Didactic Communication In Primay School

Abstract

Didactic communication, as a particular form of human communication is essential in using the contents for the teaching activity and presupposes a dual relationship, teacher- pupil, and also an interaction for the feedback regarding the information used during communication. The purpose of didactic communication is to form opinions regarding the development of the didactic activities where the most efficient means and procedures should facilitate the accessibility of cognition and human practice. Communication is the basis of the educational relationship in the educational process. Didactic communication is also an educational communication, because the teacher enables changes in the pupils’ personalities. Didactic communication represents the basis of the teaching-learning process in which the partners have different roles: teachers are the main agents of education and the pupils are under the subordination of the institution. Didactic communication is not only an activity that puts together the teacher and the pupil, but also a process of influencing attitudes, believes, behaviors and volition.

Keywords: Didactic communicationeducational relationshipfeedbackeducational agentschildren’s personality

Introduction

Didactic communication represents the totality of activities that transmit and receive messages

whose content refers to learning, developing of knowledge and abilities during the educational process (

Pâinișoară, 2003, p.,123). Didactic communication, as a background for the teaching-learning process,

requires some links between the educator and scholar. To communicate means more than learning,

because messages can also be transmitted through nonverbal communication. The role of the

communication during the educational activity is made important by the fact that it represents “a premise,

a source, means and effect of education itself” (Șoitu, 1997, p.32.).Didactic communication represents

an interactive relation where all the forms are implied- verbal communication, nonverbal and paraverbal

communication. Nonverbal and paraverbal communication facilitate the sending and understanding of the

message. The primary teacher, combining verbal with nonverbal and paraverbal messages, transmits the

educational content clearly and easier to understand. The inadequacy between types of communication

may provoke some confusion. The purpose of communication in school is not supported by the school

success, but by the human success. Through educational communication, the pupil is helped to express

his ideas, to speak freely, in this way he reveals himself from the need of spontaneous expressing ( Șoitu,

p.7)

Particular to the educational communication is the fact that there are some formative effects for the

pupils, even from the teacher’s point of view. For the small pupils, communication is spontaneous and

sincere, the expression being less controlled; from this reason the teacher’s task is to form and develop

the children’s communication skills, as a symbol for the education that aims perfection. If the organizing

of the educational process stays behind the pupil’s potential it stops his intellectual development.

The didactic communication has to fulfil many conditions for being effective:

1. The teacher’s message has to be identical or at least, closer to his intentional message that

produced a logical utterance, otherwise the communication would be nonsense. For a better

understanding, the discursive process of the teacher has to contain dates, facts, observations, experiments

from real life, as well as explanations, interpretations and arguments that should lead pupils to distinguish

between the real facts and scientific experiences.

2. The way the teacher communicates and his artistry of presenting his ideas, all of them represent

means of increasing the teacher’s efficiency in order to reach the top of the educational process. The

teachers that are the most efficient in the communicative act are the ones that know how to use the

language resources, but also the means of linguistic and extra linguistic methods.

3. An efficient, didactic communication accomplishes the speaker’s action and it also stimulates

the understanding. The pupils have to be educated in the spirit of freedom and expression and to realize

the fact that, talking to the others may be a source of inspiration, a source for scientific, moral and

aesthetical discoveries.

4. An efficient didactic communication cannot exist without the feedback. If we don’t keep in

mind the feedback, all the informational flow may be blocked. The importance of the class feedback and

for the pupils also, is underlined by Roger Mucchilli: “not giving the feedback reduces the learning

process to an useless discourse, frustrating for both partners of the discourse, especially for pupils.”(

Mucchielli, 2000, p. 37).

5. Interpersonal communication is determined by the type of relationship that exists between two

people. Jean Claude Abric establishes five rules for an efficient communication: listen, observe, analyze,

express and control (Abric, 2002, p.32).

Pedagogical communication implies the capacity of explaining in an accessible shape the

informative content, to convince the pupils and to empathize with them, to have the opportunity to

motivate them for developing their skills for communication.

The hypothesis

We consider that, giving a special attention to didactic communication during the teaching-

learning process in small pupils, we create the premises for an efficient communication.

Objectives

1). Establishing the level for the pupils’ capacity of communication at all stages: verbal (oral and

written) and extra verbal (nonverbal and paraverbal) .

2). Identifying the ways of poor communication and starting some improving steps.

3). Teaching communication skills to small pupils.

Research Methods

For obtaining the data that verify the hypothesis were used different methods: observation,

experiment, interview, and questionnaire.

Work Group

The psycho-pedagogical investigation developed with 20 pupils from the third grade.

The Experimental Process

The psycho-pedagogical investigation took part during school year 2015/2016 and had three

steps: observation, experiment and final stage.

A. The Observational Stage – took part between 15th-30th September 2015 when pupils were

tested for the communication level- verbal and nonverbal. For finding their spoken communication level

were tested their hearing, perceiving and understanding capacity in rendering the content of a message.

Table 1 -
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From the total number of pupils: 15 pupils have carefully listened the text, looking at their

teacher, have listened, but without looking, while 2 pupils have tried to talk without waiting for the end

of the story.

