Any type of human activity is inextricably interconnected with the communication process. Living and working within a social community entails interaction between people, which leads to exchanging views on experience, expressing ideas, intentions, goals and aspirations. The interpersonal relationships are influenced by various characteristics of the psychic life and are configured within socio-cultural context. The internalization of a set of rules, specific types of behaviour, habits, action modes a.s.o. are an integral part of the system of elements which contribute to the development of individuals’ ability to cope with various problems encountered in their professional and family life. The current study aims to analyse a work group’s communicational structure starting from the hypothesis that intensity and especially quality of the communication process have an impact upon achieved results. The efficiency of the communication process depends upon psychological factors as well, or, more precisely, upon mental state of group members. The intelligibility and the results of the information conveying process depend upon the logical argument of the message. However, the message can have a persuasive effect if it has a motivational foundation, displaying both emotional and personal features. The psychic structure and, especially, the personality traits of each of the group members influence the act of communication and, consequently, the action efficiency. The climate favourable to cooperation brings about positive emotional states and enhanced group cohesion instrumental to a good coordination activity. We are in favour of constituting a work group according to psychological criteria in order to achieve higher productivity.
Keywords: The quality of communicationpsychological and communicational structurethe work team management
The twenty-first century began with an unprecedented dynamism in economy. In Europe, the
entrepreneurial spirit has increased with the advent of the market economy in the former communist
countries. Profit is the driving force behind any business (which motivates any entrepreneur in the
highest degree) and can be understood as businessman or entrepreneur’s reward for the fact that he
assumes the market risks (the uncertainty). But, the following problems occur: is the objective
economic law of the profit compatible with the moral law? To what extent and in what sense the
capitalist entrepreneur correlates the objective economic law of the profit with the subjective moral law
of the need to bring as much good as possible to the fellows? We believe that the entrepreneur from the
democratic society is continuously involved in the following dilemma: either he increases the profits
and generates low incomes for the employees, or he increases the incomes of the employees, reducing
profit and risking going bankrupt. Therefore, he must maintain a double, ethical and economic, balance
between the two laws, the economic and the moral one, which he is constrained to observe. We wonder
what the entrepreneur should do and how should he behave in order to maintain a dynamic economic
and moral balance, within his company, within the company’s relations with business partners, within
the relationship between his company and economic and administrative community of belonging,
within the company’s relations with the national state of belonging. Consequently, more often, the
analysts of the global economy bring into debate the issue of morality in the free market based
economy (Machan, 2015). There is more and more evidence that clearly shows us that permanent
education into an ethics of the economic and labour relations is necessary. The importance of the
sustainable growth of the labour productivity is now more evident than ever. It is well-known the fact
that in the labour process, the workforce plays the essential role in the production of surplus product.
We cannot help bringing into question the global problems of the international community that need to
be resolved equitably by all states, together with all the economic agents. These global problems have a
strong ethical character as well, meaning that their unresolving or aggravation contributes to increasing
people’s physical and mental insecurity, escalating their unnecessary sufferings. The quality of the
human resource and the efficiency of networking in the work process are elements on which the
increasing level of the efficiency of that activity (essentially) depends on (Peters & Heraud, 2015). We
believe that an increased productivity can solve the problem of profit sharing so as to avoided, on the
one hand, the bankruptcy of the respective enterprise, and on the other hand, the issue of the possible
conflicts between employee and entrepreneur.
The efficiency and profitability of the activity depend to an overwhelming proportion on the good
functionality of the intra and intergroup relations, which provide cohesion and a good coordination
necessary in order to manage the problems that must be solved. Within the human activity of the adults
material goods, spiritual values or services are produced. The psychical processes and functions have
as a result the human activity, which is the expression of the activation and reactivation of the
increasingly elevated needs of the modern man (understood as being creator of material and spiritual
goods). The coordination activity is one specific to the joint activities, undertaken by groups and work
teams. And, the communication activity is the central core of all these activities. The human
personality develops and manifests itself through human activities; it is cause and effect of the human
We believe that an analysis of the interpersonal relationships (from psychology’s perspective),
specifically the role that communication plays in the development of these relations, can generate
viable solutions to increase work efficiency within the group. The road covered within the process of
identifying the dynamic aspects of the psycho-communicational structural of the group work requires a
sequential analysis of language and its use in the management of labour relations. The lack of
coordination in solving some work tasks leads to serious dysfunction of the group.
