Social-Therapeutic Technologies In Professional Work Of Social Pedagogues

Abstract

The expansion of the social work field in Kazakhstan led to the emergence of the social pedagogues profession. New technologies have become social-therapeutic technologies and social activities. Purpose of the Study:is to develop design principles of social and therapeutic technologies and teaching methods, the comparison of the use of technology and social-therapeutic work of social workers and university teachers. Research Methods: is a survey of practicing social pedagogues, as well as university teachers who teach the future social pedagogues. Analysis, generalization of approaches to social therapy, simulation technologies, comparison and search work. Findings: According to the results of questionnaires and self-evaluation of teachers, 30% of social pedagogues and 70% of university teachers, training future social workers use social and therapeutic work technology. Teachers often use art-therapy techniques (75% of teachers and 80% of social pedagogues). 40% of social pedagogues use art therapy mainly for stress relief in children, 23% for the aggression removal. Conclusions: A theoretical model of the technology design of social-therapeutic activity of the social pedagogues has been elaborated. The research work on the study of the social experience of practicing teachers has been carried out. The method of learning social-therapeutic technologies which was tested in the educational process of the university has been worked out.

Keywords: Social WorkersSocial PedagoguesSocial-TherapeuticTechnologies

1.Introduction

" Social pedagogues " profession has appeared recently in Kazakhstan. Vocational training in the

universities started in 2010. The development of modern society and socio-pedagogical practice enhances

tools of modern social pedagogues. The existing problems of social adaptation and socialization of

students, the interaction processes tension creates the conditions for the actualization of therapeutic

techniques for working with students.

2.Problem Statement

The expansion of the social work field in Kazakhstan led to the emergence of the social

pedagogues profession. New technologies have become social-therapeutic technologies and social

activities.

3.Research Questions

How active practicing social pedagogues use social-therapeutic technologies in their professional

activities? What is the technique of training future social pedagogues to social-therapeutic work?

4.Purpose of the Study

Is to develop design principles of social and therapeutic technologies and teaching methods, the

comparison of the use of technology and social-therapeutic work of social workers and university

teachers.

5.Research Methods

- Is a survey of practicing social pedagogues, as well as university teachers who teach the future

social pedagogues. Analysis, generalization of approaches to social therapy, simulation technologies,

comparison and search work.

The role of the social teacher as a social therapist includes "the assistance of the person in contact

with the relevant experts, aid in the conflict resolution (Ovcharova R.V., 2001). Psychotherapeutic

function of the social teacher according to T.A Shishkovets comprises:

- Child care for mental equilibrium;

- The establishment of a trusting relationship with the child, a teenager, an adult;

- Assist in resolving interpersonal conflicts, removing the doldrums;

- Assist in changing the relationship of the child, teenager, adult to life, to the environment, to himself;

- The organization of the child, the adult "success situations " (Shishkovets T.A., 2005; Basov N.F.,

2007).

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It is important to teach future social teachers to new technologies, including social and therapeutic

work. To do this, we will develop design principles of social and therapeutic technologies, compare how

social pedagogues and teachers of the university use technology of socio-therapeutic work in training

future social pedagogues and also work out technology of socio-therapeutic work with pupils. It became

the purpose of our study. Let's start with a concept definition.

6.Concept definition

The technology and social-therapeutic work concept may have several options of formations:

1) Technology → pedagogical technology→ socio-pedagogical technology + social therapy =

socio-therapeutic work technology;

2) (Social Therapy + (technology → pedagogical technology)) + socio-educational activity ═

socio-pedagogical work technology.

The "social-therapeutic work technology " concept is a pedagogical category, because its

construction is based on the concepts of "pedagogical technology" and "social and educational activity".

That is, a priori, we start from the educational component of human activity.

