The relevance of the research problem is topical due to the necessity of forming national-oriented educational systems based on the material and spiritual culture of people, in other words on ethnic pedagogy. According to linguists, in the context of cultural globalization of one single language becomes extinct every week in the world. In most cases together, with the disappearance of language, people speaking it go down the history as well. Currently, one of the most important goals for education is the preservation and development of the values of ethnic culture in younger generations. The reviving and developing of national educational systems need teachers with ethno-pedagogical preparation. The aim of the research is to develop the content, forms and methods of using traditions of physical human development in Kazakh folk pedagogy in the patriotic education of pre-service teachers. The following methods were used: theoretical; that implies analysis and synthesis of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature on the research problem, pedagogical modeling; empirical methods of measurement and comparison. Methods of processing of results of research were: qualitative and quantitative analysis using methods of mathematical statistics. The article presents the results of the research on the essence and content of patriotism and methodological basis of education among the youth. It discloses patriotic traditions of Kazakh folk pedagogy and their potential in the patriotic education of students. It identifies and justifies methods and forms of traditions usage in the physical human development in Kazakh folk pedagogy.
Keywords: Children with migrational backgroundselementary school teacherstechniques of teachingpsychological and pedagogical assistance
The analysis of philosophical, psychological, and pedagogical studies and research papers devoted to the study of various aspects of patriotism, allow us to determine it as one of the most important, enduring values, common to all spheres of society that express the feeling of love for the Motherland, for the Fatherland, devotion to the native land, language, culture, traditions, history and achievements of people. Patriotism involves not only pride in the achievements and culture of its homeland, but also the desire to protect interests, characters, cultural characteristics, and to identify itself with other cultures.
The author assumes the position that one of the main components of patriotic education of an individual are traditions of Kazakh folk pedagogy that historically consist of three periods. The periodization of the stages of development is presented in Fig.
Recognizing the magnitude of folk traditions as an effective tool of educating the youth, we suggest the classification of traditions on the basis of their educational value. In such a classification (Fig.02) the set of traditions is perceived to be holistic. Education, as we know, is the process of transmission of social and moral experience of ancestors to the next generation. In this process, the most important role is given for a tradition. The study showed that the educational potential of ethno-pedagogical traditions is the transmission of the heritage of spiritual and physical culture for the formation of generations’ well-being. Formed over the centuries as humanity's achievements in the field of education, traditions run deep into the spiritual and physical culture of a society and have a direct impact on the physical wholeness of a man.
In the process of the research, we saw that proverbs and sayings, tales and riddles, legends could be viewed as codes of traditional pedagogy, where the artistic images reflect the favorable and unfavorable courses of events. These codes cause good feelings of love for a man to his people and to nature, and educate the young generation in the spirit of patriotic service to the people. Patriotic folk pedagogy as well as its educational traditions are fully expressed in them. They demand respect for parents and elders, proper education of children, strengthening of friendship between people, love for labor and people’s work, and hence, for the Motherland (they sing the goodness, generosity, respect for other people), etc.
Traditions of physical development of an individual in Kazakh national pedagogy containing a set of patriotic beliefs, feelings, and emotions , is a universal instrument affecting qualities such as love for one’s country, humanity, and the hardening of mind and body. They are truly an educational tool that on the one hand, enriches the process of education, and on the other, trains up a child indirectly or non-intrusively. The article concludes on the note that in the traditions of physical development of Kazakh folk pedagogy, a weighty potential of patriotic education of pre-service teachers is implemented, the use of which requires appropriate scientific and pedagogical support.
An appeal to the history and theory of the studied question shows that the pedagogical value of folk heritage in the education of children was emphasized by famous scholars such as, Ushinsky, 1968, a philosopher Sukhanov, 1976.
In current researches, the issues of folk pedagogy are described in the works of Dzhanabaeva, 2007; Kozhakhmetova, 1998; Nigmatov, 2004. These include the pedagogical beliefs of individual nations, the detailed analysis of folklore, customs, traditions, imposing imprints on the formation of a child's personality, and on relationships between people.
Conceptual statements, regulatory mechanisms, a system of specific measures of civil and patriotic content are investigated in the studies by Ibragimov et al., 2005, Lutovinov, 2006, Menlibaev, 1995 and others.
In the works of modern researchers, the following parts and aspects of patriotic education of students are reflected:
national traditions and patriotism, international, humane, and courageous education (Bimahanov, 2015, Gasanov, 2001, Khairullin 2015, David, Geary, 2003 and others);
the formation of patriotism of future specialists in higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan (Saltanova, 2005, Nurmukasheva, 1993), pedagogical basis of patriotic education of servicemen of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Sanabaev, 2003).
