The modern system of professional education is characterized by a contradiction between the requirements imposed on the personality and activities of the specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" and the actual level of readiness of graduates of higher educational institutions to perform their professional duties. This contradiction makes it necessary to form professional and pedagogical qualities of specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", such as professional ethics. Vocational training of students faces difficulties that arise from an objectively existing contradiction: between the need for specialists who possess not only a high level of knowledge and skills, but also ethical potential for professional work in constantly changing conditions, and the established practice of their training in an educational institution that is not oriented on the formation of professional ethics of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sports." This article is aimed at studying the cognitive-motivational and activity-based grounds for the formation of professional ethics of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport". The article presents a subjective assessment of various aspects of the personality that determine the quality of professional activity of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sports". The article reveals specific pedagogical conditions for the formation of professional ethics of future teachers - specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport". The materials of the article are of practical value for specialists realizing their professional activity in the field of pedagogical education.
Keywords: Professional ethicsprofessional activityspecialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport"
Professional ethics is an important component of the professional culture of any specialist and always builds its relations on general, moral and ethical norms and values of the society. Recently, much attention is paid to the modernization of the education system. Success in the development of pedagogical education depends, first of all, on the personality of the teacher, his/her readiness for professional and pedagogical activity in the conditions of the modern school, mastery, moral potential, professional culture.
The problem of qualitative formation of professional ethics as a component of professional culture in the training of teachers acquires particular importance in connection with their future multifunctional activities, participation in the development of education, science, production, and the spiritual life of society. That is why the research of the formation of professional ethics of future specialists is becoming especially urgent. The modern teacher should possess not only pedagogical, psychological, methodical, and technical knowledge and skills, which requires the training of highly qualified specialists, but also the skills of culture communication, interpersonal interaction; willingness to adhere to the rules and norms of etiquette, to possess a range of professionally important personal qualities; which determines the level of professional and personal culture of the teacher.
The problems of training specialists in higher educational institutions, the humanization of higher education, a significant part of which is the formation of moral and ethical standards in the field of business relations, have been the focus of pedagogical science for several decades. They are studied by domestic and foreign scientists in various aspects, namely: the pedagogical foundations of the organization of the educational process in higher educational institutions (Ball (1990), Talyzina (1998) and others); humanization and humanitarization of higher education (Bibler, 1975; Volovich, 1976; Valeeva, 1994; Fahrutdinova, 2016). A significant contribution to the development of theoretical and practical issues of pedagogical morality, the study of the level of ethical consciousness of the teacher, the search for ways of ethical relations improvement in the pedagogical collective was introduced by scientists such as Grishin (1976), Gunaeva (2008), and others. The problem of professional ethics was studied in the works of Apresyan (2002), Bakshtanovsky (1999), as well as foreign specialists: Horn (1978), Kultgen (1988), and others.
Professional ethics is a system of moral principles, norms and rules of behaviour of a specialist, taking into account the characteristics of his professional activities and the specific situation.
The professional-pedagogical training of a teacher in physical culture provides the creation of all necessary conditions for learning, and it is not limited by the acquisition of knowledge and skills, but can create new internal forces for the formation of professional ethics.
In the theory and practice of higher education, the requirements imposed on the teacher as a professional in his field, are not always adequate to the expectations of students who want to see in the teacher not only a scientist who knows his specialty and has a teaching methodology, but also a person of high ethical culture. There is a research problem, which consists in the disagreement between the needs of a specialist with a high professional ethical culture, and the insufficiently developed scientific and practical basis for such training. In our research, we theoretically substantiated and experimentally tested the cognitive-motivational and activity-based foundations for the formation of professional ethics for future specialists in the field of "physical culture and sport". We have attempted to identify a subjective assessment of various aspects of the personality that determine the quality of professional activity of future specialists in the field of "physical culture and sports" (Bikmukhametov, 2003).
The theoretical and methodological basis of our work were researches in the field of professional ethics Dedyulina (2009), Papchenko (2007), Rosenko (1998); mechanisms of personality formation, motivation and professionalism Leontiev (1971), ), Rubinshtein (2000), Derzhilov (2009. The study was also based on the developed theory of physical culture of a personality (Balsevich, 2003), Vilensky (1987), Vydrin (2006), Lubysheva (2010) and others; conceptual ideas of integration of sport, physical culture Stolyarov (2011), Bikmukhametov (2003); modern ideas about the integrative content and trends of physical culture Matveev (2008), Nikolaev (2013), the means and methods of education in physical culture Ashmarin (1990), Zheleznyak (2013), Matveev (2008) and others). The questions of the psychological and pedagogical foundations of physical culture, physical education, sport were reflected in the works of Volkovа (2012), Gorbunova (2007), Ilyinа (2000), Puni (1997), Rudika (1977), Stambulova (1999).
