered in unity with the correction, in accordance with objective requirements and conditions (Gilinsky, 2004; Kleyberg, 2001, 2004).
Purpose of the Study
Systematization of methods of psychological prevention and psychological intervention of deviant behavior.
Systemic, critical analysis of works devoted to methods of psychological prevention and psychological intervention of deviant behavior.
The theory of deviant behavior is designed not to put labels but to provide real assistance to people through encouraging the desire for change and cooperation. A distinctive feature of psychological assistance in case of deviant behavior is its active, organizing and positive character. The effectiveness of assistance is determined by its timeliness, adequacy and extent. It is important for a psychologist to understand that his/her intervention is not unlimited: despite the efforts made, the results of psychological impact on a particular person with deviant behavior may be insignificant for a variety of reasons. It should also be recognized that modern knowledge about the nature of deviant behavior is more likely to generate new questions than provide any answers.
. Thus, the main purpose of psychological correction of deviant behaviour of adolescent's personality is to achieve positive behavioural changes. At the same time, a variety of correctional methods and techniques can not diminish the role of psychologist.
The analysis suggests that the main source of reinforcement positive changes in the behavior of the teenager in the course of the collaboration is a behavior specialist, the personal characteristics of a psychologist are a vital tool for professional activities.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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