The study of psychological and pedagogical literature on an investigated problem allows to state the following conclusion: despite a fairly solid scientific background in the study of various aspects of patriotic upbringing in schools, including using the means of national pedagogy, some questions of identification and application of the pedagogical potential inherent in Kazakh national pedagogic traditions of the individual’s physical development as a tool of patriotic education of pre-service teachers was left behind.
In this study, patriotism is understood as one of the most important, enduring values, common to all spheres of life, which expresses the feeling of love for the Motherland, for the Fatherland, devotion to native land, language, culture, traditions, complacency with history, achievements, and values of people. The combination of the main components of patriotism includes the following components: cognitive-intellectual - an in-depth understanding of the essence of patriotism and ways of its manifestation; the inquiry-motivational implementation of purpose and intent; the relationship of people to their heritage shown in educational institutions; emotional-sensitivity - consisting in formation of patriotic views and beliefs in pupils; and behavioural acts and actions in the field of patriotism.
Methodological basis of the use of the Kazakh traditions as physical developments of men in the context of patriotic education are the following:
Ethno-pedagogical activity-based approaches and the approach with practical orientations;
The principles of humanism and democracy, the priority of historical and cultural heritage, consistency, and continuity in the development of the younger generations, taking into account age peculiarities and interests of different groups of young people, etc.;
the goal is to develop forms and methods of using Kazakh traditions for physical development of men in the patriotic education of pre-service teachers and decision relevant to achieving this task.
The meaning of the concept "tradition" is can be defined not only as a traditionally conducted activity, but also as one which is imprinted in the thoughts and consciousness of people as moral and patriotic feelings and experience, i.e. respect for elders, care for the young, love; for the native earth, the homeland, towards labor and work, and strengthening the friendship between people and nations, etc. In this study, it was discovered that many researchers of traditions in pedagogy view it as a "traditional event". Only in some works of philosophers, the term "traditions of philosophical thought" is used. In our opinion, constructive ideas accumulated over centuries of folk wisdom on upbringing, transferred from one generation to another could be called "traditions of educational thought", which are the traditions of physical and human development, harmoniously included in the system of Kazakh people's experience of upbringing that this study is devoted to.
In the tradition of the individual’s physical development in Kazakh national pedagogy, containing a set of patriotic beliefs, feelings and experience, a solid potential of patriotic education is laid. That is why they are versatile educational tools of indirect, unobtrusive patriotic youth upbringing, including pre-service teachers. The educational potential of these traditions lies in the unobtrusive transmission of health-preserving heritage to every generation, to provide a major impact in the welfare and development of the patriotic qualities of these generations. We call this an unobtrusive impact because a person raised under the conditions of traditions, acquires the mechanism of behaviour accepted in society much earlier, even having no time to understand its meaningful essence.
The study revealed the peculiarities and importance in patriotic education of traditions of physical development of Kazakh folk pedagogy:
content (knowledge, thoughts, dreams and interests of people);
turnover from generation to generation;
disappearance of contradictions to new public relations, filling them with new patriotic content;
link with patriotic traditions and customs of other peoples, similarities and differences;
formation of a specific nation (customs, ceremonies, rituals).
In order to efficiently use the studied traditions as a means of patriotic education of pre-service teachers, the following methods and forms were developed that focus on:
a) development of indicators of the cognitive criteria:
a systematic knowledge acquisition by students from Kazakh, i.e. traditional and non-traditional reading of lectures on the topics of folk traditions of physical development of a man, reflecting the views of the patriotic education of young people;
interpretation at all stages of the lessons from various proverbs, sayings, epics, tales, riddles and poems that address the issues of physical development of a man and patriotic education of youths;
the inclusion of students into the process of teaching physical education, the use of fragments of empirical statements about the value of a health to a man from the ideas of Kazakh people, the preparation of students’ reports on folk traditions of physical development of an individual, conducting ethical conversations using specially prepared material on the importance of physical and spiritual health of a person taken from the sources of folk wisdom;
b) development of indicators of motivational-emotional criteria:
integrating notions on individuals into the system, and ethical paradigm of patriotic and physical education, i.e. the use of patriotic and educational potential of the disciplines and courses in the educational process, organization of special courses like "Foundations of military-patriotic education", and creation of patriotic centre "National sport – national basis" etc.;
viewing and discussing audio-visual materials (films, broadcasts) on patriotic education of the younger generation based on folk traditions;
creating and solving game situations with the use of folk traditions of the Kazakhs focused on patriotic education of youth;
meetings with famous people (heroes, poets-writers, singers, kuyi performers, bard, masters of the art jewellery making, etc.;
с) development of activity criteria:
traditional folk festivals which has now become secular ("Navruz", "Beige", "Altin Kabak", etc.);
student activities on physical culture (folk game competition "Mass running -folk tradition", excursions, hikes, a "Day of public health", sport days);
ensuring active participation of students in activities of spiritual and patriotic character applying educative meaning to the traditions on the physical health of a person;
voluntary active assistance to the teacher in conducting physical fitness activities with the use of national traditions of physical human development;
preparation of students reports and essays about traditions reflecting the views of physical education of the younger generation.