Having studied the "educational technology", "social -pedagogical activity", "social therapy"

concepts we have defined the concept of "socio-therapeutic work technology" as "a set of organization

procedures and implementation of social therapy in the socio-educational activities." The very socio-

pedagogical activity is a kind of professional activity aimed at assisting the child, a person in the process

of socialization, the development of their socio-cultural experience and to create conditions for self-

realization in society.

Activating the use of the term "therapy" in psychology and sociology connected with the direction

of society humanization, the emergence of the humanistic psychology and humanistic education areas.

Translated from the Greek word "therapy" literally means "care, treatment." Social therapy is a set of

decisions, procedures, measures and actions aimed at solving social problems of various levels of

organization (N.F. Basov, 2007).

7.Three theories as a basis for the social and therapeutic work technology

design

Theoretical basics of socio-therapeutic work technologies design are the following theories:

- "Pedagogical accompaniment" (G. Bardier, I. Romazan, T. Cherednikova, V.V. Kashelev, R.J.

Zhumazhanova);

- "Pedagogical support" (G.V. Kornetov), facilitation (Carl Rogers, R.S. Dimuhametov, Sh.U.

Tasbulatov, V.T. Tikhomirova);

- "Helping relationships" (O.S Gazman, G.M.Kodzhaspirova, V.V. Shahgulari).

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These concepts are considered as three interrelated models of psychologist and social teacher work

in educational institutions and referred to as a " psychological and pedagogical support model", "support

model" and the "model of care" in studies of V.G. Maralova, T.P. Maralova, V.V. Khromov (2001).

All three models belong to the humanist pedagogy, environmental approach; Existentialism is a

philosophical base. Let us consider them briefly in succession.

The term "psycho-pedagogical support" of pupils means a system of professional activity of the

educational process (teachers, psychologists) aimed at creating a social, psychological and pedagogical

conditions for successful learning and personal development of children, improve the pedagogical skill of

the teacher, the formation of interpersonal relations. It is important to have educational and psychological

competent interaction with students having competent modern scientific bases.

O.S. Gazman determined the "pedagogical support" direction as a pedagogy of freedom, which

aims to develop tools for the formation of freedom able personality (O.S. Gazman, 1998). The concept

emanating from the recognition that, for any human characteristic expectation of support or willingness to

provide it, entails a change in teacher position. G.M. Kodzhaspirova (2004), pedagogical support is

regarded as a system of pedagogical activity which reflects the human personality potential, including

assistance in overcoming social, psychological, personal difficulties. The process with the child to

determine its own interests, goals, possibilities and ways of overcoming obstacles to save his own dignity

and achieve the desired results in education, self-education, communication, lifestyle.

The word "facilitation" is derived from the English verb facilitate - to ease, assist, promote.

Introduced by C. Rogers. Educational facilitation is a kind of educational activity in the process of which

the child is aware of its intrinsic value, the desire is supported for self-development , self-actualization,

self-improvement , the disclosure of abilities ; Facilitator is a specialist to escort group processes, training

cooperation. He involves students in the work, creates a work environment where learners feel

comfortable (physically and mentally), provides assistance and support; centers on the objectives of

training and education; promotes dialogue (G.M. Kodzhaspirova, 2004). The word "facilitation" is

derived from the English verb to facilitate, assist, promote. It was introduced by Rogers. Educational

facilitation is a kind of educational activity in the process of which, the child is aware of its intrinsic

value, supported by the desire for self-development, self-actualization, self-improvement, the disclosure

of abilities. Facilitator is a specialist, who escorts group processes, training cooperation. He involves

students in the work, creates a work environment in which learners feel comfortable (physically and

mentally); He provides assistance and support; centers on the objectives of training and education;

promotes dialogue (G.M. Kodzhaspirova, 2004).

