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Machinery. Technology. Social Well – being

Table 2:

Dominant FeaturesThe period of domination The number of a technological wave
I(1770-1830) II(1830-1880) III(1880-1930) IV(1930-1970) V(1970-2010)
Technology leaders Britain, France and Belgium. Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, the United States. Germany, USA, UK, France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands. US, Western Europe and Japan. USA, Japan.
The developed countries The German government, the Netherlands. Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria-Hungary. Italy, Denmark, Austria-Hungary, Canada, Japan, Spain, Russia, Sweden USSR, Newly industrialized economies (NIEs). NIEs, Brazil, Russia.
Key factor Textile machinery. The steam engine machines. The electric motor, steel. The internal combustion engine, petrochemicals. Microelectronic components.
The core technological structure The textile industry, textile machinery, production of cast iron, iron processing, construction of canals, water engine. The steam engine, railway construction, transport, mechanical engineering, coal, iron and steel machine tool industry. Electrical engineering, heavy engineering, production and distribution of steel, power lines, inorganic chemistry. Automotive, non-ferrous metallurgy, production of durable goods, synthetic materials, organic chemistry, production and refining of oil. The core technological structure
The emerging new mode core Steam engines and machinery. Steel, power heavy engineering, inorganic chemistry. Automotive, organic chemistry, manufacturing and oil refining, nonferrous metallurgy, road construction. Radars, pipelines, aviation precious stones and diamonds, gas production and processing. The emerging new mode core
The advantages of this technological structure compared with the previous Mechanization and concentration of production in factories. Growth reduction and concentration of production through the use of the steam engine. Increased production flexibility through the use of motor standardization of production, urbanization. Mass production and repetition work. The advantages of this technological structure compared with the previous
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