The article analyzes the socio-cultural needs of students in family values: in creating a family; in preserving the traditions of the society, its institutions and values; in the education of their children; in care by relatives. Social and cultural needs are characterized by a desire to find a human reflection of a society's culture in its being through the direct interaction with society. The urgency of family values is reflected in the education development strategy in the Russian Federation and the state cultural policy framework. Using a layered approach to the socio-cultural needs of family values is differentiated by levels. A quantitative and qualitative interpretation of low, medium and high levels of socio-cultural needs of the family. It is assumed that the formation of the needs of family values in the Russian youth helps specially organized psychological and pedagogical support.
Keywords: Socio-cultural needscollege studentsvaluesfamily
For many centuries, the family has been and remains the enduring value to the individual. The family man passes his first socialization, acquiring its first social roles, finds in it the meaning of life and development. The strategy of education development in the Russian Federation for the period 2025 family performs basic national values of Russian society, expresses "love and loyalty, health, prosperity, respect for parents, care of the younger, about procreation."
One of the main principles of the Education Development Strategy of the Russian Federation are the principles of social and cultural development, positive socialization and spiritual and moral formation of the younger generation, education of the members of a democratic society that can invest their personal resources for the benefit of themselves and the country, to carry out a deliberate choice in favor of humanist universal and national values. Implementation of these principles is possible through the development and strengthening of national core values of Russian society. These values are, among other family love and loyalty, respect for parents, care of older and younger generations, caring for procreation.
The State Russian cultural policy focuses on the revival of the traditions of family education, awareness of family values as the foundation of personal and social well-being; bridging the gap between generations within the family, the approval of the public consciousness of traditional family values, enhancing the social status of the family.
In the era of social transformation awareness of family priority young people and traditional family values are of particular importance (Huhlaev, 2011). Representing the foundation stability of the state, the family and the value of each individual deserves close attention and study of teachers, psychologists, sociologists. Part of the philosophy and values of human orientations are its needs, which are included in the personality structure and characterize its orientation. The system of social and cultural needs of young people as the needs of the person characterized by the desire to find a reflection of a society's culture in its being through the direct interaction with society; the family should be seen as a mechanism of resistance of the Russian society (Zuev, & Shvetsova, 2015).
To investigate the severity of the need for family values in students, we have developed a questionnaire. The survey involved 341 university students of the Ivanovo region. After becoming acquainted with the concept of social and cultural needs, the respondents were asked to rate the extent to which it is inherent in each of the proposed requirements. To answer it offered five variations of the severity of needs: none; no more; likely present; likely present; pronounced. The formulation of social and cultural needs has been identified during the preliminary survey of students focus. The survey revealed students subjective reflection of the studied needs, needs of a sense of power in them. Students evaluated the power requirements of starting a family, educating their children, etc. (Strunkina et al, 2016).
In the survey, students’ kinds of social and cultural needs have been identified and their identities were the needs in the family and traditional values: the need to create family; in preserving the traditions of the society, its institutions and values; in the education of their children; in care by relatives.
For further analysis of the data it was used a tiered approach. Social and cultural needs of students, depending on the personal actualization may occur at different levels.
The low level of expression of social and cultural needs suggests a lack of importance of socio-cultural needs of the students at this time, the average level - the presence of potency for the development needs of high level - the relevance of the needs. At a low level of social and cultural needs of the students, they do not feel the need to meet the needs of the family and traditional values. Presented needs may be part of a specific life problem or indirectly deal with these problems. Students have no need for creating a family and raising their children, their behavior is not aimed at preserving the traditions of society and adherence to the norms of morality.
The Intermediate level of social and cultural needs of students suggests the orientation to meet the needs of their families and traditional values. In the system of the directions in life they are directly related to the concrete tasks, but the life goal. The studied needs may be also just applied to the life goal, be a part of it. For such students, the family values take an intermediate position. Young people do not deny such values absolutely, and do not put them first.
The high level of social and cultural needs of students arouses the sense of an urgent need for the family and traditional values; the definition of life goals is directly related to them and/or is based on them. The students have chosen such a model of the behaviour that corresponds to the development and preservation of the social traditions, its institutes and values. These students need supporting by their relatives, want to create a family and raise their children. The family values are the most relevant among others.