The modern system of professional education is characterized by a contradiction between the requirements for the personality and activities of the specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", and the actual level of readiness of graduates of higher educational institutions to perform their professional duties. This contradiction makes it necessary to address to the process of forming the professional and pedagogical qualities of specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", such as professional ethics. Vocational training of students faces difficulties that arise from an objectively existing contradiction: between the need for specialists who possess not only a high level of knowledge and skills, but also ethical potential for professional work in constantly changing conditions, and the established practice of their preparation in an educational institution that is not oriented on the formation of professional ethics in future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport." The work is aimed at studying the cognitive-motivational and activity-based foundations for the formation of professional ethics of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport"; analysing the subjective evaluation of various aspects of the personality that determine the quality of professional activity of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" and specific pedagogical conditions of the formation of professional ethics of future teachers - specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport".
In our study, we attempted to analyze the readiness of the students of the 5th course of the Kazan Federal University to carry out professional activities, based on the norms of professional ethics, and their compliance with the requirements set by the modern school for the personality and activities of the specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport". Furthermore, we tried to reveal the specifics of the formation of professional ethics of the future teachers, to test the system of diagnostic methods which determine the level of professional ethics formation by future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport".
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to theoretically substantiate the peculiarities of professional ethics formation of future teachers and experimentally test the cognitive-motivational and activity-based grounds for the formation of professional ethics of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport".
The following methods were used in the work: theoretical analysis and generalization of data from scientific and methodological literature; questioning; pedagogical methods (pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment), statistical methods of processing the results of research.
The professional ethics of the teacher is a system of professional and ethical qualities and moral values that have become the internal convictions of a professionally formed personality, such as: sociability, goodwill, tact, tolerance, sense of proportion, justice, the desire to understand other people, self-development; coherence of the teacher's behaviour in professional interaction with the standards of behaviour in the ethical code; a high degree of creativity in the implementation of professional and ethical values. Professional ethics is an important component of the formation of the professional and ethical culture of the teacher, the issues of its formation should be considered in the context of the analysis of the professional culture of future specialists.
The analysis of pedagogical literatures, and materials of the theoretical works of scholars devoted to the problem of the formation of professional ethics of teachers, in particular, specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" makes it possible to identify a set of pedagogical conditions, that is, a set of factors that will effectively influence the formation and development of all components of professional ethics of future specialists as a component of the formation of their professional culture:
the formation of readiness and the ability of future teachers to interact interpersonally, cooperate, and the realization of subject-subject relations as the basis for communication between teachers and students;
formation of the teacher's orientation to the adoption of pedagogical values and technologies, as well as orientation of the teachers’ activity to the formation of the students' value attitude to the assimilation of the content part of education, assistance in self-determination of paths of professional and personal growth;
bringing all the components of the process of forming professional ethics into a single purposeful system of educating future teachers in a higher educational institution;
the spread of general culture in the sphere of pedagogical activity. Each of the identified pedagogical conditions has its own internal capabilities, being primarily aimed at the formation various components of professional ethics of future specialists. Only their system unity allows to achieve best results.
At present, professional ethics has become one of the components of professional training of specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" and it includes three components:
intellectual (cognitive) - knowledge of students about pedagogical activity in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" (skills, functions, conditions, etc.); and professional ethics (forms, methods and means of improving it);
emotional-value – the value attitudes of students toward pedagogical activity in the field of "physical culture and sport", beliefs in the personal and social significance of professional ethics;
activity (behavioural) - pedagogical skills and standards of professional ethics, necessary for teaching staff in the sphere of "physical culture and sport"; activity of students in their formation; and experience in carrying out activities based on professional ethics.
Sociologists noted that the success of training the a university largely depends on students' ideas of their future profession. If students are well informed about it, it means that they know what they want, if not, their interests are not yet fully formed or are aimed at the profession (Bikmukhametov, 2003).
Accordingly, we determined the self-evaluation of the professional ethics level of the 5th year students of the Kazan Federal University in the process of training (in points on the 10-point scale):
concept of the professional ethics of the teacher of physical culture before entering the KFU - 6.46, now - 7.38.
attitude to professional ethics of the teacher of physical culture before entering the KFU - 6.27, now - 7.48.
level of mastering of ethical skills before entering the KFU - 5.78, now - 7.74.
implementation of knowledge and skills in the sphere of professional ethics before entering the KFU - 6,51, during the period of training in KFU - 7,63.
