eLearning may enrich the mental representations, save energy, time and resources.Both in the case of the primary school in Romania and the primary school abroad, the eletronic teaching materials and tools are capitalized. They are integrated in traditional lessons or final exams. Because the equipment with electronic tools is not a problem in our country anymore, the research is based on the analysis of the information obtained through questionnaires. These questionnaires are designed according to the opinion questionnaires realized by G. H. Gallup, respecting in the same time the conditions regarding the length of the questionnaire, its design, avoiding the „halo” effect in the questionnaires applied on the primary school teachers, parents and students. Consequently, this paper aims to: 1. Analyse the usage degree of some eLearning tools in the Romanian primary school, degree which rises or decreases together with other variable involved in the researching process; 2. To answer the following questions: what eLearning tools are involved in the teaching-learning process today and in what degree? What is the connection between the educational degree and the usage degree of the eLearning tools? To what extend do they help anyone keep in mind the information? To what extend do they simplify the teaching process? To what extend do the actors involved in the teaching-learning process consider that the working style may be modified and if they may lead to addiction? 3. To present, in the end, if and how these eLearning tools respect the principles of teaching Mathematics.
Keywords: eLearning toolsteaching-learning processprimary school in Romania
Nowadays, the learning process is sustained by electronic models like electronic portofolio (Tan,
2011) (Tan, 2011) (Neacsu & Dumitru, 2013), tools which are usually under change because of the
evolution of technology and society. Memorizing the information is not the base of learning and
acquiring information, but the abilities throughout teachers/ learners are able to find the necessary pieces
of information which may help them not only get the information, but also to apply it in many situations.
E-learning, no matter the main development direction is (at a regional/state level), definitely represents a
tool which may influence the actors involved in the learning process: through the distribution of digital
resources (e-readers, digital classbooks, educational softwares) - Beijing, SUA, through the development
of Internet connections and the endowment of schools with computers- Germany, Romania, through the
students’ abilities development, which are quite necessary in this century- Taiwan, Canada, through the
teachers’ digital abilities and competences- Singapore, through the development of distance-learning
We should briefly note (from the most recent to the oldest) some definitions of the eLearning
concept, which has always been discussed and explained by the scientific communities: ”Yet, e-learning
encompasses far more than the technology alone and more than educational institutional environments”
(Haythornthwaite, Andrews, Fransman, & Meyers, 2016), ”we define elearning as pieces of instruction
delivered on a digital device that is intended to support learning” (Clark & Mayer, 2016, p. 8), ”eLearning
was understood in different ways in the business, education and military sectors” (Nicholson, 2007, p.5),
„e-learning is a reconceptualization of learning that makes use of not only instructor-led pedagogy but all
the flexibility that asynchronous, multi-party contribution can bring” (Andrews, &Haythornthwaite, 2007,
p. 19). We come to the conclusion that „eLearning is just one word, but it does not refer to just a single
issue” (Hederson, 2003).
This article intends to present through a micro-research (focused on the primary school teachers)
how eLearning tools are integrated in the primary school lessons, to answer the question if the working
style can be changed, if it is addictive, if there is observed any connection between the primary teachers’
educational degree and the usefulness of the new technologies, if the Mathematics teaching principles are
respected during a digitized lesson.
In the content of our research, the validity of the close-ended questions results in the
questionnaires which were applied (50 educators participated in this survey) are checked through the
calculation of the Cronbach-Alpha coefficient, the result being 0.8589. The electronic tools, which are
highlighted in the questionnaires, being the base of the learning-teaching process in the Romanian
primary school, are presented in the following way: word processing sheets (12%), presentation sheets
(70%), counting sheets (6%).
Using the computer in the educational performance (connected to the Internet and everything it
means) had the following results (the score is related to the number of persons who answered in the
respective way): 25- totally assent, 20- highly assent, 3- average assent, 1- relatively assent, 1- weakly
assent. Rising the performance through technology seems to be mostly preferred, but we cannot deny the
teachers’ abilities to present the information by means of technology.