2. The argument of communication in the cognitive integration of the psyche
We believe that in addressing some group work issues is inevitable the analysis of the relationship
between thinking, language and human activity, both at individual and interindividual level. The
human being’s orientation towards the world and, at the same time, the self is achieved through the
psyche. We mention that we approach the psyche from the perspective of its components (the mental
processes – cognitive, emotional, volitional, etc. – as well as its connections) and less from the
perspective of its depth (subconscious and unconscious). Relevant for our research are the conscious,
as level of the psyche in direct connection with the present, and especially, the personality, which is
responsible for the individual’s interrelations, for his decisions, his creative capacity, etc.
The psychic process that intermediates the objectification of the activity and of the products of the
other components of the psyche is, mainly, the language. The psychic components of communication
are in a permanent interdependent relationship. Communication functions as an open system, found in
a permanent dynamic. That is why, the functionality of the other psychic components is enhanced,
highlighted and valorised by the communicational capacity of the individual. For example, among the
paths of knowing the human psyche one of its regulatory components – the communication is included.
It allows the psyche to be knowable, but only by virtue of the fact that the individual’s psychic activity
is regulated by objective laws specific to it (which inevitably manifest themselves when the necessary
conditions are met). The psychic life of an individual is, at the same time, unique and unrepeatable. The
very ability of individual to communicate can be analysed by some methods involving the
communication and language phenomenon. But, both thinking and language cannot be confused with
the objects, phenomena, processes (or with the relations between them) they address: they are just a
transposition of these into our minds.
The human being as bio-psycho-socio-cultural being permanently communicates with his peers;
therefore, the psychosocial factors play an important role in the evolution of language. Language (an
extraindividual phenomenon) is used as a communication tool within the community that uses it.
Consequently, language depends not only on the individual, but it depends, firstly, on the community
that speaks it and to whom the individual belongs to. The anatomical construction of the human being’s
upper limbs has allowed him to handle objects, fact that has led to the perception of some connections
between objects and phenomena, to the birth of some thinking operations, as well as to articulating
words. As human’s interaction with the environment and with his peers, the language and
communication have developed to the level of abstract thinking and symbolic language.
Communication is the main factor of socialization, of assimilation of some behavioural patterns and
assimilation of a culture. Language also contributes to the modification of the gregarious behaviour
into (Machan, 2016) a developed one. We mention that man is the being with history that is planning
his future: studies the past, appreciates the present and can estimate his future; he elaborates projects
and methods of achieving them. We believe that man is the being who, through thinking and practical
activities, objectifies his goals and aspirations. But, the complex system of the personality singles the
man out. It is the binder of all psychic structure components of the individual. As a matter of fact, the
main function of communication is that of personality affirmation. Thus, the man, free and healthy
individual wants to convince himself of the fact that his words have reached their destination and have
been received in the spirit of those he said (Schwartz, 2005, pp. 60-79).
The problem-solving process itself takes place over several stages involving the language and
communication act: setting the problem and its formulation; construction and formulation of the
hypotheses; expressing the motivation; discussing the solution; elaborating the optimal solution;
discussing how to implement the solution; communicating the problems arising while implementing
the solution; negotiating in choosing a new solution; discussing the methodology in applying the
definitive solution; discussing the methods used in applying the chosen solution; the discussions
concerning the preselection and selection of the persons that are to implement the concerned solution;
reporting the obtained results after applying the final solution.
3. The role of communication in the functionality of intergroup relations
The increasing role of knowing the structure of the relationships from within the group in increasing
the efficiency of its activity requires specialized personnel in organizing the group, as well as taking
into account the psychological criteria. The conduct within the joint activity is focused, on the one
hand, by the psycho-social interaction with others and, on the other hand, by individual’s psychological
particularities and personality. The common goal of the group’s activity can be achieved in the
conditions in which the motivational act and the desire to improve that activity occurs.
In the human activity, perseverance is supported both by the value of the purpose and also by the
confidence that man has in his own forces, which, in their turn, depend on the motivational act, on the
intensity of creativity. It is due to the experience gained by the human being and his capacity to
properly assess the factors involved in the activity undertaken. Previously acquired skills are essential;
they may favour in different proportions (low or high) the forming of new habits. Therefore, during the
labour activity, the skills needed for that activity are acquired differently by the group members (in a
We appreciate that the positive attitude towards the tasks must characterize all group members,
regardless of the status acquired inside the group (Duck, 2000, pp. 49-77). For this, it is necessary that
the group be constituted based on some personalities able to collaborate. In many cases it is about self-
training and education necessary for preparing for the beginning of the 21st century’s work (Reveley,
2015). We believe that the education systems must provide a continuous, permanent training,
throughout the entire life of man as an individual, social group and community.
