Evaluation is a stable component of the education process, mainly having a regulatory role for both train the students and to improve teaching strategies. The rating is a measure necessary in a business process management and decision-making, it providing information necessary adjustment and improvement of teaching, adopting measures appropriate training situations. It is present in any teaching activity and is related to inter-determination, functional interaction with teaching and learning, making them more effective. Through educational activities, evaluation aims to achieve awareness and appreciation of the changes students in all areas of their personality (intellectual, affective, psychomotor, creative capabilities, etc.). Nature rating action is to know the effects of the activity in order to improve the process in phases. For teaching to pursue an approach that guarantees success, special care should be given to designing training sequences, following conjugation natural elements of teaching with learning, assessment concluded. Assessment in physical education and sport is a continuous feedback purpose of confirmation or rejection by students of both quality and quantity properties of knowledge and skills quality and quantity properties psychological and social driving. The evaluation process is an ongoing, formal or informal, quality assessment of the importance or usefulness of teaching - learning. A proper evaluation involves defining, formulating process as objective characteristics evaluated, and identify the most relevant techniques and assessment tools.
Keywords: Physical educationevaluationmethods
Evaluation is a fundamental concept in any activity undertaken by an individual based on their goals and are an indispensable educational process.
Evaluation is a stable component of the education process, mainly having a regulatory role for both train the students and to improve teaching strategies.
Assessment in physical education and sport are relevant to measuring and assessing the effectiveness of the formative process, according to the objectives set. It is not just the results of the subjects, but can be extended and activity level teacher or teaching approach specific efficiency physical education lesson.
Evaluation, seen as one of the three operations of the education system is a necessary step which constitutes an act integrated pedagogical activity as a possibility validation "correctness sequences educational component teaching process and a means of separation and intervention the content and educational goals "(Cârstea, 2000).
Assessment in physical education teaching, is a system of concepts and techniques for measuring and assessing the results of the educational process and competitive activity. But the assessment should not be understood and treated only as a way to control or shape the objective measurement of knowledge, skills and driving skills but also as a strategy in the formation of motivation for practicing physical exercises.
Regarding subject to assessment in physical education lesson, it constitutes the practice of behavioral changes caused by physical plan exerdjittor cognitive, physical, motor, affective, aesthetic, moral, social subject. To achieve an objective assessment taking into account the stages of school and learning contents, we have developed a series of tests which include samples and control rules.
Like learning, assessment fulfills a number of functions. According to the literature (Cârstea, 2000; Dragnea & Teodorescu, 2002; Mihailescu & Mihailescu 2006) functions of the evaluation process are:
Finding and diagnostics function monitors whether an activity was conducted under optimal conditions, or in what kind of conditions;
Position adjustment and improvement, which is based on feedback on students' achievements and reactions;
Position diagnostic causes that led - eventually - to efficiency improper actions;
Position prognostic on future students and suggestions on optimizing the educational process;
Automatic entry position or decision on a subject in a hierarchy, form or level of its preparation;
Position teaching the subject and driver perspective educational process, to know what they did and what they have achieved;
Job training, innovation and information society, the state and evolution of preparing various echelons of subjects;
Feature selection and classification of students in relation to the results, but also in relation to progress.
School physical education evaluation is a means of relating effectively training students towards achieving planned objectives. It can be considered as the main way to control the impact of pupil means physical education and sport, but also as a mechanism of self-control on behavioral assimilations of physical, mental, motor, moral, social, aesthetic, etc. By being able to offer direct and tangible procurement data recorded, the evaluation is considered as part of the education system and has global character in terms of how engaging all students in a labeling system value.
What is the importance of evaluation in physical education and sport?
Purpose of the Study
Knowing of concept evaluation in physical education and sport creates premises deployment an educational process based on scientific foundations, manifested dynamic and effective for achieving objectives.
According to the literature (Sandu, 2012), this research within the scope of qualitative research, being represented by a process of mixing multiple methods, an approach based view of the subject.
Sports training evaluation process is actually conducted the assessment process of teaching. In education are three types of assessment: predicative, formative and summative.
Training predicative initial evaluation or initial knowledge enables students, knowledge that has an important role in programming the educational process to be conducted. Teaching Evaluation initial aims and determining the amount of time students finding skills. Is achieved by measuring and assessing the preparedness of students at the beginning of the school year, semester or the beginning of a new cycle of education which allows future orientation of teaching.
Formative Evaluation of Teaching (also called continuous) carried out during lessons throughout the semester and aims at finding accumulations according to the proposed operational objectives. It has formative influence. This type of evaluation is important because it provides accurate data on efficiency and boosts program offered to students. The advantage of applying continuous assessment is the fact that there is the possibility of reprogramming permanent training activity, leading to the correction of mistakes and achieve a steady progress. When progress is not as expected redesign required tasks, methods, means.
Summative Evaluation of Teaching (cumulative balance) include spot checks and checking the overall conclusion of the semester or school year. Important in this type of evaluation is that it provides data on the actual level of mastery knowledge and abilities at end of period / training sequence allocated by the teacher, according to the objectives of curricula. Summative evaluation of teaching aims checking the level reached and the effectiveness of the strategy, stimulate students' motivation for learning. This type of evaluation in the context of physical education, provide full, accurate data is not stimulative, when the conditions for checking are very different (with negative influences, such as wind / rain), thus having a negative influence or positive on the results and so appraisals. The final assessment is a form of appreciation of the yield achieved in the educational process, but also a basis for the new design.
