Fundamental basis of society modernization is the modernization of its institutional system. It is obvious that any modernization requires of great resources. In contemporary conditions the gaining of these resources from the outside is a problem. Therefore, the implementation of modernization in Russian Federation can be real, first of all, by using its own internal resources.The success of Russian society modernization is connected with conducting of organic modernization that based on internal resources. The synergy is a unique and an inexhaustible nonmaterial resource of organic modernization.In the article had been conducted the analysis of usage possibilities the synergy’s potential of the society for realization the organic modernization. The organic modernization considers as the most effective and harmonic kind of the society renewal that is founded on the usage of its internal resources. The authors emphasize the importance of self-organization processes during the realization of organic modernization and the role of various subjects-bearers of special social practices in this case.
Keywords: Synergymodernizationsociety’s institutional systemmodernization subjects
Modernization is considered to be one of the fundamental ways to provide the favourable prospects for its reproduction and development for the most part of contemporary societies, including the Russian Federation. Society as a system is reproduced as the social system provided by performing fundamental functions that are carried out by the system of social institutes, and it can not exist without this process. This stable complex of fundamental functions for the society life-support is the system of social institutes. Existent social institutes consist of institutional complexes, social organizational forms and social regulators. For example, these institutional arrangements such as formal and informal rules, various “fields” and “local orders”, conventions etc. are the elements of the system of social institutes (Kirdina, 2015). Social aspect of modernization is based on the modernization of its institutional systembecause the society’s reproduction can not be achieved without modernization of its life-support system. Nowadays, the whole social renewal is impeded because of the insufficientreadiness of the institutional system for being thebasis of this process. The adaptation to the promptly and incredibly changing society requires the institutionalization of conditions for the activity of social actors that are not ready to implement the principally new decisions as well as to be the origin of the change (Zarubina, 2015). Therefore, the key precondition for modernization of society as a functional system is modernization of the institutional system. This is the core of the modernization process. However, the conducted modernization of the social institute’s system is the basis of successful modernization for the society in general.
Organic modernization theme is actual but its methodological and methodic basis is insufficient. In authors opinion, there is a need for accentuation the principles, methodological approaches and methods which were used as the scientific tools in this research.
Based on the principle of scientific approach its usage is possible as the usage of explanation principle or theoretical justification of obtained data and the principle of objective character. The methodological base of this research is the following research approaches: functional, institutional and system. Functional approach used in classic form of H. Spencer which considered the society as a social organism. The institutional approach is used in the version of conceptual modification by A.I. Kreyk as functional model of society institutional system. The system approach is the foundation for the substantiation of organic modernization synergy nature. In the research were used such general scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction, deduction and modelling.
Results and Discussion
The history of Russian modernization’s patterns is the gradual implementation of mobilizing modernization thatdid not lead to the expected result butincreased the sociocultural break between different modernization subjects and social groups. Therefore, at present, it is evident that there exists a necessity in realizing organic modernization based on the endogenous potential of society, its needs and sources. Lapin N.I. emphasized the tendency of concentratingattention on real modernization processes and rejecting the legends of overtaking development or other review of modern countries’ experience (Lapin, 2015).
Organic modernization is the evolutional process of qualitative change in the society as a result of the mainly nonviolent impact and on the basis of the internal society’s potential, its self-organization, the appearance of new social forms, behavioral patterns and subjects of a new historical type. It is necessary to consider the social system to beself-sufficient and the existence of internal provisions for development to understand the process of organic modernization. The appearance of forms on their own basis happens during the process of organic modernization as the renewal of the society based on reproduction and development of their internal preconditions, as well as their own resources (human, cultural, social, geographical etc.)
The organic modernization subjectscan be of two types: potential and actual. The potential modernization subjects havethe following features:
The actual modernization subjects havethe following features:
The opportunities for conducting the modernization always depend on the resource potential of the society. In this case, we consider the costs for implementing the modernization. The practice of previous modernizations in different countries shows us the necessity for vastresources. Among these resources, we distinguish the following:
These factors predetermine the significance of such different and not irrelevant resources that are named as “nonmaterial resources” for the possibility of conducting real modernization. One of the most effective nonmaterial resources is synergy, i.e. a prime cost of its production as well as the consequences of its usage.
According to the second law of thermodynamics,such resources should not exist in the society. But the society always has at least one resource, i.e. synergy.