We mention that the information communicated to the work team is received not only depending on
the logical arguments, but also depending on the motivational support, which has emotional
implications (at the level of each person). Creating a favourable climate for collaboration, cohesion,
solidarity is possible through the development of some positive emotional states, which ensure the
efficient communication of the information. Otherwise, negative affective states (suspicion, mistrust,
fear) prevent the good collaboration between people. That is why it is important that those coordinating
the group communicate, in a timely manner, the information related to its activities. We consider that it
is necessary to determine what is to be communicated, to create psychological states favourable to
communication, to establish the conditions favourable for communicating the information. Also, we
consider that it is absolutely necessary for the leader to choose the time for communicating the
information, taking into account his mental state as well, as strong emotional states can influence the
objectivity and clarity of thinking (Kunnanatt, 2016). The vulnerability (regardless of its nature) of the
one coordinating a project can influence and even compromise the project. Also, vulnerability
generated by the insufficiency of the subsistence means, insufficiency in which the participants in a
project can find themselves (temporarily or permanently), regardless of their position, causes severe
problems of communication and coordination (Flegar, 2016).
The content of communication is at least as important as the conditions in which it is conducted. The
verbal language is dominant within intergroup relationships. We believe that simple words should be
used in order to express concrete notions (in stating the facts) so as not to create difficulties in
understanding and thus ensuring that the information transmitted is perceived correctly. Expressiveness
of the verbal communication act is extremely important; it depends on a number of psychosocial
factors. For example, the selection of words and the manner to use them in the construction of phrases
help to clearly shape the expressed ideas. The vocabulary of a language contains homonymous,
synonyms terms, which, appropriately used, lead to the sense aimed by the communication act. On the
other hand, the length of the sentences favours or disfavours the clarity of the communication content.
Thus, short sentences containing suggestive words give clarity, rhythm and expressiveness to
communication. The meaning and significance of the conveyed message depend equally on the verbal
and nonverbal language that it completes: intensity of words, emphasis on certain words, intonation,
gestures that accompany the speech.
Oral language involves speaking, but also listening. The latter is as demanding as the speech; it
requires exercise and education (Peters, 2015). Based on these conclusions of the experts in
psychology, we notice that the manager (the one that manages the work team’s issues) needs to educate
the activity of listening collaborators, subordinates’ speech, for a better appreciation of the factual
situation. We believe that listening is part of the psychological conditions necessary for managing a
We have also noticed other important aspects of communication within the group work. For the
accuracy of the transmitted information it is necessary that it be communicated only once so as to avoid
distortions due to reformulations, additional interpretations, distorted reception of the significance.
Therefore, dialogue (and the stimulation of questions) is necessary in a relaxed atmosphere, in order to
clarify the less clear matters.
We find that group communication effectiveness depends on the following factors as well: each
group member’s ability to understand, each one’s training and work experience, personal problems and
mood during communication etc. For example, in the health systems, it is important not only the
communication between the team members treating the patient, but also the communication with the
patient (Popescu, 2015). Also it should not be neglected the position, role, namely, the tasks had by the
team members within their family (Buber-Ennser, 2015), since they have a direct impact on work
efficiency. The leader is the one who knows, through informal relationships, colleagues’ problems.
Team building sessions are meant to bring closer the members of the work team, gives them the
possibility to know each other better, to discover common hobbies, etc. We cannot help bring into
discussion the issue of Facebook communication (Cheung & Leung, 2016); it has been found that the
members of a work group know each other the best through such communication and share the same
views, have the same preferences, etc. We believe that such communication is beneficial to forming the
work teams (in the sense of distributing the tasks to some behaviourally compatible persons). We
mention that neglecting (Hurd, 2016) all these aspects can only block the common activities from a
lack of tolerance towards the real problems faced by some team members. All these ensure the
coordination of each individual’s activities, reported to the purpose of the common activity.
Coordination of efforts to achieve a common purpose necessarily implies efficient communication. The
success of an efficient communication implies the baseline assessment in order to make a real and
realistic comparison (Friedman & Lewis, 2015).