"Helping relationship” pedagogy is seen in the works of Kazakhstani scientist V.V. Shahgulari

(2007). He proceeds from K. Roger’s thesis that "helping relationship" is a "relationship, in which at least

one of the parties intends assist the other side in personal growth, development, the best of life, the

development of maturity, the ability to get along with others", relations characterized by "honesty and

transparency of ones true feelings, the warm acceptance and appreciation of the other person as an

individual." V. Shahgulari in his work "The essence and content of " helping relationship " pedagogy

compares the С.Roger’s helping relationship and Gestalt approach and finds in them both common and

distinctive features. He said that one of the common features, "allowing the client to determine the value

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of his experience and through this to be able to answer for himself, and the same perception of the client's

life as his as a basis for future changes." The differences, according to V.Shahgulari, "concerns the

relationship to the phenomenon of empathy." In Roger’s approach empathic understanding leads to the

mutual satisfaction of the therapist and the client, and in the Gestalt approach, empathy in its extreme

form is viewed more as an obstacle to the true contact " (V.V. Shahgulari, 2007).

Also, the author dwells on the fact that Gestalt pedagogy (and Gestalt approach) has no concept of

a helping relationship, there is the concept of Gestalt therapeutic action and reflection, that the learning

process is focused, in particular, on authority respect, competence in relationships and work with

proximity and distance, sympathy and antipathy in them.

Based on the models, these theories suggest the following principles for the design of social and

therapeutic work of social educator:

1) The principle of creating a favorable pedagogical, social and therapeutic environment

2) -The principle of creation and development of student creativity;

3)-The principle of facilitation;

4)- The principle of positive thinking and ensure a positive development of the environment;

5)- Student-centered approach

8.Findings

8.1 Results

Social-therapeutic work technology is understood as an organization and implementation of

social therapy, psycho-pedagogical, correctional help to the individual in order to protect his mental,

physical and moral health and it deals with the prevention and overcoming negative phenomena.

We design social-therapeutic work technology as the algorithm activity of the social

pedagogue:

- Diagnostic phase it is diagnosis of personality problems, the determination of the need for

therapeutic intervention, identification of social worker criteria and indicators of the results of social and

therapeutic activities;

- Direct socio-pedagogical therapy is setting a goal of therapeutic activity, the use of social and

pedagogical treatment methods, training work;

- Development of positive thinking and creativity as a consolidation of therapy phase, positive

results;

- Evaluation and self-evaluation of the results of socio-pedagogical treatment of the individual.

It is necessary to have knowledge and master methods of therapy in order to design and implement

social and therapeutic work technology.

After studying the theory and methods of therapy, we have developed a theoretical model of the

design technology of social and therapeutic work (see Figure 01 ).

40

Figure 1: The socio-therapeutic work design technology model of social pedagogue
The socio-therapeutic work design technology model of social pedagogue
See Full Size >

It contains conceptual apparatus, principles, methods, technology itself. On this basis a training

course for teaching techniques of social and therapeutic work will be developed. Next, we’ll consider

how social workers and university teachers actively use the social and therapeutic technologies in practic.

8.2Discussion

We have selected a group of respondent specialists from practical social workers of Almaty as

experts and university professors in accordance with the objectives of the study. University teachers

conduct psychological and pedagogical subjects at the university, including the specialties "Pedagogy

and Psychology", "Social pedagogy and self-knowledge." 51 people took part in the survey, including 2

men and 49 women, 30 school social workers, 21 teachers of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University .

Teachers responded that 70% of university teachers, 30% of practical social workers use the above

mentioned technology, when asked about the use of technologies of social and therapeutic work.

Teachers basically answered to the question "How do you understand a technology of socio-

therapeutic work at school?" They said that this technology means the removal of the depressed

41

state (university teachers 30%, social workers 35%), to assist in conflict resolution (university

professors 30%, social workers 40%), concern about the child's mental balance (40% of high school

teachers, social workers 25%).

The results of answers to the question "Which of the following areas of treatment as a social

teacher you use in your work?". Basically, teachers use art therapeutic techniques (75% teachers,

80% - social teachers); play therapy (15% teachers, 10% of practicing social teachers); Fairy tale

therapy (5% of the teachers, 7% of practicing social teachers);art therapy (3% of teachers and 3%

practicing social teachers); mandalo therapy (2% of high school teachers).