The level of all studied components is characterized by high initial self-evaluation of the graduate students and tends to increase during the period of study at the educational institution. Such state of affairs may reflect, on the one hand, the increase in the understanding by modern students of the need to master the norms of professional ethics, on the other, the effectiveness of the activity of university collectives in the formation of professional ethics among future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport". This may also be due to the fact that majority of students (80%) take part in professional-pedagogical activity and are engaged in self-education (73%).
At the same time, just over half (56%) of future teachers consider knowledge in the field of professional ethics to be sufficient to apply it in the period of pedagogical practices, training at the university, and in the process of physical education of students. Most future specialists estimate their level of professional ethics as average - 91%, and 9% as high.
Surveys conducted among future specialists in the field of "physical culture and sports" show that the number of young people who considered necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of professional ethics was 87%; approximately half (49% of respondents) considered their knowledge of professional ethics inadequate, and 27% found it difficult to answer this question.
As shown by the survey data in the student environment, thanks to the study of disciplines based on the norms of professional ethics you can: acquire ethical skills and abilities that will be used in professional activities - 80%; overcome ethical illiteracy - 76%; form a culture of communication, behaviour, sense of tact, professional solidarity (corporatism), professional competence - 74%; prepare for a chosen profession better - 67%; study better - 53%, develop their mental abilities, and master codes of professional ethics - 51%.
Our research has shown that only 40% of future teachers in physical culture and sports believed that they know that the professional ethics of teachers in physical culture differs from the professional ethics of teachers of other specialties, and about the same number did not know the answer - 33%, and 27% were indecisive.
What is the source of knowledge in the field of professional ethics? Answering this question, the students indicated: lectures (electives, special courses, seminars) - 23%; teaching of disciplines related to professional ethics in KFU - 18%; parents, relatives - 16%, other sources - 16%; the mass media - 11%; books and stories - 9%; friends and comrades - 5%; newspapers and magazines - 2%.
According to the majority of students, practical classes (96%) are the most effective forms of mastering the norms of professional ethics, lecture classes - 64% and independent work - 40%, mainly have a positive effect on the formation of professional ethics. More than half of respondents (56%), consider individual studies as the optimal form of studying disciplines based on the norms of professional ethics.
Thus, the survey showed the need for an atmosphere of mutual respect in the colleges of the university. At the same time, every teacher should demonstrate a clear example of ethical culture, morality, honesty, diligence, and not an example of administration and moralizing.
Currently, the professional ethics of a specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" cannot be determined only by knowledge and skills. Our research shows that for the future teachers of physical culture and sport, the most important indicators of professional ethics are: personal qualities of the teacher - 28%; professionalism - 19%; professional and moral qualities - 18%; personal pedagogical self-regulation - 11%; pedagogical position - 10%; style of the teacher's activity - 8%; and others - 6%. The respondents noted that relations between teachers and students are built based on the personal qualities of the teacher. Many students associate their attitude to the subject based on their attitude towards the teacher.
In our study, we tried to find out the opinion of future specialists in the field of "physical culture and sport" on athletes and their behaviour. 84% of respondents believe that athletes need to be inherent: diligent and disciplined; 69% - they need to be able to control their emotions and feelings. But the students also noted negative qualities of athletes: high self-esteem - 49%; low level of general and ethical culture - 33%; immoral acts - 18%; poorly developed intellect - 11%.
To the question "Do you master professional norms of relations?" - 42% of respondents answered yes, 45% - could not answer. Only 22% of the surveyed students know the codes of professional ethics, and 42% were indecisive.
For 64% of students, during the period of study at the university, the level of knowledge in the field of professional ethics increased, and for 29% - has slightly increased. About 65% of students used their knowledge and skills in the field of professional ethics during their studies at the institute.
At the same time, 47% of respondents would agree to work based on professional ethics, and considered it necessary, and 38% - if they would be obliged, and only 15% would disagree, because they did not consider it necessary.
In connection to the adopted structure of the culture of professional ethics, professional motivation was also investigated. It is characterized by the action of specific intentions which determine the choice of profession and the long-term performance of duties related to this profession. Speaking on the possibility of considering the motivational side in intellectual activity, Ananiev called "... the question of the relationship between mental activity and motivations of behaviour ..." one of "... the central questions of personality theory …" (Ananiev, 1996).