The results of the diagnostic tools to test the effectiveness of the developed methods and forms of patriotic education of pre-service teachers in the traditions of physical human development of Kazakh folk pedagogy allowed us to justify the objectivity of the formulated theoretical statements, conclusions, and the validity of the research methods obtained in the course of experimental work. It can be noted that during the main diagnostic content (levels, criteria, indicators) of determining the effectiveness of the developed methods of traditions and the structure of the whole process of patriotic education of pre-service teachers, a traditional instrumentation was selected, but was modified to be consistent to the purpose, requirements and scientific quests of this study.
Thus, the analysis of the results of the experimental work have shown that the proposed and tested pedagogical forms and methods of using traditions of physical development of an individual integrated in Kazakh folk pedagogy have been quite effective in the patriotic upbringing of pre-service teachers. They contribute to the harmonious introduction of students to these traditions and enhance the level of their patriotic education, which allow to recognize the statements of the hypotheses confirmed.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the study was to develop methods and forms of using the traditions of physical human development in Kazakh folk pedagogy in patriotic education of pre-service teachers.
Research Hypothesis: the use of traditions of physical human development in Kazakh folk pedagogy will enhance the effectiveness of patriotic education of pre-service teachers, if they disclose the potential of pedagogical and methodological possibilities of these practices and reveal the methods and forms of their usage, as tools of patriotic education of pre-service teachers in educational process and extracurricular activities.
Theoretical and empirical methods
We used the theoretical analysis of philosophy, history, ethnography, literature, psychology, pedagogy, and social literature on the topic. Curricula and textbooks recommended for students as well as creative (diploma, coursework) students’ works; synthesis, modeling, classification, analogy, and extrapolation;
Empirically, we studied the practices of teachers of higher educational institutions in the Republic of Kazakhstan; survey, interview, observation, experimental work, and methods of mathematical statistics for data processing.
Empirical base of research
Experimental work was conducted in the faculty of natural sciences and agricultural technologies of the Kyzylorda State University named after Korkyt ATA, Kyzylorda, the Republic of Kazakhstan. 157 students from 2nd-4th courses (experimental group 77 students, control group 80 students) volunteered to take part at the experiment.
Methods of experimental study
Experimental and control groups of students were formed randomly, the experimental group consisted of students from the department of “Physical culture and initial military preparation”, and the control group were students from the department of "Physical culture and sport".
Experimental work consisted of three conditional stages: ascertaining, forming and control. The task of the ascertaining stage was 1) to study the use of folk traditions in the practice of preparation of pre-service teachers, 2) identification of students’ initial level of patriotic upbringing in experimental and control groups. On the forming stage of the experimental work a complex of methods and forms of using the traditions of Kazakh people in the physical development of a man in the patriotic education of students from the department of "Physical culture and basic military training" was developed and the experimental testing of its effectiveness was carried out. At control and adjustment stages, a rising effect of the developed forms and methods of use of the studied traditions in patriotic upbringing of pre-service teachers was specified.
The level of patriotic education of pre-service teachers was identified by four criteria definitions of patriotic upbringing: cognitive, motivational-emotional, activity, and value. Cognitive criterion characterizes the theoretical training of the student, reflects his knowledge of traditions expressing views on the physical development of the younger generation; shows awareness of the individual in the field of patriotic and civic ideals, legal norms, and national traditions. Students’ results are based on knowledge about the folk traditions of the Kazakhs, patriotic ideals, principles, norms on responsibility, rights and duties. Motivational-emotional criterion reflects the motivation of students' attitudes (positively interested, negative and indifferent) to the traditions and customs, to people's experience of education, to the field of patriotic ideals, norms, rules, principles. The result is a sense of respect for national educational traditions, a feeling of responsibility to the country and society, humanity and tolerance. Activity criterion shows the actions of the students, expressed in their compliance with Kazakh national traditions of physical development of the individual, initiative independence in the performance of patriotic, civic and social roles, and skills of lawful behaviour. Value criterion reflects the extent of the value of the concept of homeland, traditions, norms, rules of conduct for students. Here, the students show signs of love and devotion to their country, their people, pride in the past and present, a desire to work for the wellbeing of the country, the desire to protect its interests, and positive patriotic activity.