As the results of the research indicate, the older teachers are not reserved about the implementation
of the new technologies, the advance of the teacher certification and the boost of the utilization degree (as
far as the implementation of the new technologies is concerned) following the same increase in the case
of the second level teacher certification and a decrease for those who actually have the first level teacher
certification (when the questionnaire was applied). The following diagram illustrates the results:
After these commentaries on the application frequency (if there is the necessary endowment), we
may conclude that using the computer is positively seen by the teachers, at the primary school level in
Romania. The correctness of these answers is sustained by the positive attitude of both educators of all
ages and pupils and also by the reactions related to the eLearning lessons, the way of interraction with the
computer during the lessons, educational meetings, eLearning national conferences. We may observe that
no more worries exist mostly because the technology is used in a familial environment (smartphone,
tablet, computer), in the society (where children meet to play games, mall, banks etc.), but also during the
Informatics classes in the primary school. The great variety of games, educational softwares, educational
videos which are delivered through tablets, smartphones and computers. Consequently, the evolution of
the new technologies, highlighting the positive effects, brought to a fast acceptance and usage of the
computer, in the case of students of all ages.
The working style (when teaching, learning and evaluating) has been modified, the interactive
and modern methods being now those who allow the pupils to make the difference between wild animals
and domestic animals, between odd and even numbers. They also help the pupils to make puzzles,
cognitive maps which are specific to a certain story, but also the map of the water cycle, for example. To
do this, they use interactive tablets, digital monitors, which are connected to Internet.
On the one hand, teachers are also aware of the relative addiction which is generated by the ICT
lessons, because the animations are quite attractive to pupils (videos, learning games, evaluation tools).
On the other hand, writing on the blackboard, standing up and having breaks (when one uses the
computer) lead to a certain addiction in the case of the educators too. It must not be disregarded. Thus,
the educators’ opinion are the following: totally assent with the addiction to the new ICT tools 46%,
highly assent 28%, average assent 14%, relatively assent 10%, weakly assent 2%.
As a first result of this research, we chould mention the fact that the technology inferences in the
learning-teaching process in the primary school may be efficient because of the teachers who manage to
use them properly, having already crossed the berrier of using the ICT tools.
It is also important that during the eLearning lessons, the methods used when teaching
Mathematics can be properly used: the principle of conscious and active involvement of the students in
the teaching-learning-evaluating process (through images, sound, animations and interaction); the
insightful character of the educational system principle (through the direct constructions they may
operate- on a calculation, presentation or text processing sheet,- which can transform the abstract
sentences in concrete, practical models); theory and practice connection principle (which can be reached
through the usage of videos in the teaching-learning process, visiting online the museums, factories and
working studios, etc.); continuous and methodical educational system principle (the content being
properly organized); solid acquirement of information and knowledge principle (through profound
revisions, logical criteria presentations, maps, diagrams which should be used in order to achieve a
transdisciplinar and interdisciplinar level); accessible and individualized educational process principle
(the electronic sheets may be easily done, having specific characteristics for each student); the reversed
connection principle (the electronic models permit a better control of the activity, in order to optimize and
adapt it); the principle of Mathematics education scientific character (through a correct access to
information using the Internet); the optimal motivation principle (through a positive motivation, obtained
by the electronic models awards); the problematize principle (through a balanced connection between
theory and problems, and reality, virtual and imaginary); the permanent and continuous education
principle (through electronic models which permit the unlimited access to information, communication
and update) (Brânzei, &Brânzei 2000, pp. 28-50).
The future research which refer to a the ICT inferences in the primary school should focus on:
the usage degree of technology in the case of parents, which lead to gradual inferences in the case of
primary school pupils too; the socio-economic environment development, environment where the
respective teachers live.
The research regarding eLearning generated, in time, certain analysis regarding the technological
side (software and hardware), but also analysis which develop different types of relationships between the
individual and the computer (synchronous/asynchronous, direct/distance, audio/video, one/or more).
Finally, we conclude that using technology should be encouraged and capitalized for better
learning, socialization and development. Even the reserachers who considered, in the 80s, that the
computer is a negative element, nowadays, they reconsidered their initial ideas, finding that the
technology develops the creativity, leading to a fast evolution, when it is correctly integrated in the
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25 May 2017
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Educational strategies, educational policy, organization of education, management of education, teacher, teacher training
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Samarescu, N. (2017). Contributions In Leading Scientific Training Swimming. In E. Soare, & C. Langa (Eds.), Education Facing Contemporary World Issues, vol 23. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1837-1841). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.05.02.225