Developing Value-Oriented Attitude Of Youths Towards Their Homeland Through Traditional Crafts
The relevance of this research is explained in terms of necessity to form a value-oriented attitude in the perception of the main national values and respect for national culture. The study is also caused by an increased need of cultural and leisure activity in the use of the pedagogical potentials of historical and modern aspects of traditional arts and crafts, as well as by the insufficient theoretical and practical development of contents, forms, methods and mechanisms of the organization of this process. A value-oriented attitude to one’s Homeland is considered as an integrative quality of the personality connected with the formation of social and high-value abilities, directed to the development of social values of the society, respect and love for Homeland, its traditions and social norms, and the manifestations of patriotic feelings and civic virtues. The research objective is to develop and pilot the efficiency of pedagogical conditions in development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts. The main method of the research is modeling; it allows to consider this problem as a process of purposeful and conscious mastering of abilities in using the pedagogical potential of traditional arts and crafts. The organizational and pedagogical model of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland consisting of interconnected blocks is presented in the article. These are value and target-oriented blocks, theoretical and methodological, activity-based and diagnostics, and productivity blocks.
Keywords: Socializationculturerevivalethnocultural educationtolerancenational traditions
The problem of development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland is essential when it comes to the education of the youth, where it is necessary to consider the possibilities of the efficient development of consciousness at a young age. The modern social and economic situation brings this problem forward. It is important that young people consciously regulate their attitude to Homeland and their activity for its benefit, prosperity and development. Today, youths seek to find autonomy and independence by making a choice of their future profession, friends, and forms and types of leisure. A value-oriented attitude to Homeland, therefore, can become a link between the informative attitude of the youth to their country and the world, and the practical embodiment of their views on cultural and leisure activity. That is how the content of the effective aspect of activity of the youth, to a greater or lesser degree, is defined by how steady the judgment-orientation and recognition of cultural wealth are, and how deep their desire to become people with high cultural values is. In this context, the rod line of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland is when a young man understands service to his Homeland as the highest mission. On that basis, the direction of the concept of the modern youth education is formulated. Its content should embrace the development of the universal moral values related to Homeland.
Many scientists focused on value-oriented attitudes: Mjasishhev (1998) (as a complete system of selective conscious communications of the individual with various parties of objective reality); Pashin (2011) (as conscious selective communication of a person with the objects and phenomena that are significant to him, that express a proactive stance of the personality and define the individual nature of the activity and separate acts); Kozhurova (2008) (realization of important sociocultural functions is possible through value-oriented attitudes: it is a way of introduction of the person into the world of culture; development of national traditions and broadcastings); Vasilyeva (2013) (as a system of motives of the personality accumulating and directing its moral, spiritual, physical manifestations in different aspects of activities); Demchenko (2006) (a value-oriented attitude acts as a well-formed personal attitude which is characterized by a humanistic orientation), etc.
Traditional arts and crafts are a conventional contribution of Russia to the world cultural treasury, a unique layer of national culture, and spiritual heritage of the Russian society.
Preservation, revival and development of traditional arts and crafts is an important sociocultural task. Traditional arts and crafts preserve, create, distribute and introduce cultural values; which is so important for the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to his Homeland. The relevance of preservation of traditional arts and crafts is related to the fact that today they are mostly exhibited not for the utilitarian purposes, but for the sake of beauty. Traditional arts and crafts are an integral part of the national culture. They embody experiences of centuries-old esthetic perception of the world about the future, and deep art traditions reflect the identity of cultures of the multinational Russian Federation.
Based on a national educational ideal, the main pedagogical objective is formulated, which is; the education of a moral, responsible, initiative and competent citizen of Russia. Therefore, development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland is a priority direction in youth education in modern conditions and demands new contents, methods, receptions and forms. In this regard, several new researches on the topic emerge (Abramova, 2009; Bespjatova, 2006; Roccas et al., 2002; Moran, 2001). The analysis of scientific literature demonstrates that the problem of development of youth value orientations draws the attention of many scientists. A methodological basis of development of value orientations is investigated in the works of Bondarevskaya (1995), Kagan (1991), and others. Various aspects of the development of value orientations are analyzed in the works of (1991) Kiryakova, etc. Value orientations of the personality at various age stages are revealed in the works of Lastovka (2001), Rogozina (2010), Bardi & Schwartz, (2003), and others.