Thus, in spite of the wide synergy’s usage in all spheres and at all levels of the society, the modernizing usage of this resource has never been considered by the specialists and it has not been actualized by present. It means that synergy is not underestimated as a nonmaterial resource, but in this quality,its existence has been ignored.
Such events and processes are obvious in that coherent action of two different kinds that are related to different origins (Horujii, 2011). The most simple essence of synergy appears as
The production can be technologicallyrealizedbecause it requires implementing at least one key and constantly realizing action in the society as coherent or cooperative interactions between the structures of the society in different spheres and at various levels.
What are the advantages of the synergy as a nonmaterial modernization resource? They are as follows:
The fundamental advantage of synergy is its production directly by people as a part of multiple infinite kinds and forms of their vital activity since the coherent interactions in the society aimed at its synergy are the vital function of human reproduction as tribal being.
Functional appearance of synergy occurs in a synergy’s effect that is presented as a result of social structural interactions in the process of goal achievement that is greater than the sum of separate social results.
Synergy exists in some hidden kind as the possibility of gaining the synergy’s effect.
And in this kind, the synergy is the possible resource of the society that we can use for achieving a more successful goal. The society has the task to reveal and to determine the potential that we consider as synergy.
We can consider synergy as a resource, although it is not relevant when the society realizes synergy as a quality and potential resource that can be used for increasing the efficiency ofits structures activity. The main goal of researchers and the elite is to understand synergy as a potential society resource and to use it efficiently in the administration system of the society.
We can state the beginning of the process of purposeful society’s potential formation when the society realizes the synergy as its potential resource, providing the efficiency of activity and undertaking definite administrative actions to provide the conditions of its “production” and further usage. The society has the real synergy potential as its own endogenous resource when its created potential can be really used for gaining the synergy effect. Thus, this synergy resource is to be evaluated by the society to use it rationally in planning and designing actions for increasing the efficiency of its activity.
The synergy asa nonmaterial resource possesses the following features:
The synergy is “produced” by means of coherent interactions. The institution’s formation is a system process (Tarasevich,&Miropolskii, 2014). When institutional structures receive a specified system of relations from the institutional system of the society that is external for it, this system does not contradict its structure, but, conversely, promotes its progressive development (Tarasevich,&Miropolskii, 2014). Due to the coherenceof institutional structures,we can observe the “system effect” (Tarasevich, &Miropolskii, 2014). The context allows the authors to define thatthe meaning which authors convey in the notion corresponds to “the essence of the synergy effect”. However, the high level of coherent interactions between components and levels of the institutional society system generates the “production” of synergy.
The synergy appears as received definite results that have both a material and nonmaterial expression. Evidently, the most harmonic (coherent) interactions are those that conform to the society nature. This is also typical of the institutional system of the society that provides its functional production. Thereafter, the modernization of the institutional system of the society due to its nature provides the high level of synergy’s “production” according to the historical coherence between its components and levels (it can be determined as organic modernization).
On the one hand, it is expressed by the efficient and rational use of material and nonmaterial resources of the society. This is the additive effect of synergy’s appearance in the process of organic modernization. On the other hand, it reveals different innovative phenomena in the society that have qualitative distinctions from the previous ones: new behavioral models and social practices. This is the emergent effect of synergy’s appearance in the process of organic modernization. Thus, we can define the organic modernization as synergy because it is completely based on the co-ordination of resources consumption. Its realization is provided by the combination of the resource complex that has both additive nature (it means that its usage generates the quantitative increase of results) and emergent nature (it means the achieved result appears as qualitative new phenomena).
The organic modernization of the society’s institutional system is objectively and naturally generated by synergy’s “production”. So we can conclude that organic modernization is synergy by nature.
The real modernization is built mostly from below and provided by aggregated creativity of free individuals (Buldakov, 2015). The society is the wholeness that creates itself in the process of self-organization. The components of the wholeness are under the condition of constant self-adjustment and self-regulation, and they create the space of self-sufficiency for the elements and relations of the system. Social subjects are self-organizing as a result of competition and cooperation between different forms of interactions and behavior tactics and they reveal their endogenous potential. The actual subjects of social changes that alter social life appear as a consequence of self-organization and self-formation processes. Then potential subjects of changes may form and activate themselves in future, as well asbe ready for the active social practices under certain circumstances.
