Correlation Between Speed and Height Jump in Junior Football Players

Abstract

Great performances depend on the physical structure of the athlete, on one side and on the other side on the high level of psychomotricity, resulting from correct progress on basic and specific motor skills. Strength, agility and quickness are the key qualities that ease the vertical jump for players', whether it is on the attack or defence phase. In the present work we plan to do a scientific study on the indicators of the vertical jump and the efficiency of the football game for 13 year old players, on football positions. For this we achieved high precision measurements on vertical jump indicators, using the Myotest, we quantified technical actions individual positions. We have been interested to see the importance that the velocity, during the vertical jump, mean in achievement of individual technical actions at defenders, midfielders, and strikers football players. For that we realized a correlations between individual jumps and the individual technical actions from a group of 16 junior footballers, from „Brașovia” Sports Club from Brașov.

Keywords: Footballvertical jumpvelocity and high jump

Introduction

In the emerging of great performances, junior’s preparation depends on several conditions: on one

hand the athlete’s structure and on the other hand, the level of development of psychomotricity (Stein,

Gabbett, Townshend, Dawson, 2015), (Bompa, 2003). Power, agility and quickness are among the most

important qualities sought for any athlete, especially in the selections for team sports. Training these

qualities in junior age, increases the athletic performance level. (Gantiraga, Katartzi, Komsis,

Papadopoulos, 2006), (Robertson, Woods, Gastin, 2015), (Bompa, 2003). Power is considered by many

authors as a factor to develop speed, sprint and agility (Bompa, 2003), (Robertson, Woods, Gastin, 2015),

(Bompa, 2003). There are studies that affirm that exists a strong correlation between strength, sprinting,

and jumping performance in several sport activities, and also in elite football player (Wisløff, Castagna,

Helgerud, Jones, Hoff, 2004), (Glatthorn, Gouge, Nussbaumer, Stauffacher, Impellizzeri, Maffiuletti,

2011), (Ruiz, Pinillos, Molina, Latorre, 2015). We can say that lately, the performances in sport increased

at the occurrence of using high precision equipment in measuring psychomotor qualities, such as Myotest

(Gravina, Gil, Ruiz, Zubero, Gil, Irazusta, 2008), (Nuzzo, Anning, Scharfenberg, 2011), (Houel,Dinu,

Faury, Seyfried, 2011). The lack of specific physical preparation is reflected in jumping without

effectiveness, jumps that are not bringing any benefits while attacking and also creating problems in the

defence. In the present study we started from the premise that the vertical jump has a big importance in

the football game, which can make a difference in terms of the great performances (Ruiz, Pinillos,

Molina, Latorre, 2015),(Castagna, Castellini, 2013), (Gantiraga, Katartzi, Komsis, Papadopoulos, 2006).

Talking about junior football players, it is very important to have these data at these ages, for future

preparing. The athletic performance level has greatly increased as a result from the rigorous scientific

research, who offers optimized scientific solutions for the physical preparation of the players. (Houel,

Dinu, Faury, Seyfried, 2011); (Wisløff, Castagna, Helgerud, Jones, Hoff, 2004); (Glatthorn, Gouge,

Nussbaumer, Stauffacher, Impellizzeri, Maffiuletti, 2011), (Samozino, Morin, Hintzy, Belli, 2008).

Measurements done with high precision equipment gives us a high degree of confidence compared to

previously manual recordings (Houel,Dinu, Faury, Seyfried, 2011), (Casartelli, Müller, Maffiuletti,

2010). Coaches are the first beneficiaries of these study results who have been waiting for a long time for

a restructuring concept, methodically speaking (Grosu 2013). They can streamline the junior game

following the analysis of statistical data and performing correlations between the results obtained from

measurements carried out and the tactical and technical actions of the junior football players.

Research Design

The Study Purpose, and Objectives

The purpose of research is to perform high precision measurements for jumping indicators at the

junior football players. The objectives were to create a statistical analysis of the height and velocity of a

vertical jump in football, and performing statistical correlations of these, at the junior football players, on

posts.

The Research Data

The study was realized at „Brașovia” Sports Club from Brașov, on a group of 16 athletes of 13

years old with the approval of the club and parents. The subjects were 6 defenders, 6 midfielders and 4

forwards with heights of 165,5±17,5 cm, having 55,87±15 kg.

The Research Methodology

To achieve this research, the athletes executed a vertical cmj jump and we used the Myotest device

as a quantification and validation instrument for the muscular evolution. Myotest consists of an

accelerometer, a fastening device and software which allow the graphical representation of motion and

the analysis of muscle activity.

Figure 1: Fig .1. Myotest
Fig .1. Myotest
See Full Size >

In the second part of the research, to determine the football technical level, in terms of heading

technique, the athletes were divided on field posts and done 20 exercises as follows:

•The defenders with an active opponent, inside of their own 11m penalty area, they had to head the

ball which is sent from different areas of the field. The number of successful actions was counted.

•Regarding the midfielders and strikers, the actions were counted as successful when the ball was

won and sent to the goal.

Results. Analysis and Interpretation

The tests results are collected and summarized in the table 1 .

Table 1 -
See Full Size >

In terms of velocity during the vertical jump, the following statistical data were obtained:

The mean of the group is240,11 cm/s, the best result being 321,4 cm/s, namely 81,29 cm above the group’s mean.

The second time, ie 286,8 cm/s, was situated at a considerable difference, being 34,6 cm/s lower than

the first result;

The lowest recorded velocity is 145,6 cm/s, being 94.4 cm/s slower than the group’s mean.