Conditions of successful evaluation are:
Establishing criteria for assessment;
Evaluator's skill in performing measurements;
Evaluator's ability to interpret and assess data obtained.
Evaluation of the educational process in physical education involves the following three phases or components verification, assessment and grading and awarding marks.
Verification is the process by which the subject or action is subject to evidence being put to execute something said by the head of the educational process. Verification is accompanied by measurement, or sometimes checking is done by measuring when targeted quantitative elements such as checking by measuring the level of physical development and functional somatic indices.
Findings follow mandatory after any check. Track the stage belongs mostly teacher / trainer. It can be achieved by members of the subjects or the subject subjected to verification (self-evaluation), if that capacity was formed and developed in the educational process, especially being able to capitalize independence in activities of subjects.
In physical education lesson assessment must be made not only after verification of any executions but also acts and actions driving.
Scoring is a result of the two previous actions (checking and appreciation). It is present in case of verification subjects. Scoring re carried out mainly as planned transition control samples. Scoring is done by numbers from 10 to 1 or granting qualifiers. Note must be objective, ie appreciation consistent without bias. Also, note must be public and meet the following three main functions:
- Teaching position, expressing the exact level at which the topic is and how accomplished teaching professor / instructor entry should reflect exactly the stage where they are subject to appropriation motion skills and the skills development of more or other objectives stipulated in curriculum specialist.
- The educational necessary to determine an active attitude and awareness of the subject and it did not remove him from physical education. To perform this function as one who must lead this process and make notation to explain, to justify the note to show that they were and what prospects for said subject.
- Social function, requires orientation coefficient of success in the election and the subsequent evolution professionally the subjects assuming that any student who receives the grade 10 physical education in all school grades should be able to succeed anytime, anywhere on practical tests in entrance exam in top educational institutions in the field. If those means do not pass the practical tests in normal as the grade physical education not fulfilled the aforementioned functions, including the social.
In assessing errors may occur that affect the objectivity of the evaluation because of circumstances that may induce significant variations present is the same value at different times (variability enter individual) or to explore various (inter-individual variability), such as :
- Effect 'Halo'. The evaluation is done by extending the qualities found in certain moments of the entire student conduct. In physical education assessment of the results may be influenced by results in other subjects (math, Romanian) and those undertaking the assessment by virtue of judgments anticipated not notice any flaws of good students, even as they are not willing to find some progress the weak students. In assessing the conduct can meet two types of effect: the effect of 'bland', characterized by a tendency to appreciate more understanding persons known compared to the unknown, and the error of generosity that occurs when the assessor has some reason to be lenient, tend to present a reality superlative way (top marks), the desire to mask inadequate state of affairs, etc.
- Pygmalion effect or Oedipal effect. Assessing the results obtained from an individual that is influenced by what he did at that evaluates about its capabilities, which become relatively fixed opinion. Predictions evaluators predict not only the occurrence but also facilitates the conduct alleged.
- Personal equation evaluator. Each evaluator structures its own assessment criteria. Some are more generous, others are more demanding.
- The effect of contrast. The second is by emphasizing contrasting traits that occur after another. currently there is a tendency to operate a comparison and ranking of attributes. It is common for the same outcome to receive an appreciation (Rate) better if following the assessment of a lower score, or receive a lower assessment of real value if immediately following an excellent result.
- Effect of order. Due to phenomena of inertia, the assessor maintain about the same level of appreciation for a series of executions in reality shows qualitative differences.
- Logic error. It consists in substituting objectives and key parameters for evaluating the secondary endpoints.
Errors in assessment occur when certain personality factors are involved which take either the personality of the teacher or the student. Fatigue, time and other accidental factors may cause some distortion on assessment results.
Trends in the field regarding the evaluation process requires rethinking the relationship between the main component of the system of educational relations. Until recently the assessment was reduced to predicting outcomes by reference to the implicit and explicit rules. Recent approaches the educational process from the perspective of the system have highlighted the need to establish the link between action and evaluation, namely coherence between goals, action and results. According (Stufflebeam & Shinkfield, 1985; Cronbach, 1986; Conrad, 1994) evaluating student performance, although necessary in a didactic approach, however, is not sufficient, by itself, in improving it. Reverse connection loop, meant to suggest possibilities for improving the activity from one segment to another, it is necessary to include information about both the result and the actions that have occurred. in this respect, to reach understanding evaluation as an operation designed to obtain information in order to take decisions aiming at improving activity, as well as revealing that evaluation functions they perform on different moments of action. therefore, without disregarding the need for more accurate knowledge of student performance evaluation is meant to guide the teaching and support its systematic regulation, to guide and stimulate the learning activity, making them both more effective.
In conclusion evaluation in the educational process requires a systematic check of student performance, to detect any gaps that may stifle, to identify the objectives of teaching to improve its standing.
It is imperative that teaching will be conducted in a manner to develop and sustain students' interest in the activity carried out, to guide them in learning activities and independent practice physical exercise.
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18 December 2019
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Teacher training, teaching, teaching skills, teaching techniques,moral purpose of education, social purpose of education, counselling psychology
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Cucui*, G. G. (2019). Evaluation In Physical Education And Sport. In A. Sandu, T. Ciulei, & A. Frunza (Eds.), Multidimensional Education and Professional Development: Ethical Values, vol 27. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 100-105). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.07.03.14