Modernization subjects accumulating ideas and creative social practices make the space for realizingthe society’s potential as organic modernization. We can assert that this process occurs as the following levels of self-organization:
We should pay attention to the special status of this social institute in the society’s institutional system, based on the institutional nature of the organic modernization management process and the formation of the synergy’s potential as a necessary nonmaterial resource. The social institute “Management” should be considered as the core (together with the social institute “Culture”) of the institutional system of the society. Their affiliation with the institutional system’s core is determined by the duality of the functions that they implement in the society. They not only fulfil their fundamental functions in the society, but also realize the additional specific function concerning the institutional system: its reproduction bases on its own foundation.
Because of the “super-function”, (i.e. the implementation of two functions), the social institute “Management” can be defined as a “Meta-institute”. This status predetermines its key role in the synergy’s “production” in the society, in general, and the nonmaterial resource of organic modernization, in particular.
Based on its functional nature, this institute provides not only the reproduction of the society but its development. This institute uses the regulative complex (system of values, formal and informal norms, status-role system) and various forms of orderliness (target, socio-natural, sociotechnogenic) and the existing resources in the society.
Apparently, the regulative complex, forms of orderliness that the meta-institute “Management” uses and authorities delegated by the society are the resources “committed” to implement the institutional function. This social institute has the possibilities that can be defined as forthcoming to its absolute.
Another aspect is that meta-institute “Management” on its nature potentially has such a unique nonmaterial resource as an emergent potential (synergy is one of the emergence appearances). From the functional point of view, the emergence realizes itself in practice for the society as the certain qualitative appearances ((quality)-properties) of phenomena.
The bigger the degree of self-organization, which can be produced by the meta-institute “Management”, the better, asthe conscious management requires huge resources for detailed organization of coherent interactions in society in all spheres and at all levels.
The fundamental basis formanagement processes occurring in society as well as its self-organization is, on the one hand, the cooperative nature of the society, on the other hand, the competition that generates inevitable “resistance” to the coherent interactions.
Taking into account the distinct features of organic modernization, we can notice that modernization subjects have certain behavior models. Their behavior can be presented as reformist and modernization ones. The reformist behavior is the improvement of current interactive forms and the occurrence of additional forms that promotetheuse of new socio-economic practices more efficiently. Modernization behavior is founded on the support of alternative forms, new variants of actions and new practices.
Social forces and subjects realize specific tactics and behavior models for revealing their potential in the process of organic modernization. The organic modernization is a result of a self-development process in the society and its qualitative changes that depend on the interactions with external environment and the possibility of internal potential revealing.
The organic modernization presupposes the whole renewal of the society thatreveals on its own basis, the activation of the potential as well as actual modernization subjects. For this process, there is a necessity in the right choice of such growth points for the concentration of current resources that can guarantee only the modernization effect leading to the beginning of deep changes both in the institutional and sociocultural structure of society (Pliskevich, 2016). At present, we can observe some dotted and local manifestations of the activity of organic modernization subjects. In spite ofthe fact thatthey have been “dispersed” in the space of social transformations,to some degree they become the places of interaction accumulation for interested groups. Thus, they are both the local centers of innovations and a platform for stable reproduction of modernization practices.
We can state that it is rather difficult to design the conditions of the synergy achievement. Thus, the study of synergy in the society leads to a conclusion that the most complicated thing is to understand the outcomes of the “action”. Therefore, we can insist that the main goal of the society modernization is to realize its organic nature which is based on the calculation of all the synergy aspects.
The organic modernization of the society, as the public practice in different countries shows, leads in most cases to outcomes that can be considered as socially acceptable or close to desired. They become the patterns for conducting further modernization in other countries.
Therefore, the organic modernization is synergy by its nature,andthe functional nature of the society’s institutional system is determined by the coherence between various social institutes and their different levels. The mutual coherence of institutional structures leads to the strengthening of their actions and impacts. This generates the additional cumulative effect. As long as everyday operation of institutional functions on their basis is provided by routine institutional practices while the content of these practices is determined by the system of institutional regulators, the “production” of synergy during the organic modernization process mainly occurs as self-organization.
Thus, it is obvious that the Russian modernization is successful when:
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20 July 2017
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Kreyk, A. I., & Komf, E. V. (2017). Synergy Aspects of Organic Modernization. In K. Anna Yurevna, A. Igor Borisovich, W. Martin de Jong, & M. Nikita Vladimirovich (Eds.), Responsible Research and Innovation, vol 26. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 444-450). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.07.02.57