Development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts is related to the search of efficient sociocultural mechanisms, various cultural and leisure forms, ways and principles of youth education. Peculiarities of the use of resources of traditional arts and crafts in the development of the personality are related to realization of visualization methods, subject and spatial thinking, and esthetic taste. Therefore, pedagogical support should be directed to the realization of a creative potential of the personality that is related to the search of effective pedagogical working conditions in the study under consideration. In modern context, the society pays close attention to the problem of transfer of national cultural traditions and values to the youth.
The process of familiarizing the youths with the art culture in modern conditions is parallel to the one of a groundless loan of low samples of mass culture, loss of traditional, spiritual and moral and art and esthetic norms, ideals, standards and reference points (Nasibullov, Yarullin & Fatkullov, 2016). As a result, the solution of the problem of the development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of the potential of the traditional cultural property is gaining a special importance.
The process of development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland will be effective if:
– fostering of basic national values in the conditions of youth engagement in various forms of a cultural and leisure activity is provided. The process is carried out on the basis of identification and accounting of the fundamental approaches and principles that define its conceptual basis;
– pedagogical potential of traditional arts and crafts is used as an effective means of youth value-oriented self-determination, as well as the disclosure of creative identity based on the development of value orientations of the personality;
– effective organizational and pedagogical model providing realization of the value and motivation orientations, connected with fostering of the system of spiritual and moral categories in the conditions of the projected cultural and leisure space is set in motion.
Purpose of the Study
The following problems were solved:
To define the essence and contents of the key concept of the research - "a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland", and to identify the modern approaches and principles of the development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts.
To reveal the pedagogical potential of traditional arts and crafts in the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland.
To develop an effective organizational and pedagogical model of development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts.
To theoretically and experimentally prove the efficiency of pedagogical conditions of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts.
Solution of the objectives was carried out with the help of the following methods: theoretical analysis of pedagogical, psychological, philosophical, art criticism, socio-cultural, and cultural literatures on the study problem; modeling; studying and synthesis of the best pedagogical practices; observation; questioning; testing; interview; pedagogical experiment; methods of qualimetrical mathematical processing the results of the experimental work.
Kazan (Volga region) Federal University was an experimental base of the research.
The research was carried out in three main consecutive steps:
The first stage included theoretical analysis of the philosophical, sociological, psychology, and pedagogical art criticism literatures on the considered problem. At this stage, the general scientific strategy of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland was developed, the main aspects of youth cultural and leisure activities were formulated, and the principles and approaches were developed. Theories of the organization of youth leisure, methods of studying of traditional arts and crafts, concepts of ethno-art and ethnocultural youth education were analyzed.
The second stage consisted in a primary approbation of hypothetical assumptions of the development of pedagogical conditions of value orientations in the course of the ascertaining experiment. As a result, the hypothesis and the organizational and pedagogical model of development of youths’ value-oriented attitudes to Homeland by means of traditional art crafts were formulated.
The forming experiment at the third stage of the study allowed to reveal the degree of efficiency of the organizational and pedagogical model, and pedagogical conditions of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts. Complex questioning of the participants took place at this stage, the results of qualitative and quantitative cuts in the control and experimental groups were analyzed, an empirical research on studying of the practice in the field of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland was carried out, the results of the theoretical research were analyzed and generalized; the resume was made, the results of the experimental work were processed.
The content of the pedagogical potential of traditional arts and crafts in development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland was revealed and analyzed. It represents conditions (informative, educational and developing), as well as favorable circumstances for the achievement of a certain pedagogical result in development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland. This attitude is gained at the expense of the syncretism of traditional arts and crafts that assumes the emotional orientation of the young people with a spiritual component of a certain practical activity.
The following pedagogical potential of traditional arts and crafts in development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland was revealed: creative activity, variety of the kinds of activity, obligatory accounting of independence and activity of the young people, use of collective and individual forms of activity, accounting of local traditions and culture of the national art trade; education on the basis of the best examples of the national art trade, civic consciousness, patriotism and diligence, respect and love for the environment; people, relatives, national traditions and, in general, national and world culture. Every possible assistance to satisfaction of needs of a person in intellectual, cultural and moral development by means of familiarizing with traditional arts and crafts; development of need for beauty, aspiration to competent use of the creative potential; helps the youth in their aspiration to consciously stand up for beauty in everything, including public life, social and personal relations, and their own acts. The development of the informative, emotional and value orientations that upgrades intellectual, esthetic and moral qualities of the youth; motivates the participants to update their value-oriented attitude to Homeland and its society, including the following components of spiritual culture: culture of education, culture of moral and spiritual life, esthetic culture, information culture, and culture of individual and public consciousness.