Using a tiered approach, we introduced the single quantitative indicators «1», «2», «3», assessing the low, intermediate and high levels of social and cultural needs of students. As socio-cultural needs may occur at different levels, we have considered the general requirements for highlighting these levels: the clear boundaries, the transition from one level to the next reflects the development, each level works with both previous and next levels (Strunkina, 2015).
Grouping results of the allocation according to the levels was carried out on a scale: the low level – from 5 to 11; the intermediate level – from 12 to 18; the high level – from 19 to 25. The summary score characterizes the general result and changes the range from 5 to 25. The reached scores of each student were outlined in the summary table, showing the degree of expressiveness of one need or another.
Results and discussion
The student survey allowed distributing, according to the levels, their social and cultural needs for the family. It must be noted that the results are subjective as they were received from the self-assessment of students` social and cultural needs. Table
The analysis of the results sets that 2.64 % of the respondents showed the low level of the needs for the family and traditional values. They do not experience the urgency feeling in meeting the needs for creating a family; raising their children; in care by relatives; belonging to the country and the citizenship, language, traditions; adherence to the norms of morality. These needs are not the basis for the life tasks of this group of students; such needs may be a part of these tasks or indirectly relate to them. The key guiding principles of these students do not contain the creating a family. All in all, the respondents of this group are focused on an alternative way of realization. This group of students needs special psychological and pedagogical conditions conducive to development of needs for a family. Such needs are important in the modern state policy. Just tradition values will create the basement for harmonious development and successful self-realization (Kislyakov et al, 2016). It was therefore necessary to involve students in a training and advisory process intended to form and develop family values.
76.54 % of the surveyed stated that they had the Intermediate level of the severity of the need for family. They are focused on meeting the needs for creating a family; raising their children; in care by relatives; belonging to the country and the citizenship, language, traditions; adherence to the norms of morality. In the system of the directions in life of this group of students, the needs for a family are connected with the specific objectives, but they are not the life goal. Social and cultural needs may be just a part of the priority life goal. Probably, this youth population ranges between the other life directions, which are the most popular and necessary nowadays among young people: the career and enjoying the pleasures (Mishchenko, 2014). It may be assumed, that the targeted impact on the development of the social and cultural needs through the training lessons, mass media, consulting work which can cause a positive effect on this group of young people. This youth population will build their own hierarchy of values taking the “family” into account, establishing in its importance and priority.
20.82 % of the surveyed have a high level of social and cultural needs for creating a family; raising their children; in care by relatives; belonging to the country and the citizenship, language, traditions; adherence to the norms of morality. This group consists of the students, which have a family in their hierarchy of life goals. It is necessary to develop and save the tradition values of the society for such people. They need care by relatives, want to create a family and raise their children. The family values are relevant for this group of students. These respondents must be under the influence of the primary prevention propagating family values. The needs can change through the interaction of the person and the society. It is necessary to save the significance of the family values for this group of people. The process of the psychological and educational support will help to form the conscious activity of the entity (Martsinkovskaya, 2011). It is necessary to develop a successful personality.
Studying the social and cultural needs in a family is a part of the huge research of the social and cultural needs of the youth, which contains the needs for the national and civil identity, professional growth, social reflection, sharing social culture. The dendrogram is the most important result of cluster analysis (Fig.
Social and cultural needs for creating a family; raising their children; adherence to the norms of morality and saving social traditions, it`s institutes and values are in the relations to each other. Students` need for care by relatives is connected with the needs for the social interaction (in the communication culture), and needs for the professional self-development (receiving education, professional growth, receiving new information). Students` need for care by relatives depends on the level of development of the gnostic and cultural needs of students. Cluster analysis shows that the need for a family is connected with the other social and cultural needs. It concerns the option of the comprehensive impact on the social and cultural needs through the programme of the psychological and educational support (Knyazeva et al, 2016).
