The Amelioration Of Socialization Through Communication, For Children In Family Homes
The human is, by nature, a communicational being, and communication is the essential process by which each person becomes what it is and comes into relationship with others. The methods used in the study of communication shows us that this is one of the constituents of social life; it is necessarily present in the group. Communication occurs almost simultaneously with the emergence of information exchange. The degree of the fulfilment of needs in childhood, puberty and adolescence is a clear indicator of the possibilities of further integration in the social life of future adults. The problem of children in orphanages is one of great interest. That's because we must respect each person's individual needs, and the children from orphanages are hard to accept because of the existing prejudices in society about them. The aims of the research are: Identifying the initial degree of socialization of children in institutions; -The establishment of an intervention program in the socialization of children, along with the psychologist, the social worker, the social pedagogue and the parents; -Identifying the further degree of sociability of the institutionalized children.
The human is, by nature, a communicational being and communication is the essential process by
which each person becomes what it is and comes into relationship with others (Golu, 2002).
The methods used in the study of communication shows us that this is one of the constituents of
social life; it is necessarily present in the group. Communication occurs almost simultaneously with the
emergence of information exchange (Cosmovici, 1996).
The degree of the fulfillment of needs in childhood, puberty and adolescence is a clear indicator of
the possibilities of further integration in the social life of future adults (Gavrilă-Ardelean, 2014).
The problem of children in orphanages is one of great interest. That's because we must respect
each person's individual needs, and the children from orphanages are hard to accept because of the
existing prejudices in society about them (Dascălu, 2003).
Friendships and relationships of the adolescents do not occur spontaneously or easily. They are
built and evolve in a context of interpersonal communication. That is why this social process is so
important. If the communication is easier, the social relations are more positive.
Communication is one of the constituents of social life. It is necessarily present in a group.
Communication occurs concomitantly with the emergence of information exchange.
From a pedagogical point of view, ′communication is a transmission of messages between the
emitter (the teacher) and the receiver (student), based on the curricula, in the educational process
conducted in schools′(Ştefan, 2006, p.61).
Communication is a form of interpersonal interaction. Its absence or insufficiency causes social
adaptation crisis and behavioral disorders.
Philosophically, communication is a process whereby one or more people transmit a value
judgment, an attitude or an emotional state.
In terms of the general theory of information, communication represents a transfer of information
from one source to another, and from psycholinguistic perspective, it is a transfer of meaning through
Psychologically, communication is considered ′an information that is processed between the most
insignificant two human communicators introduced in a context and placed in a situation′(Asher; 1994,
p;620); The author states, on the other hand, that the term ′communication′ can also be called ′any
message used in different contexts and situations′ (Asher, 1994, p. 614-615).
Communication is therefore a process of transmitting a sense from someone to someone else. This
transmission process is done using a system of signs. The meaning is coded in the signs used for its
transmission. To receive and understand the meaning means to take the signs (to hear them or see them)
and to proceed to decode them accordance with the sign rules.
Therefore, communication is a complex system, marked by a combination of factors involving a
flexibility of roles, an interaction.
We chose this topic because the essence of communication consists of relational and interactional
processes and any human behavior has a communicative value.
This research debates communication as an educational act in the socialization of children
institutionalized in family homes.
The present study shows the importance of communication in social relational and interactional
processes. The individual relevance is that the human behavior has a communicative value.
Design Of The Research:
Knowing from professional practice the needs that exist in the lives of children from a family
house foundation, knowing their aspirations and dreams, it was decided to develop a program of
socialization to be able to support their needs, to form their specific competencies of integration in
society, in order to be accepted by it and to live beautifully every moment of life.
We pleaded on the hypothesis that a good communication as educational act leads to a better
socialization of the institutionalized children.
As a working tool, we used the scale 5 from the multiphase personality questionnaire of Freiburg
(FPI), on the basis of which the socialization level of institutionalized children was assessed.
1.2. The Aims Of The Research:
- Identifying the initial degree of socialization of children in institutions (Dumitrana, 2000);
- The establishment of an intervention program in the socialization of children, along with the
psychologist, the social worker, the social pedagogue and the social parents (Gavrilă-Ardelean &
- Identifying the further degree of sociability of the institutionalized children;
- General hypothesis: communication activities, as an educational act lead to better socialization of
children in institutions (Șchiopu, 1997);
- Specific hypothesis: if interpersonal communication is fostered, then socialization of children in
institutions is augmented (Ținică, 2004);
- False hypothesis: if interpersonal communication is not stimulated, then the socialization remains
Lot Of Study
The database was established by creating the study groups of the children in a family house
Research period was extended over a one year period, from June last year to May this year. It
comprised several stages: preliminary stage, experimental stage and final stage of analysis and data
Pre-test step: June-July last year, at this time was observed relationship between the experimental
group and the control group, information about the situation in biological family of the child are
collected, the performances of children, socialization level of children, environment where children carry
out their life, social parents – children relationship also are collected.