The median is 244,7 cm/s, which is 4,59 cm/s higher than the mean, but there are no results between the two values, which allows us to affirm that they are substantially equal; The standard deviation is 46,63 towards the lower data. Three results are below 200 cm/s, which are

pulling the groups mean down, 4 results are situated between 200 cm/s and 240 cm/s, 7 results are

situated between 250 cm/s and 287 cm/s, which demonstrates a reduced homogeneity of these

statistical data. The graph has a normal distribution, with a large range of distribution which can be

seen in the image below:

Figure 2: Fig. 2. Vertical velocity during the jump of the junior fotbalist player
Fig. 2. Vertical velocity during the jump of the junior fotbalist player
See Full Size >

Regarding the height of the jump, the following statistical data were obtained:

The mean of the data of the height of the jump was 35,09 cm, the highest jump 40,5 cm, with 5 cm above the group average, and the lowest jump was 29,4 cm, with 6 cm below the group average. The median data group was 34,4 cm, that’s mean 0,69 cm smaller than the mean, 2 athletes even

obtained this result. We can say that the mean and median are approximately equal; the graph having

a normal distribution.

The standard deviation is 3,51, that means that the group was homogeneous in terms of the height of

the jump, as can be seen from Figure 3 .

Figure 3: Fig.3. High of the jump at the junior football player
Fig.3. High of the jump at the junior football player
See Full Size >

After the statistical analysis of the velocity and high of the vertical jump, we quantified this data,

and correlated it with individual technical actions, at the defenders, midfielders and strikers junior

football players. The results are presented in the table 2 .

Table 2 -
See Full Size >
Figure 4: Fig.4 . Correlation between velocity mean with successful actions at the junior football player
Fig.4 . Correlation between velocity mean with successful actions at the junior football player
See Full Size >

We can observe (Figure 4 ) that the defenders and the midfielders have the mean of the action

approximately equal, ie 12,3 and 12.4 respectively, of the total of 20, which represents 61,5%, and 62%.

The strikers have the best mean of the vertical jump speed which is 261.58 cm/s, while the defenders have

the lowest average which is 217,3 cm/s. We can say that the strikers have more successful actions (2,35

more than the defenders) due to higher speed in the vertical, in other words they arrive first at the ball and

can successfully complete the actions of attack. At a speed of 261,58 cm/s of the vertical jump, the

strikers can solve 70% of the technical actions, and at a speed of 217,3 cm/s, the defenders are solving

61,5% of their technical actions.

Figure 5: Fig. 5. Correlation between high jump mean with successful actions at the junior football player
Fig. 5. Correlation between high jump mean with successful actions at the junior football player
See Full Size >

Regarding the correlation between the height of the jump and the successful actions, in figure 5 we

see that the defenders had the highest average of the height of the jumps (36,38 cm) followed by

midfielders (34,36 cm), then by forwards with 34,07cm. The defenders have the smallest average of the

successful actions, namely 12,3 which is just 0,1 lower than the midfielders (12,4) the strikers have the

highest average, 14,75 successful actions. The strikers, who have the lowest average of the height of the

jump, have the most successful technique actions and the defenders which have the highest average of the

highest of the jump, have the least successful number of actions. So at a height jump of a minimum 34 cm

can be solved successfully between 60% and 70% of the technical actions of the corresponding positions.

The height of the jump does not have a great importance in achieving technical actions as the speed has in

the vertical jump.

Conclusion

By making high precision measurements, using Myotest, regarding the vertical jump indicators of

the junior football players the purpose and one of our objectives of the research have been achieved.

The second objective of the work was accomplished through statistical analysis of the collected

data. Thus we can say that the group is not homogeneous regarding the vertical speed indicator during the

jump, the time between the first and the last having a difference of 175,8 cm/s. the graph has a normal but

a large distribution, the subject with the best result at this indicator, ranks second at the height of the jump

indicator.

Regarding the height of the jump, the results of the group are homogenous, the mean and median

have a difference of only 0,69. Between the mean of the jump and the best jump the difference is almost 5

cm, and between the mean and the worst jump, the difference is almost 6 cm.

The analysis of the results obtained from the specific technical actions of game positions, lead us

to the conclusions that the strikers, with 70,3% rate of successful actions have the best results, midfielders

with 62% and defenders with 61,5% successful actions have close results but with almost 10% lower than

the strikers.

We conclude that for an increased efficiency of the game head, what matters in the game’s

economy at the junior football players is the speed during the jump, at the expense of vertical height,

which has been shown especially at the strikers. Players that have the height of the jump at least equal with the group’s mean can solve efficiently between 60-70% of the head technique actions. In order that

the strikers to have 70,3% successful actions, they need to have at the vertical speed results with 18 cm/s

better than midfielders and with 44,28 cm/s better than defenders.

Acknowledgements

The professional Myotest device, was acquired through the structural funds project: „RTD Institute: High-tech Products for Sustainable Development” (ID123, SMIS 2637, ctr. No. 11/2009).

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Publication Date

18 December 2019

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Future Academy

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Educational strategies, educational policy, organization of education, management of education, teacher, teacher training

Cite this article as:

Gugu-Gramnatopol, C., Ochiotan, Ș., Ionescu, A., & Dăncescu, D. (2019). Correlation Between Speed and Height Jump in Junior Football Players. In E. Soare, & C. Langa (Eds.), Education Facing Contemporary World Issues, vol 23. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 883-889). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.05.02.108