The results of our questionnaire among students of KFU show that the motives for choosing the training are as follows: I want to have a higher education - 100%; I'm interested, I want to know more - 98%; I love children - 87%; I want to become a teacher, a coach - 80%; I want to be useful to society - 80%; I am aware of my pedagogical abilities - 76%; 61% - I want to improve as an athlete; I want to stay in sport (professional activity) - 57%; I consider the profession of a teacher prestigious - 46%; I do not want to join the army - 42%; it is easier to learn - 42%; the circumstances developed for me to be trained - 33%; there is no another choice - 13%.
Ranking the motives for obtaining professional pedagogical education in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", it showed that in the first place many respondents (46%) chose motives associated with higher education; in the second-place motives associated with the desire to remain in sport as a coach or a teacher (11%); in the third place (7%) - the desire to stay in sport and learn more. The remaining motives happen to be for ~ 4.5%.
The most significant motivations of educational activity for students are: to obtain a diploma - 19%; to become a highly qualified specialist - 17.4%; to acquire deep and solid knowledge - 14%; to study successfully, to get "good" and "excellent" marks at the exams - 8.5%; to ensure the success of future professional work - 8.5%; for the approval of parents and others - 6%; to get intellectual satisfaction - 6%; to get teacher’s respect - 5%; to receive a scholarship - 4%; not to neglect learning of subjects of a training cycle - 3.4%; to continue education in subsequent courses successfully - 2%; to fulfil pedagogical requirements - 2%; to keep up with fellow students - 1.7%; to be an example for fellow students - 1.7%; to be constantly ready for the next classes - 0.8%.
One of the ways to improve the quality of teachers' training in physical culture and sport is the orientation of students to self-actualization in professional activities. For this purpose, it is necessary to accurately diagnose students' self-identification, i.e. their ability to a certain type of professional activity in the sphere of physical culture (Bikmukhametov, 2003).
In order to study the motivation of the professional activity of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", we used the technique of Zamfir in the modification of Rean (1999). Based on the results obtained, we determined the motivational complex of the personality, i.e. the type of relationship between the three types of students’ motivation (%): internal motivation (IM), external positive (EPM) and external negative (ENM) motivations. The optimal motivational complexes for respondents were: IM> EPM> ENM (32%); IM = EPM> ENM (15%); IМ <EPМ> ENМ (32%), and the worst motivational complexes - ENМ> EPМ> IМ (6%); IM = EPM <ENM (2%). We also found the following combinations of motivation: IM = IPM = ENM (4%), IM> IPM < ENM (9%).
We believe that majority of respondents during the training period in the university, developed a positive motivational and value-oriented attitude to professional activity in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", as well as the personal significance of the knowledge, skills, qualities and methods of productive activity that were formed. In this regard, among the survey results the optimal motivational complex of the personality prevails.
According to Gaponenko's (1998) adapted methodology, ranking of qualities of an "ideal" teacher showed that the most significant are: 1 place - honesty; 2 - discipline; 3 - self-esteem; 4 - enthusiasm; 5 - spatial imagination; 6 - self-criticism; 7 - responsibility; 8 - ability to overcome difficulties; 9 - self-control; 10 - ability to highlight the main thing; 11-12 - knowledge of the subject, justice; 13 - expansion of political culture; 14 - perseverance; 15 - availability; 16 - persuasiveness; 17 - ability to work with people; 18 - tactfulness; 19 - love of children; 20 - obligatory; 21 - logical harmony; 22 - politeness; 23 - the skill of teaching a lesson; 24 - general erudition.
The ranking of the qualities of the "ideal" teacher was distributed in such a way that in the first places moral qualities and qualities associated with an attitude to work and to oneself were chosen; further - intellectual and volitional qualities; then - social activity, the quality of speech, and qualities related to the attitude towards people; close the rating professional skills and general erudition.
Almost half of the students could prepare and conduct an extracurricular activity aimed at the formation of ethical knowledge and skills (49%). About 43% of future teachers responded that they could explain ethical norms and plan ethical-educational work with students, and 38% - were indecisive.
Majority of students - 89% consider it obligatory to show respect to students, colleagues, teachers, classmates. Most respondents (76%) tried to be correct when they communicated with other people. More than half of students (55%) tried not to interrupt the interlocutor, even if he is not right. 64% of respondents believe that in any life situation it is necessary to comply with ethical standards.