According to the study, the realization of the pedagogical potential of traditional art crafts, as the factor of the development of moral and value orientations of the youth, demands the use of certain methodological approaches. Thus, this potential had not only pedagogical but also cultural effectiveness. Here we can also relate to the following approaches: axiological; cultural; personal and activity; and event approaches. At the same time, as practice shows, there are certain cornerstone codes at the base of these pedagogical principles. They promote an increase in the motivational and semantic activity of the young people in the aspect of development of value orientations and relations. First, the following principles are referred to those: combinations of pedagogical management with an initiative, amateur performance and independence; continuity; integrity; creativity; and ethno-cultural orientation (Nasibullova, Salakhov & Nasibullov, 2016).
Summing up the results on the justification of the effective pedagogical conditions of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland, it was revealed that pedagogical conditions, by means of traditional arts and crafts were realized in the experimental work. To the main conditions, we refer the following: value orientation of educational and creative material as parts of studying the fundamentals of traditional art culture and esthetic criteria of traditional arts and crafts in the course of cultural and leisure activity; integration of the theoretical propaedeutic with purposeful value-oriented activity in a creative studio directed to mastering axiological bases of traditional art culture by the young people; enrichment of the content of the youth creative activity with the values of studying the local lore which can become a judgment subject, a reference point in self-determination values and familiarization with the universality of ethno-culture; coherence and complementarity of the traditional and nonconventional forms of sociocultural activity that influence the emotional sphere of young people and promotion of the interiorization of ideals recorded in the ethno-cultural traditions and ethical standards.
One of the research objectives was to develop an organizational and pedagogical model of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland. The total number of the examinees - 206.
The organizational and pedagogical model of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts is directed to the formation of abilities to organize their spare time independently to engage various forms of cultural and leisure activities. It represents a set of value and target block (goal-setting and theoretical assumption which is the cornerstone of a value-oriented attitude), theoretical and methodological block (value, leisure, cultural, and social components, pedagogical approaches, principles and conditions of realization of educational potential of traditional arts and crafts in development of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland); activity block (organization of educational process in studios with national costume ‘Tatar style’, and corresponding sociocultural methods and means aimed at developing art, creative activities, and value orientations of the young people); diagnostics and productivity block (diagnostics and control of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland).
The purpose of the organizational and pedagogical model is the formation of a system of values, motives, interests of the personality which provide spiritual and cultural activity of the youth, aimed at the development of creative skills in the field of national arts and crafts, and related to fostering love and respect for traditions of Homeland.
Achievement of this target implies the solution of the following objectives: creation of the cultural educational environment directed to self-development of the personality related to fostering basic patriotic values; ensuring youth involvement in cultural and leisure activity that allows to satisfy leisure needs for a creative search of the main patriotic ideals; development of a proactive civic stance directed to self-development of the personality in the following aspects: social, moral, cultural, and leisure; fostering of national and state values, historical traditions, positive experience of preservation and multiplication of spiritual, cultural and material richness of Russia and people inhabiting it; realization of the traditional and nonconventional forms of sociocultural activity influencing the spiritual and moral sphere of the young people.
The theoretical and methodological block consists of the following components: value and leisure, cultural and social, methodological approaches and principles.
The value and leisure component allows to obtain an active, creative attitude of the personality to the surrounding reality, how he learns to distinguish the good and the evil, humane and inhuman, develops the feeling of a composite balance and color harmony, technical skills and labor abilities, and how he orientates artistically and creatively.
Thus, use of traditional arts and crafts allows to solve problems of artistic and creative development, and cultural education and fostering of youths’ national consciousness, that ensures effective development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland.
The value and leisure component, in our opinion, consists of several stages:
The first stage – value and orientation: the object of this stage is a psychological and cultural importance of spiritual activity in the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland. This process relates to the activation of spiritual interests which induce the young man to an active search in the sphere of culture. This search stimulates the cognitive activity of the personality expressed in a systematic reading of serious literature, visiting museums and exhibitions. And the most important use of traditional arts and crafts is directed to widening cultural outlook, fostering patriotic feelings and manifestation of creative activity. This type of leisure has a purposeful, systematic character; it is mastering the world of cultural values, which in turn, extends the boundaries of the inner world of the personality.
The second one is informative and orientation stage. Cognitive activity brings direct satisfaction and has an independent value for the youth. Here, serious ways of spending spare are the main focus. It is aimed not at consumption, but creation of cultural values in the conditions of traditional arts and crafts. The need for creativity is deeply peculiar to each person, and more so, to the young. Creativity brings high-satisfaction and is a means of spiritual improvement. The element of creativity is comprised of many forms of leisure, but the opportunity to create is opened to everyone.