At the same time, communication in crisis situations should be considered (Cesaroni, Sentuti &
Buratti, 2015), which require a specific approach; flawed approach of problems can lead to conflicts
between work team members and not only. Managers’ orientation towards solving the material and
financial problems of the organization (in crisis situations), to the detriment of the teams involved in
projects generates an even deeper crisis: communication crisis, which can have an unexpected and
unpredictable evolution. Therefore, simple communicational disorders can turn into a real
communication crisis and conflicts dangerous for the very existence of the organization. Correct and
complete information of the work group members is absolutely necessary, as well as the adaptation of
communication to overload situations.
Sometimes, in the relationships within the group the related issue of the degree of inter-ethnic,
intercultural and interreligious tolerance are induced as well. We notice that the common purpose of
the activities performed blur these differences. Specifically, contributes to an efficient communication,
based on moral values. Some empirical evidence (Wickremasinghe, 2016) and the analysis of these
problems show us that the current difficulties of an economy (in crisis) are conducted within
globalization (through which is attempted the diminishing, more precisely, the attenuation of this type
of differences). We consider that it is desirable for globalization and tolerance to support each other
(Peters & Besley, 2016).
Negotiations are an important part of intra-group and inter-group interaction. They suppose a
specific language in which the dialogue partners pursue a predetermined objective. Here we are dealing
with a communication session well prepared in the smallest details. Nonverbal language is as important
(as the spoken or written language) in face to face confrontation during negotiations. The information
can be also identified by carefully studying the attitude, clothing, mimic of the negotiation team.
The dynamics and functionality of the open system called human group depend fundamentally on
the information exchange and their integrated circuit.
Analysing group’s communicational structure shows us that the intensity of communication between
individuals depends on the achievement of the pursued objectives. We find that the results are directly
proportional to the intensity of communication. It turns out that the communication deficiencies
diminishing the functional links between team members may result in the isolation of some team
members and the counterproductive dispersal of its efforts, which leads to decreased quality and
efficiency at work. The communication process should be functional both vertically, between the
different hierarchical and execution levels, and horizontally, on the same level. It was found that the
effectiveness of communication and hence of labour also depend on the time elapsed between
communicating a piece of information and its use; submitted details can be forgotten if the time is too
This analysis (during the conduct of this study) allowed us to configure some solutions, relatively
viable. Counselling coming from the psycho-sociologist is advisable in order to form a team with a
climate necessary to an increased productivity at work. We consider that it is necessary to set up an
ethical code for each company, that will compel all members of the company to comply with the
ethical and moral values they have selected; another solution is to invest employees with economic and
administrative, salaried responsibilities, this investing being made by the entrepreneur based on some
criteria from a so-called meritocracy grid. Such solutions would optimize the economic and social
activity, would maximize profits and salaries or other incomes of company’s entire staff. We notice
that all the fields of human action are based today on well thought and organized methodologies,
including methods adequate and up to date (Constantin, 2016, pp. 55-76), accompanied by
communication rules. We believe that the sustainable development (Nica, 2015) of the institutions
producing material and spiritual goods depends today in a consistent proportion on the ability to
manage the information, on the way they are provided by approved persons and, especially, on how
they are used in the common activity.
We notice that the argumentation is frequently used in negotiating the solutions to be adopted for the
successful implementation of some group’s tasks. Although theories about the argument claim that
there is no type argument for a specific problem, in the practice of the work groups the arguments are
born in the dialogue between the decision-maker and the performer and have as a common
denominator the plea for labour increased efficiency. The argumentation is always subject to the laws
of contextual appropriateness, including appropriateness in relation to the audience (Săvulescu, 2004,
pp. 118-122). In some businesses, communication is extremely important in the area of the sale of
goods, services, loans, loan recovery, insurance etc. The success of that enterprise depends in an
overwhelming proportion on it (Anderson & Kantarelis, 2016). We find that people with a high
potential in communication, persuasion and even manipulation are identified by specialized persons
(labour psychologist, psychosocial counsellor) and recommended for training within specialization
courses. This because the existence of a psychological compatibility is extremely important between
people that are in direct interaction during the work process.
Communication differentiates us from other beings and gave us the opportunity to live in a world
created by us (through the application in the production of – material and/or immaterial – economic
goods of the acquisitions of the scientific and technological knowledge). The analysis of these
problems allows us the configuration of some viable solutions to the current problems of some
economies (that are in crisis).
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04 October 2016
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Cite this article as:
Mircică, N. (2016). The Psycho-Communicational Group Structure and the Activity Efficiency. In A. Sandu, T. Ciulei, & A. Frunza (Eds.), Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty, vol 15. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 582-589). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.09.73