Experimental intervention stage: August last year – April this year, in this period was considered
only the experimental group, were performed various themed activities to stimulate sociability;
psychologist and social worker intervention was required where appropriate, social relationship between
children and parents and other children in the house was monitories.
Data interpretation step: May this year, in this period was followed differences between the
experimental group and the control group, monitoring subject’s progress comparing the level of
socialization of children in institutions.
The research was conducted by the authors at a family home foundation, volunteer activities with
these children was involved. This foundation has three houses operated by social parents. Two of the
houses are composed of 10 children and the third - 7 children. Of the 27 children the foundation was
established 16 random children for social researching experiment.
The Foundation is an education centre, which is coordinated by a team of specialists: educational
director, teacher, psychologist and social worker.
To the research period, kids from both groups exclusivity benefited from centre services.
The sample consists of nine girls and seven boys, aged between 13-18 years. To the 16 subjects, it
has been applied to test scale development degree of sociability both during the pre-test and post-test.
The 16 children were divided as following:
Group 1 – the experimental group; it consists of 8 children - 3 boys and 5 girls, aged between 14 – 18 years. For this group, it was initiated a special program of intervention to stimulate sociability which
consists in forming some independent living skills through modules and activities – to stimulate
sociability (Moldovan, 2005);
Group 2 –is the control group; it consists of 8 children, 4 boys and 4 girls aged between 14-17 years.
2.2. Methodology Of Research
To realize this research, Freiburg’s multiphase personality questionnaire was used, based on which
the socialization level of children institutionalized in the Foundation was assessed.
Freiburg’s multiphase personality questionnaire is constructed by Fahrenberg, Selg and Hampel in
the spirit of a traditional theory on personality, by reference to psychiatric nosology and by the
application of factorial analysis (Moldovan, 2005). The complete form of the questionnaire FPI – G
comprises 12 scales with a total of 212 items. Scale 5 of the FPI questionnaire which refers to sociability
was applied to the children included in the research program.
FPI 5 - sociability:
Explaining the assessment scale of sociability applied to groups:
- The scale comprises 28 items;
- The answers to the scale’s items will be evaluated by ′yes′ or ′no′ and one point will be
given only to the correct answers;
- This way, between:
1-10 correct answers represent a low rate of sociability;
11-17 correct answers represent an average rate of sociability;
18-28 correct answers represent a high level of sociability.
The subjects who achieve high levels need and have a tendency to establish contacts, search
contacts, are friendly, make friends very fast and have more knowledge (Piaget & Inhelder, 1968). They
are cheerful, enterprising, communicative, have presence of mind. Unlike them, the ones who obtain low
levels, avoid contacts, prefer being alone, have little knowledge, establish contacts hard, are lonely and
shy, rigid and cold. They have their shyness rather oriented towards actions than to people, are unenterprising,
quiet and uncommunicative.
Results Of Research
Starting Statistical Indices
After applying the scale 5 FPI, to evaluate the sociability level of children who are protected to the
foundation, the following statistical indices:
The value of minimum and maximum scores – the number obtained by subjects after applying the
Minimum and maximum values are limits within which the scores realized by subjects are found.
The average is the sum of the scores divided by the number of subjects. This is a descriptor of a set
of data belonging to the sample (Gavrilă-Ardelean, 2012).
Standard deviation (std. Deviation) is the way of dispersion of data around the average.
Following the questionnaire measuring degree of sociability, the experimental group during pretest
statistics indications results in table
ranges from 8-18, means a low- medium sociability environment level.
Following the questionnaire measuring degree of sociability, the control group during pre-test
statistics indications results in table
from 8-15, means a low- medium sociability environment level.
In the same table, the questionnaire in the post-test, when the children were not involved in a
program, sociability has not changed significantly, ranges from 10 to 17, which means low-medium level.
and experimental group, both during the pre-test and post-test.
Research Results Evaluation
General hypothesis: communication activities as educational act, leading to a better socialization
of children in institutions.
Specific hypothesis: if interpersonal communication is fostered, then socialization of
institutionalized children is augmented.