The third one is creative and reformative stage. Each person is creative. Any activity can be creative if it incorporates the best sincere forces and abilities of the person. Applied arts, traditional arts and crafts, art and technical types of leisure creativity are referred to as creative activities. Of course, leisure creativity which is mainly amateur does not always reach the highest professional level. Nevertheless, acting as a well-tried remedy of tapping everyone’s talent it has a big public effect that facilitates the fruitful development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland.
The fourth one is leisure stage. Development of purposeful leisure activity meeting the requirements and motives of the person is implemented in the system of leisure orientation of the personality. Leisure is the possibility to engage in various types of creativity during spare time, to acquire skills in a certain joint activity and get an opportunity to manifest yourself when it comes to an attractive idea or interesting business. The leisure stage in the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland allows for the realizations of broad social communications excluding danger of social isolation, providing purposeful cognitive, research, creative, and intellectual, creative activities.
The fifth one is the creative stage. Traditional arts and crafts are historically caused by the material and spiritual culture of the people, and national peculiarities. As a pedagogical phenomenon, traditional arts and crafts have training and educational potential in the following aspects: creative relation to work; respect for the creativity of national masters; development of the feeling of beauty, esthetic perception, creativity, and creative imagination.
The core aspects of the cultural and social component:
1) introduction of the youth to the history of traditional arts and crafts, judgment and synthesis of the sociocultural processes in the field of this art;
2) introduction to the patterns of use of the well-known and new tendencies of traditional arts and crafts;
3) characterizing the major aspects of traditional arts and crafts within public sociocultural practice, where activity of numerous age, social, professional, ethnic and confessional groups of the population, as well as cultural wealth, norms that are characteristic of the modern society, orientations and relations represented in this type of creativity are reflected;
4) youth engagement in the network of sociocultural communication, formation of sociocultural activity skills, and organization of full spiritual and physical development, leisure and creativity.
The cultural and social component provides: preservation, broadcasting, fostering and development of traditions, norms, and values in the sphere of the trade of traditional art aimed at developing value-oriented attitudes of youths towards their Homeland; creation of new values, creative development of the youth, and participation in the organization of their leisure; stimulation and support of innovative movements in the sphere of traditional arts and crafts; ensuring favorable conditions for development of youth cultural skills in the conditions of their self-organization; satisfaction and development of youth cultural needs, ensuring conditions for self-realization of each individual, actualizing their talents, self-improvement and amateur creativity during spare time; regulation of the processes of socialization and individualization of the personality, which is carried out in forms of leisure activity and directed to purposeful introduction of the youth to the richness of traditional arts and crafts, and the formation of value orientations and "eminence" of spiritual needs.
The activity block of the developed model was related to realize pedagogical conditions through the organization of creative activities of the ‘Tatar Style’ studio of Kazan Federal University, and design projects for the students - collecting modern traditional national costumes. The main objective of the studio is to demonstrate synthesis of traditional and universal cultures as a way of solution of the problem of cultural imbalance as exemplified by the clothes; to reach a wide audience and form interests in the unique traditions of the Tatar craft art. The fashion show ‘from the past to the future’, just like the previous one can characterize clothes collections of ‘Tatar Style’ studio. The young people did not only study the history of the development of a national costumes, traditional arts and crafts, but also the use of materials, ornaments and embroidery. There were still other activities: development of creative and practical skills of youths in the field of modeling and designing of a costume; promotion of new fashion trends, vanguard ideas and traditional aspects in design of a costume; development of the brand ‘Tatar Style’ studio within an experimental and innovative project "Gifted Youth"; search for creative ideas and development of ethno-art clothes collections (design of clothes, footwear and accessories) based on
Based on the mentioned indicators, the following levels of a youth value-oriented relation to Homeland were allocated: active (high), indifferent (average) and skeptical and nihilistic (low), and criteria and indicators of the development of such relation are defined. As the defining criteria of a value-oriented attitude act: social orientation of the activity of a personality, stability and effectiveness of a value-oriented attitude, participation in socially important activities for the benefit of the Homeland.
The indicators of a youth value-oriented attitude to their Homelands are the following: in the cognitive sphere – comprehension of social importance of preservation of historical and cultural heritage, knowledge of their own history (family, generation, last name) as well as the background of national history, "small motherland" (traditions, achievements, problems); Homeland, its history and heroic fulfillments, ethnos, and problems; understanding the role and the place of Russia in the civilization of the world, the essence of a value-oriented attitude to Homeland, progress and various collisions in the country life and priority life values, and the need of reflection and comprehension of life. Special thematic conferences, contests, folklore and ethnographic expeditions etc. were held for this purpose.