At the end, the pupils answered: 4 pupils have rendered the content of the text, using the words

from the text; 8 pupils have shortly rendered the content, but without the right order of the ideas; 8

pupils told at the end of the task that, the little prince met a lighter.

For defining the nonverbal communication level were followed the emphasizing of the capacity

to react and transmission of the message through the nonverbal way. There were used some leaflets with

drawings that expressed: joy, sadness, astonishment and fury, and the pupils named the situation

expressed in the image using only one word.

Table 2 -
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All the pupils reacted in a positive way to leaflets containing “joy” and “fury”. Two of the pupils did not

answer right to the leaflets that expressed “sadness” and “astonishment”, explaining that they thought about

denying or screaming.

The answers were adequate, the pupils’ face expressions imitated the ones from the images, decoding the

nonverbal messages easily and they also expressed states, attitudes by using their facial expressions and the tone of

their voices.

For defining the written communication level, the task was the evaluation of the capacity for understanding

of the written message and the ability of sending written messages and made them oral messages. There were

some worksheets and the pupils solved their tasks in written.

Table 3 -
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Although they could read, the pupils met some difficulties in creating and writing a dialogue after

some rules.

They did not have logical ideas, they did not prove flexibility and verbal creativity.

The pupils proved a poor communication capacity, they did not practice reading and writing.

B. The experimental stage

The experiment took place between 1st October 2015 and 1st March 2016 and consisted in using

some exercises in Romanian language classes in order to develop the pupils’ verbal and paraverbal

communication skills and stimulate their communication possibilities.

C. Final stage: took part between 1st March 2016 and 15th March 2016.

The purpose wasthe evaluation of the pupils’ communication capacities through tasks for

checking their skills for verbal and extra verbal communication skills. There were applied tasks similar

to ones in the observational stage and, comparing them and underlining the efficiency of the exercises

created especially for developing the communication skill. The results obtained by the pupils in the

experimental and final stage were consisted in checking the spoken communication capacities in table 4 .

Table 4 -
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The results show a real evolution of the spoken capacities in pupils’ communication skills. This

shows the following aspects: the pupils are more attentive in perceiving the spoken message; the

understanding of message is realized through the logic steps of the story; the reproduction of the

message follows the grammar requirements; the results “Very well” and “Well” grew;

Tabel 4 consisted in checking the ability of giving and receiving nonverbal messages

The pupils were asked to imitate the children’s expressions on the leaflets, but the mirror was also

used, because they were able to see their own facial expressions combining the visual and hearing when

they reproduced all the states. The pupils gave proper answers and they all received “Very well”

Tabel 5consisted in checking the capacity of understanding or giving a written message.

Table 5 -
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The Interpretation of the Results

Making a comparison of the results from the beginning to the end of the experiment, we can see a

clear development of the capacity of communication through reading and writing with all the pupils

implied in the research. For example: 5 pupils followed the required tasks: the ideas have a logical order,

the messages are clear and accurate from the grammar point of view, and punctuation and layout are

respected; in the final stage the number of students with “Sufficient” and “insufficient” qualifiers

reduced at half; the capacity of decoding and reproducing of the message developed more.

15 pupils wrote the message following the order of the sequences.

6 pupils did not make the right concordance of the verbal tenses.

14 pupils respected the tone and the punctuation.

18 pupils made progress in understanding and emitting the writing message.

2 pupils stagnated because they had missed classes before the experimental stage.

The verbal behaviour of the pupils’ evolved, they became very good at speaking, reading and

writing messages.

The cognitive and attitudinal aspects enriched and developed: the pupils expressed themselves

and communicate better, not only at school, but also with others: family, friends and even themselves.

Conclusions

In Ezechil’s opinion, (2002, p.104) communication is indispensable during the didactic process,

because it can be: A process- its components are interrelational (the agents of communication act

synergistically to each other); Imminent- we cannot communicat, interact and answer in different

situations at school; Symbolic- it requires an ensemble of signs and symbols used conventionally between

the two agents of communication; A system of signs – the messages are contradictory when they cancel

each other; Implies the relation between context and transmitter; Communication may be symmetric and

complementary and the interlocutors admire each other’s behavior.

During the communication process it was established that:

The quality of the educational system depends on the quality of the communication processes

between the educator and the pupils. The communication processes implies noticeable aspects, as well as conscious aspects of transmitting (Ezechil., 2002, op.cit.,p. 127).

The results of the educational process are perfect when the two partners change their places: the

transmitter becomes receiver and the receiver becomes transmitter. The relations and facts acquired are

important for realizing the global communication. The communication relations have to be cultivated in a proper way (Ezechil, 2002, p.104)

References

  1. Abric, J. C. (2002). The Psychology of Communication: theories and methods. Iasi:Editura Polirom.
  2. Ezechil, L. (2002). The Educational Communication in schools. Bucuresti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.
  3. Mucchielli,R., (2000). ActiveMethods in the Adults’ Pedagogy. Bucuresti: Editura Didactica și Pedagogică.
  4. Pâinișoară, I. O., (2003). Efficient Communication. Iasi: Editura Polirom.
  5. Șoitu, L., (1997). Communication Pedagogy. Bucuresti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2017.05.02.246

Online ISSN

2357-1330