Remarks: Needs: 1 – in work; 2 – receive education; 3 – professional growth; 4 – receive new information;
The effective means of development of social and cultural needs of the students can be theoretically and methodologically grounded properly by the developed psychological support program. The backbone of the program is to link its purpose, which expresses the focus on the development of social and cultural needs of the students. The program of psychological support of the development of social and cultural needs of young people is based on scientific principles: consistency, adaptability, determinism, democracy, humanism, developing training, taking into account the age and psychological characteristics of students and environmental friendliness. In the construction of psychological support program development of social and cultural needs of young people used age, cultural, historical, personal, activity and systematic methodological approaches.
The programme of the psychological and educational support of the development of the social and cultural needs in the family is based on using the psychodiagnosis, psychological education, correction- and development-training work, psychological counseling. Psychological diagnosis is aimed at studying personal characteristics and existing level of the needs, evaluation of the psychological work conducted with the students. For psychological diagnosis, software package NS-Psychotest is offered including a technique for measuring the artistic and aesthetic needs (V.S.Avanesov) and cognitive needs (VS Jurkiewitch); assessing the need for approval (D. Crown and D. Marlowe); scale in the search needs of sensations (M.Tsukerman); Szondi test. As a diagnostic tool offers an original questionnaire "Socio-cultural needs", developed in the course of sociological research students. Psychological education is aimed at forming psychological knowledge connected with the personality and his/her needs, to explain the role of the needs and values in human`s life, to motivate students for active performance during training and working on their own. Psychological education prevents the initiation of the maladaptation during the programme realization, helps to form students` need for an active participation and inclusion in the programme, provides the reception of necessary relevant information about development issues. The correction- and development-training work helps to create the necessary psychological conditions facilitating the development of the social and cultural needs of students during the practice. This is the main purpose of the programme. Educational work is amed at creating the social and psychological conditions for the holistic development of the respondents, and psychological correction work is to solve specific problems, behavior or mental well-being. Here the social and psychological training acts as a principal method. Psychological consulting is a necessary phase for the individual development and overestimation of student`s values. Such consulting causes the support and helps in the development of the personality strengthening the reflection.
The analysis of the results states that the most significant part of the respondents do not consider the family values as the basic goal. The overwhelming majority of the respondents do not place the family values first, and another part of the respondents (2.64%) does not need to create a family, raise their children. Mostly, student youth has the medium level of the expression of the social and cultural needs for a family: needs for creating a family, raising their children, saving social traditions, adherence to the norms of morality are not current at this stage of life, but are considered to be the possible opportunities for the future.
Alternative needs for the career, entertainments are encouraged by the high demands for worker`s competence and popularization of the leisure activities. Entertainment industry attracts more young people, the career growth becomes as a norm and is equal to success and self-realization (Jouravleva, 2013; Konstantinovsky, & Popova, 2015). As the rhythm of life increases, there is no time for a comprehensive development. That`s why young people have to make a choice. The certain proportion of the young population do not choose the family. The family and children are considered as an obstacle in career and as a hindrance of the pleasures of a young life. Such ideas can cause a demographic decline and the loss of the society moral directions.
Therefore, there is a necessity to create a system of the psychological and pedagogical events for developing the social and cultural needs for a family among young people.
This system should contain both theoretical and practical knowledge, social advertisement and the popularization of the family traditions in the society. The adoption of the psychological and pedagogical programme of the developing of the social and cultural needs into the youth`s life will become meaningful for interiorization of the family traditions, saving social traditions, institution of the family and strengthening the country.
The programme issues realization should be carried out in the targeted psychological and pedagogical work with students. Such programme should cause a psychological help for the development of the basic social and cultural components. The programme of the psychological support should contain next directions: the psychological diagnosis, psychological education, correction- and development-training work, individual psychological counseling. The comprehensive approach of the psychological and pedagogical support will bring the social and cultural needs for family forward using the different psychological methods (social and psychological training, lecture and talk, workshop) methods and techniques.
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Strunkina, T. S., Shmeleva, E. A., Luneva, L. F., Belov, M. S., & Belyakova, N. V. (2017). Socio-Cultural Needs Of Young People In Family As Russian Society Values. In K. Anna Yurevna, A. Igor Borisovich, W. Martin de Jong, & M. Nikita Vladimirovich (Eds.), Responsible Research and Innovation, vol 26. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 914-920). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.07.02.118