In the emotional and value sphere – love for the earth, pride for the achievements of Homeland and respect for the historical military and labour heroes, comprehension of national ownership and its nature, language, national identity, religion, territory, pride, - its role and place in the life of the society. This component is created and further considered in the direct interaction with young people within various types of cultural and leisure activities, when skillfully demonstrated images of traditional arts and crafts excited their admiration towards their Homeland. This was best represented in, bright pages of its history and culture; in the active and practical sphere – aspiration to creative and socially important activity directed to the preservation of historical and cultural heritage of Homeland. This component assumes formation of the ability to strongly take part in the patriotic, esthetic and cultural activity (for example, meetings with veterans and famous people, celebration of anniversaries, local history work, contests of intellectual and sports character, cultural and educational forums etc.).
Based on the general hypothesis of the present study, we have come to a conclusion that the following reliable and consistent techniques as questionnaires - "The personal growth" of Grigoriev, Kuleshova and Stepanov (2014), test questionnaire of vital values of Senin (2015), use of t-criterion of the student, diagnostic card of an expert assessment of a value-oriented attitude Homeland etc, are most effective for a qualitative evaluation of development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland.
The use of these techniques showed an increase of the level of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland determined by parameters such as: love and devotion to Homeland, its people, pride of its past and the present; desire to work for the benefit of the country, aspiration to protect its interests, positive patriotic activity, etc.
The accomplished experimental work allowed to draw the following conclusions: indicators on manifestation of respect for national values and conscious comprehension of social problems of modern society in the experimental groups were significantly high. The participants of the experimental groups showed a high level of civic consciousness and high social activity during the experiment. In the experimental groups, the highest rates were shown on the following components: self-determination in the world of culture, high reference points in the field of cultural wealth and surrounding life, and love for the country. In the control groups, the level of respect and love to Homeland, respect for its traditions and norms was slightly increased. After the pilot study the respect for national values was implemented, patriotism and aspiration to high-spiritual acts and activity increased in the experimental groups; there was also an increase in the level of identification of value and semantic formations of the personality, semantic orientations, and love and respect for the country was noted. The conducted experiment allowed to prove that participation in a creative activity, special knowledge, skills in the field of traditional arts and crafts, comprehension of innovative solutions in the sphere of traditional arts and crafts are directed to the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland. According to the results of a diagnostic follow-up study at the end of an experiment, the following results were received:
In the first experimental group – active (high) level of 38,2%, indifferent (average) level of 49,6%, skeptical and nihilistic (low) level of 12,2% of the participants was revealed;
In the first control group – active (high) level of 16,3%, indifferent (average) level of 50,6%, skeptical and nihilistic (low) level of 33,1% of the respondents (the histogram 1) was revealed.
At the end of the experiment: in the second experimental group – active (high) level of 38,2%, indifferent (average) level of 51,5%, skeptical and nihilistic (low) level of 12,8% of the participants;
In the second control group – active (high) level of 17,8%, indifferent (average) level of 49%, skeptical and nihilistic (low) level of 33,2%. (histogram 2) of the participants.
Thus, analyzing and comparing the results of the ascertaining and forming stages of the experimental work, it is possible to draw a conclusion that active (high) level in the experimental groups increased twice, in comparison with the control ones; skeptical and nihilistic (low) level in the experimental groups went down significantly in comparison with the control groups. This proves the efficiency of the conducted research. It should be noted that the work conducted by us is effective, as the results showed positive dynamics and effectiveness in the experimental groups in comparison with the control ones.
Despite the steady interest of a wide range of scientists and teachers in this perspective, the review of the condition of its study confirms the lack of research devoted to the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland by means of traditional arts and crafts. As practice shows, an insufficient attention is paid to development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland, and work in this direction is carried out superficially and not systematically that is related to the lack of a complete comprehension of the essence and structure of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland, and undeveloped pedagogical conditions. However, in Nikandrov's researches (2000), Salakhutdinov (2005) universal values as a basis of formation of value orientations are considered, and the ways of the youth introduction to them are offered.
The conducted research does not cover all the problems of the process of improving the development of a youth value-oriented attitude to Homeland (Salakhova, 2011). Taking into account the results of the presented study, we consider it expedient to develop researches in the following directions: introduction of the effective forms of professional development of educational personnel relating to traditional arts and crafts; extrapolation of the received results on various levels of cultural and leisure institutions; creation of a professional field for exchange of opinions and information between the representatives of science, education, and culture, concerning the fostering of love and respect towards the Homeland, its people, customs and traditions.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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