Conflicting results in the answers to questions of social and therapeutic work technologies

application (general question) and detailed responses (selection response on therapy type) used

therapies, in our opinion, due to the fact that teachers did not recognize the term "technology and

social - therapeutic work " specific methods at the start of the questionnaire.

However, the choice of answers to clarifying questions, detailed answer enabled us to

identify the most used therapies by the facilitation teachers. This allows, on the one hand, to refine

the results and to see the readiness of teachers to use the new social and therapeutic technologies. On

the other hand, such a result, in our opinion, firstly, shows the lack of knowledge in an explicit form

for this type of activity at 30% of high school teachers and 70% of practicing social teachers.

Secondly, based on this, yet it demonstrates below average degree of activity of the application of

therapeutic techniques. Because if the teacher does not think about the purpose of their use, he does

not track the effectiveness of their application and, accordingly, technology management is actually

dispersed.

80% of the interviewed social teachers practice art therapy method to solve the following

problems: stress relief in children (40%); learning the internal state of a child (12%); removal of

aggression (23%); the correction of negative phenomena (8%); to establish contact with a child (11%); as

an auxiliary method (6%) (Figure 02 )

80% of social pedagogues use art therapy method to solve the following

Figure 2: Application of Art Therapy Art therapy focused on the implementation and the development of individual potential of
Application of Art Therapy Art therapy focused on the implementation and the development of individual potential of
See Full Size >

children, on their inclusion in the positive social relationships, to develop the habit of self-control,

discipline, organization, culture, communication, self-control. Inclusion in the joint exercise of art,

based on the interest and attention to each other, allows children to be "liberated", to acquire the

skills companionship.

9.Conclusion

9.1 Teaching students to social and therapeutic work technology

We have developed as part of our study methods of teaching the use of technology and social-

therapeutic work. It includes the steps of: diagnostic, training, evaluation.

On the first stage the diagnosis of creative abilities of students of a specialty "Social pedagogy

and self-knowledge" was held. We supposed, if social teachers have a high level of creativity, they

will be able to apply successfully art therapeutic techniques in their professional activities. This is

especially true for art therapy methods. Therefore, on the first phase of the training introduction we

offered to future social teachers to check their level of creative development potential and

creativity. Also, this step contributes to the actualization of knowledge and creative qualities of

future teachers.

The training phase included training of social and therapeutic work technology. The training

program is as follows: a lecture-training sessions 1 "Impact of art therapy on the psycho-emotional state

of students' - 2 hours; lecture-training sessions 2 "Technologies of socio-therapeutic work of a social

teacher" 2 hours; lecture-training sessions 3, "Creating a positive mindset," 3hours. Totally 7 hours.

Training objective: to acquaint students with the technology of social and therapeutic work.

The evaluation phase was carried out by testing the knowledge of technologies of social and

therapeutic work (20 questions). The technique has been tested in the classroom for "Deviancy" specialty

5B012300 - Social pedagogy and self-knowledge. Students showed positive results. According to the

self-esteem of students, they were satisfied with the training, learnt about the art therapy concept, social

therapy technologies. According to the results of the survey 100% of the students want to go through a

deeper course on socio-educational therapy, art therapy techniques.

9.2Conclusion

Modern pedagogical practice requires the introduction of new methods and technologies of social

and educational work of social teachers. Development and widespread use of new educational

technologies and a scientific basis is necessary. Technologies specifics is the complexity of its

construction, as opposed to using the methods with research and reflexive component of the social

teacher work, maintenance of the technology structure (procedure enforcement) for its productive

use. Socio-therapeutic work technology is a new kind of social and pedagogical technologies. They

are based on the principles of humanistic and person-centered pedagogy

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2017.01.02.5

Online ISSN

2357-1330