These assumptions were chosen because the socialization of children in institutions requires
effective interpersonal communication. As is known, the institutionalization of early age has an impact on
the level of physical and mental development of children and for their integration into society and to
reduce existing trauma need for sustained work whose results will be seen in time or in next generations
To check the specific hypothesis, it turned to scale nr 5 of FPI questionnaire, which refers to
socialize. This questionnaire was applied in two stages with an interval of about 10 months. Between the
two tests, it has initiated a communication and socialization program of the experimental group, focused
on inter-communication within the group and the group with the society.
In this program we have been offered for young people thought learning methods and topics to
meet the need of their knowledge of existing problems among them.
Data obtained from these two groups was calculated the average and standard deviation. To verify
hypothesis that by stimulate communication increases the socialization of adolescents, averages notes
obtained were compared:
Average pre-test experimental group was: 13,375;
Average post-test experimental group was: 17,625.
By comparing these averages, it appears that there is a higher degree of socialization of young
people in institutions.
For the control group, the average was 12,250 in pre-test and 13,375 in post-test. From this data,
the specific hypothesis is confirmed, so more efficient communication leads to better socialization.
The development of self-confidence is an ideal and a necessity for the teenager who lives in the
institutionalized environment to feel safe and cared for. Their trust is ephemeral and has to be considered
present until proven otherwise; among teenagers it is very limited.Trust is given to only a few people
because the institutionalized adolescents were disappointed, victimized, injured, betrayed by colleagues,
abused by older teens or indifferent adults (Bilan, 2007).
Friendships and special relationships do not appear out of nowhere, they evolve from spontaneous
situations like chance meetings or school attendance, but they lack intimate character.
Adolescents expect adults to trust them, to maintain the confidentiality, to support them, not to
judge them, in one word – models (Dumitrana, 2000).
The objective of this program was to prepare the adolescents for their integration in the society, by
helping them develop a system of values to lead them to a better life.
The majority of institutionalized children have psychological problems that affect their ability to
cope with the stress implied by the life of a teenager. They start their teenager experience with a
handicap. Overcoming this handicap requires knowing how they were taught to behave and how they
cope with the adolescent status. Adolescence is a unique experience for institutionalized children
The institutionalized teenagers know that they have few personal belongings, little privacy and
have to share everything in order to get along well with the others.
Based on the rules of the institution, the teenagers learn that they have to cooperate, to follow the
instructions, to obey the rules, to wait for their turn, not to be wasteful. This way, their individuality is
suppressed almost completely. Attachment and a family feeling are almost nonexistent. Some adolescents
are successful. Others feel lonely. Most of them, however, have a negative self image, are desperately
seeking affection, closeness and love from adults.
Most institutionalized adolescents know what they need, but most social interactions cause stress,
and for them it is difficult to establish what is good and what is bad. Therefore, these adolescents need
guidance, a mentor, a model and supervision.
During the activities with the children, it was found that better communication, greater
transparency and more rigorous information lead to better integration into society and to better
To conduct the program there were used:
Two hours per week, that were attended by all eight children in the experimental group;
The Educational Centre of the Foundation;
The work team composed of an educational director and educator.
The topics debated were focused in particular on respect, acceptance, confidence and character
development; therefore there were applied: a sociability assessment scale, questionnaires and various
other methods, that gave us indices on the adolescent’s status. The more the teenager is able to empathize
well – to listen to others, to respect them, to communicate, to consider the feelings, to work in a team, the
more he will succeed to communicate better and to be an adapted person.
Recommendations needed for continuing information and communication with institutionalized adolescents are:
Establishing a centre where teens can come to receive counselling;
Improving the relationship between the employees and adolescents from the institution through a
better communication and a greater transparency (Gavrilă-Ardelean & Moldovan, 2014);
Building a personalized plan taking into account the socio-professional orientation, interests and
socio-cultural needs of the teenager.The research impact is given by demonstrating that communication activities lead to better socialization of institutionalized children and that, if stimulated, interpersonal communication, socialization of institutionalized children is enhanced. Adolescents who were included in the research were integrated more easily into society, on the basis of a better communication.
The intervention program to improve the socialization of institutionalized children, which developed from this study, can be applied to other children in similar situations, helping them to develop a system of values that leads them to a better life and social integration.
The manuscript is unpublished work, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere and if
accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, either in English or in any other language,
without the consent of the publisher.
Bring to the Editor’s attention any Conflict of Interest: The authors don′t have any Conflict of
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