In accordance with these criteria, we identified the levels of patriotic education of students:
A high-level student with a high level of patriotic education knows the basic rights and duties, norms of behaviour of a patriot and a citizen who is eager to perform public orders, consciously performs his duties, is aware of himself as a citizen and patriot of his country, knows the rights and responsibilities and respects them, takes initiatives, possesses entrepreneurial spirit, shows innovation and creativity in his work, and knows how to organize others. He also shows a valuable patriotic attitude to the Motherland, its historical past, culture and traditions, showing love and devotion to the homeland, his people, desire to work for the well-being of his country, the desire to protect its interests, and positive patriotic activity.
An average level student with a medium level of patriotic education knows the basic rules and norms of behaviour of a patriot, but does not always regulate his needs to the standards of norm, he fulfils social order, but in some cases, admits negligence, does well, however, hardly ever shows initiative, is always aware of himself as a patriot and a citizen of his country, knows his rights and responsibilities, but does not implement them in life. The student shows a valuable attitude to the Motherland, its historical past, culture and traditions, however, patriotic activity is manifested from case to case.
A low-level student with low levels of patriotic education does not always adhere to accepted standards of conduct, and performs public orders only if he is controlled by others; sometimes shows disrespect to others. These group of people are disrespectful to the rights and duties of the patriot and citizen their beliefs are unstable. When goals need to be achieved with the support of others, they refuse to participate in labor, and work unproductively. Valuable attitude to the homeland of the student is absent, does not feel the need to show love and devotion for the Fatherland, to the people; no desire to work for the well-being of his country, the desire to protect his interests, no patriotic activity.
The results of the study of the levels of formation of cognitive, motivational-emotional, active and value criteria of patriotic education in the experimental and control groups in the control phase of the study are presented in tables
Analysis of the obtained data allows us to draw the following conclusions: high level of patriotic education after conducting a formative experiment increased from 19.5% to 35% (change 15.5%), the average level of patriotic education increased from 29.9% to 44.2% (change 14.3%), and low level of patriotic education decreased from 50.6% to 20.8% (change 29.8%). We have seen significant changes in the levels of patriotic education of students in the experimental group.
Thus, the analysis of the results of the experimental studies have shown that the pedagogical forms proposed and tested by us shows that, methods of using traditions of physical development of a man integrated in Kazakh folk pedagogy in the patriotic education of pre-service teachers is quite effective, which allows to recognize the statements of the hypotheses confirmed.
It is established that in order to effectively use the researched traditions as a means of patriotic education of pre-service teachers, it is expedient to use complex of methods and forms of education focused on the development of;
cognitive - a systematic knowledge acquisition by students from Kazakh sources, i.e. traditional and non-traditional reading of lectures on the topics of folk traditions of physical development of a man, reflecting the views of the patriotic education of young people; interpretation at all stages of the lessons of various proverbs, sayings, epics, tales, riddles and poems that address the issues of physical development of a man and patriotic education of youth.
motivational-affective - integration of the Kazakh people's experience of patriotic education of youth into the general system of formation of professional competence of pre-service teachers; organization of special courses like "The basis of patriotic education of students with traditions of physical development of Kazakh folk pedagogy", the creation of patriotic centers - "National sports – national basis", etc.), activity and value - participation of students in traditional national holidays ("Nowruz", "Beige", "Altin Kabak", etc.); organization of the traditional student activities of physical culture (folk game competition "Mass running - folk tradition", excursions, hikes, a "Day of public health", sports days); voluntary active assistance to the teacher in conducting physical fitness activities with the use of national traditions in the physical development of the person, etc, that are the components of patriotic education.
In the tradition of the physical development of Kazakh folk pedagogy a solid potential for the patriotic education of young people is laid. Educational identities and potentials of the traditions are that people in the system of traditions, find morality, humanity, patriotism, etc., and are raised in accordance with the established points of view. People, raised in such conditions, master the mechanism of behaviour accepted in society much earlier.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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31 August 2017
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Khairullin, I. T., Bimakhanov, T. D., & Murzabekov, M. K. (2017). Ethno-Pedagogical Training As A Tool Of Patriotic Education Of Pre-Service Teachers. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2017, vol 29. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 355-365). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.43