Assessment is based on the measurement and assessment using criteria, objectives or closeness or proximity of a product of the student in relation to the norm. This represents a stable component of the educational process, mainly having a regulatory role for both train the students and to improve teaching strategies. Assessment and verification methods are traditional: minutes; Written; and complementary tests that can be achieved through - systematic observation of students' activity and behaviour; investigation; project; portfolio; self-evaluation, etc. Efficiency and correctness of the assessment depends on the educational process of teacher evaluation criteria. Physical education and sport, a professor documented, and well-meaning, using evaluation as a way to increase interest in practicing physical exercises performed assessment taking into account a number of criteria, among which: the criterion achieve educational objectives; compliance criteria indications, requirements, rules; criterion involvement in solving tasks; the average level reporting criteria; interest test; behaviour criterion. Modern strategies of teaching-learning-assessment seeks to emphasize the size of interactivity, which give students sufficient and varied opportunities to demonstrate what they know, as a body of knowledge but above all what they can do, as a set of skills, skills, abilities. The constant concern of practitioners in education to find and exploit new techniques and methods of evaluation has resulted in the identification and use of assessment methods that may represent a viable alternative to traditional evaluative formulas, which complement them.
Keywords: Physical educationevaluationmethods
Teaching and learning are correlative and coevolution school, being in a relationship of interdependence. They are preceded by the initial assessment is conducted at the same time formative assessment and are followed by a final evaluation. Using strategic vision in the educational process requires craftsmanship and art, and involve all resources teacher to master this art.
In the educational process, the quality of teaching is reflected in the quality of the learning experiences of students lived, and structural changes cognitive, affective and psychomotor made.
TEACHING side of the educational process is intended, planned, organized transmission by professor of theoretical and practical knowledge that underlie learning.
LEARNING side of the educational process is deliberate, planned and organized the acquisition and assimilation of theoretical and practical knowledge of the student on teaching and individual study.
In light of learning pedagogy "is the process of assimilation of knowledge and skill building and practical skills necessary for future activities" (Nicola, 1998).
By the uniqueness of the individual, man is a being bio-psychosocial each student lives learning experiences different, depending on the characteristics of their own personality and their own subjectivity which requires addressing a process of teaching-learning-assessment based on scientific foundations from teacher achieve objectives and meet the educational needs of students.
To teach is to give, transmit systematic knowledge specific to a discipline; of this matter, to inform, to mediate the transfer of information; communicate some knowledge of results, scientific research; expose a lesson etc. By teaching aims not only transmit knowledge but also skills, attitudes and behaviors.
According to Alexe (2010) teaching in physical education and sport is "all actions and activities carried out consciously and systematically by the teachers / coaches on students and / or athletes by transmission of specific information in an institutional or not, organized by the rules and objectives of physical education and sport, to develop bio-psycho-social".
Besides the two sides of the the education process, teaching and learning, I believe that the assessment is the third side is an integral part of the educational process is present throughout its course.
Knowledge of teaching-learning-assessment used in physical education and sport, creates prerequisites exhibition, an educational process based on scientific foundations, manifested dynamic and effective for achieving objectives.
What are the methods of teaching - learning and assessment used in physical education and sport?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research was to explore ways of teaching-learning-evaluation present in the educational process in the area of physical education and sports.
This research study is based on a broad knowledge of teaching-learning-assessment in physical education and sport. That I think Identifying Methods of teaching - learning - evaluation of physical education and sport is essential to carry out educational process substantiated.
The teaching methods in physical education and sport refers to the concrete that is teaching (especially on ways verbal and intuitive), mastering the taught (especially in the way of exercising), correcting mistakes, evaluating the way of acquiring those taught etc. .
According to Cârstea (2000) methods in physical education and sport are many ways, they constitute a system:
proper training methods
methods for correcting errors of execution;
methods of verification, assessment and grading;
methods of rehabilitation exercise capacity.
In component of training methods in physical education and sports go, the classical interpretation, at least the following three categories:
Achieving educational process is not the result of using a single method of teaching, but the cumulative result of blending and permanent use of all methods and methodical procedures. Thus, demonstration or explanation may be accompanied by conversation, may precede or follow exercise. Using a method of education is not purely singular, unidirectional, but one multifunctional.
The choice of methods in the educational process, is the act that requires great responsibility from the teacher, because it must ensure finality of physical education, finality is different from class to class, from one education cycle to another, from one student to another. Effective educational process is given by the dynamic interplay between teaching, learning and assessment. Each of the three sides of the process is related to each other, to enter into a real and effective interaction. Professor operationalize the objectives of teaching students according to age, selects contents depending on the profile class, choose and combine methods, means and forms of organization of the lesson depending on the particular educational topics.
Assessment in physical education and sport is mainly the action of harvesting, processing and interpretation of the results obtained, a test, a test in order to make the best decisions (Tudor, 2005).
This represents a stable component of the educational process, mainly having a regulatory role for both train the students and to improve teaching strategies.
The most common methods of assessment in physical education are formative and summative one. Formative assessment is mainly qualitative and descriptive (eg, expressed orally or in writing). It identifies learning outcomes and student performance in a particular period and further progress that they might face.
Instead, summative assessment is generally performed by grades, expressed as numbers or letters on the achievement of certain activities or tests in a given period of time. Notes are normally based on a scale (ranging, for example, from 1 to 10, or from 'A' to 'E'), which in most cases is used for all subjects in the curriculum.