Thus, the survey showed the need for an atmosphere of mutual respect in the collective of the university. At the same time, every teacher should demonstrate a clear example of ethical culture, morality, honesty, diligence, and not an example of administration and moralizing.
Mastering the professional role of a specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" includes producing an adequate model of the profession and model of professional activity in the internal plan of the teacher, mastering the necessary knowledge, skills and ethical norms and developing one's own style of activity that can successfully cope with professional tasks. At the same time, the professional self-concept of a person, that is, the set of attitudes to various aspects of the professional environment, and, especially important, the attitude to oneself as a subject of this activity plays an important role in a successful mastering of the professional role.
Analysis of pedagogical, psychological, and sociological studies shows that there are cognitive-motivational and activity-based grounds for the formation of professional ethics for future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" in the process of studying at a university.
For the formation of professional ethics, it is necessary to create specific conditions related to the experience and activities of the subject (student), since outside the situation and activity professional ethics is not manifested. One of such conditions can be specially created in pedagogical situations which are close to real social processes (Bikmukhametov, 2003). There is an organization of students' own experience (activity and personal) in the implementation of professional and pedagogical activities in the sphere of "physical culture and sport", which is an indispensable condition for mastering ethical norms and forming professional ethics on this basis.
In the students' responses, we have identified a certain contradiction between their ideas about themselves, their level of proficiency in professional ethics and ethical culture, and their real abilities in practice to apply knowledge, skills, professional ethics and ethical standards that are integral to the specialist in the field of "physical culture and sport".
So, about 56% of respondents consider their knowledge in the field of professional ethics sufficient to apply them in the period of pedagogical practices, education in the university, and in the process of physical education of students, but at the same time, 49% of the students answered that their knowledge in the field of professional ethics (in general) are insufficient. Perhaps this is because professional ethics of a specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" includes aspects such as knowledge, skills, interpersonal interaction, professional competences, and in the process of studying at the university, students limit themselves by already received or available ethical knowledge.
Most of the future specialists assess their level of professional ethics as average - 91% and high - 9%, but one in three of the respondents (33%) does not know what the professional ethics of teachers in physical culture differs from the professional ethics of teachers of other specialties or the codes of professional ethics (36%). The criterion for determining the average level of professional ethics of future specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" implies knowledge of the basic principles of pedagogy, theory and methodology of physical culture and sport, and the foundations of professional ethics and pedagogical activity of the teacher of physical culture and sport.
87% of young people consider knowledge in the field of professional ethics to be necessary for professional activity, only 47% of respondents would agree to work based on norms of professional ethics, as they consider it necessary, 38% - if they would be obliged, and only 15% disagreed, because they do not consider it necessary.
It can be assumed that not all respondents understand the importance of professional ethics, which is a prerequisite for adaptation to professional activity, and is designed primarily to strengthen the ethical component of the team's relationships (moral codes of a specialist), professional solidarity (sometimes degenerating into cooperativity), a special form of responsibility conditioned by a subject and a kind of activity of a specialist in the sphere of "physical culture and sport". One of the manifestations of professional ethics is the desire to improve one's level of knowledge and skills, and consent to work "by obligation" is only a subordination to existing conditions in the work collective. There must be the inner motivation for mastering the norms of professional ethics.
42% of respondents answered that they have professional norms of relations, whereas about 56% of students consider their knowledge sufficient to apply them in the period of pedagogical practices, education at university, and in the process of physical education of students.
We believe that students’ self-opinion and self-evaluation of their knowledge in the sphere of professional ethics are at variance with what young specialists in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" are able to realize in their professional activities.
Having examined some features of the formation of the professional ethics of future teachers in the sphere of "physical culture and sport" we concluded that resolving certain contradictions of modern vocational education is possible due to intensive reformation in accordance with the requirements of time. It is important to realize that each time we need to look for more effective methods of training future specialists in the pedagogical industry. The conducted research does not exhaust all aspects of the problem considered in the article. More detailed study needs to develop new forms and methods of attracting future specialists in the process of forming their professional culture and professional ethics in particular. Moreover, the problem of training teachers for implementation of these tasks into the practice of higher education institutions, can form the basis for further research, with detailed survey.
The work was performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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31 August 2017
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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques
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Fahrutdinova, G. Z., Bikmullina, A. R., Sokolova, I. I., & Bikmukhametov, R. K. (2017). Self-Evaluation Of Professional Ethics Formation Level In "Physical Culture And Sport". In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2017, vol 29. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 157-167). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.20