Efficiency and correctness of the assessment depends on the educational process of teacher evaluation criteria. Physical education and sport, a professor documented, and well-meaning, using evaluation as a way to increase interest in practicing physical exercises performed assessment taking into account a number of criteria, among which: the criterion achieve educational objectives; compliance criteria indications, requirements, rules; criterion involvement in solving tasks; the average level reporting criteria; interest test; progress criterion, criterion behavior.
In assessing the sport is undoubtedly requires the use of methodological advantage of the systemic approach (Cucui, 2016a). A systemic approach leads to the emphasis of the dynamics of the activities (Cucui, 2016b).
Studying literature (Comisia Europeană/EACEA/Eurydice, 2013) I noticed that there are differences in approach to assessment in physical education and sport.
In Cyprus, formative assessment in lower secondary education is based on the following criteria: progress in a given period (50%); active and positive participation in physical education classes (30%); and students' attitudes towards physical education and sports for practice and health (20%).
In Spain, the learning processes of students in physical education are evaluated. In lower secondary education, taking account of aspects of acquiring healthy habits, the implementation of learning, the self-application, the ability to overcome difficulties, develop physical abilities, teamwork, developing collective participation in sports involvement, effort, creativity, theoretical and practical knowledge and critical skills.
In the primary and lower secondary Slovenia, during and at all stages of learning, teachers monitor the physical, motor and functional abilities of students and mastery of different sports. Involvement in extracurricular activities and personal sports results are assessed during the physical education classes at school and in other competitions.
In lower secondary education in Greece, physical education teachers assess students throughout the lesson by them or by making some brief tests of physical fitness. The time spent for testing should be minimal, so as not to shorten the time allocated to teaching. Scala personal performance assessment for each subject from 1 to 20. Note the annual performance for physical education represent average grades three semesters.
France has a national reference framework for competencies for physical education at primary level, but there is no corresponding rating scales for physical activities. Therefore, each school prepares its own evaluation criteria, according to sports that are practiced in the institution.
In Romania, the methodology for the application of process evaluation in physical education and sport is based on national evaluation system developed by the Ministry of Education and Research in 2000, which provides scales equivalent minimum Note 5 to the grant marks the upper and lower Note 5, committees of teachers and every teacher methodical develop their own grading scales. We see, then, as states and Mihăilescu and Mihăilescu, (2006), in Romania promotes normative assessment.
Their performance and value equivalence notes will be determined by the number of weekly hours and actual working conditions. National system aimed at assessing the main capabilities and competencies required to be made in the curriculum E.F.S. (Common Core).
For each capacity / competence, the system provides 2-3 variants of evidence from which the student can choose one of them.
In primary education, 2 assessments at Grades driving, two basic motor skills assessments to 2 assessments at elementary sports skills.
Classes V-VIII student will sustain annual 1-2 to force assessments, evaluations 1-2 in athletics and one evaluation gymnastics and sports game.
In high school and professional assessment by force, athletics, gymnastics and sports game.
The programming will be conducted evaluations semesters teaching according to the conditions of carrying out the educational process.
The notes are awarded based on the results to support evidence and taking into account, as appropriate criteria on the health, availability motive, attitude towards the educational process and progress, provided in individual form.
Teaching, learning and assessment are the activities through which the learning process, stands in a relation of interdependence.
In modern teaching acceptance include not only the transmission of knowledge but also the entire system of actions and operations undertaken by the teacher to design and deploy lesson.
The key to learning in physical education and sport is full of living this experience, active involvement, active participation of students in the act of cognition practice for acquiring skills to develop motor skills for harmonious physical development, etc.
From the perspective of a product centered learning and learning content, "results" to be evaluated are the knowledge acquired by students skills (skills and abilities), formed skills, attitudes, qualities, skills developed (capacity).
- Alexe, I. D. (2010). Predarea atletismului în învățământul gimnazial. Iași: Pim Publishing.
- Cârstea, Gh. (2000). Teoria și metodica educației fizice și sportului. București: AN-DA Publishing House.
- Comisia Europeană/EACEA/Eurydice, 2013. Educaţia fizică şi sportul în şcolile din Europa Raport Eurydice. Luxemburg: Oficiul pentru publicaţii al Uniunii Europene. Retrieved from http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/150ro.pdf
- Cucui, Ghe., G. (2016a). Actualitate și perspective în managementul cluburilor de fotbal la copii și junior. Târgoviște: Bibliotheca Publishing.
- Cucui, Ghe., G. (2016b). Systemic Vision – Its Necessity in the Management of Sports Organizations. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioral Science, 237-333.
- Mihăilescu, L. & Mihăilescu, N. (2006). Atletism în sistemul educațional. Pitești: Editura Universității din Pitești.
- Nicola, I. (1998). Manual de pedagogie. Bucureşti; E.D.P Publishing..
- Tudor, V. (2005). Măsurare și evaluare în educație fizică și sport. București: Alpha Publishing House.
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18 December 2019
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Teacher training, teaching, teaching skills, teaching techniques,moral purpose of education, social purpose of education, counselling psychology
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Cucui*, I. A. (2019). Teaching – Learning – Assessment In Physical Education And Sport. In A. Sandu, T. Ciulei, & A. Frunza (Eds.), Multidimensional Education and Professional Development: Ethical Values, vol 27. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 94-99). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.07.03.13