Due to the high nutrients and desirable taste, there is a high demand of grouper fish. However, the supply of wild catch grouper fish is limited and insufficient to meet the cyclical nature of high demand in grouper fish consumption leading to the high price. Consequently, grouper fish is worth to be farmed due to its high value price and high market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have a lot of trash fish, but trash fish is expensive, hard to store, hard to maintain the quality of nutrient and quantity throughout the years. Thus, there is a need to formulate the fish feed based on the nutrients requirements with an extensive survey of literature. Results show that grouper fish need crude protein 40-45%, crude fat 1-10%, crude fibre 0.5-8%, moisture 0.8-95.5%, ash 0.4-18%, phosphorus 0.1-1.8% , calcium 2-4%, and essential acid amino (EAA).This important information can be considered in further study in formulating fish feed to minimize cost and maximize profit in farming grouper fish.
Keywords: Grouper FishFish Feed FormulationNutrients Requirements and Composition
Nutrient is crucial for all living beings in terms of health and to maintain certainessential functions as such metabolic, mental, physical or chemical well (Gumustekin et al., 2014). All living beings must eat in order to survive, and reproduce and they must balance their consumption, storage and use of food. This evidence can be viewed in the life of bears in the preparation for winter sleep whereby they will store energy, mostly in the form of body fat. Hence, adequate feed is very vital for all living beings to survive and achieve standard nutrient requirements and daily functions.
In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to understand the nutrients requirement and nutrient balance to ensure the healthy growth of grouper fish.Nutrient balance means that the nutrient provided is equal to the nutrient needed so that living being can have the same basic nutritional needs as mentioned by Campbell
These objectives can be achieved through the understanding of the nutrients composition analyses, which eventually has sparked our interest to undertake the problem offish feed for grouper fish as the focus of our study to fill in the gap. Grouper fish is chosen due to thecurrent trend of demands in restaurants and its high price compared to other species of fish (Soong et al., 2015). However, it is difficult to search the relevant data since there are no exact data available. Thus, by doing these analyses, it gives us an overview on the priority of nutrients in feeding the grouper fish in order to formulate the grouper feed formulation.
Nutrients Components for Grouper Fish
In this present study, data come from two sources: Data sources (1) are from 30 manufacturers’ grouper fish feed meal. These results are with the experts’ input summarized in Table
The main nutrients which are needed for grouper fish are crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, moisture, crude ash, phosphorus and calcium. The fish feed meal with its nutrients components (percentage) are illustrated in Table
In this present study, quantitative descriptive statistics include the coefficient of data comes from variance (CV), mean, standard deviation, range of sample, maximum and minimum sample. These are depicted as in Table
SPSS was used to perform the one sample test as in Table
SPSS was used to performthe correlation nutrients as in Table
A Pearson correlation coefficient was computed to assess the relationships betweencrude protein with crude ash, crude fat and crude fibre as illustrated in Table
Essential Amino Acids (EAAs)
Essential aminoacid (EAAs) which are needed for grouper fish are Arginine, Histidine, Threonine, Tryptohan, Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, and Phenylalanine. These ten essential amino acids (EAAs) are adopted and adapted from Muhammadar
Findings and Discussion
The major findings are: (1) There are five main nutrients needed for grouper fish: (i) crude protein, (ii) crude fat, (iii) crude fibre, (iv) ash and (v) moisture. (2) All other fish feed meals contain a range ofbetween 30-59% of protein content, and the mean of crude protein for all fish feed meals is 33.81%. However, sample 17 and sample 24 from Table
From the present study, it can be concluded that the main nutrients needed for grouper fish are crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, moisture, ash, phosphorus and calcium. Crude protein is very important among the nutrients. This is followed by crude fat and crude fibre. This information can be further studied in the fish feed formulation using Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) to minimize cost and minimize profit in farming grouper fish. On top of that, this study can be a reference to other research related to fish diet.
Research on the work reported in this paper was supported by a grant of FRGS. We thank for the financial support on this piece of work. We also thank Dr Ahmad Daud bin Om from FRI Tg Demong and Dr Zainoddin Bin Jamari from FRI Gelang Patah, Johor for their constructive comments in this project.
- Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Taylor, M. R., Simon, E. J., &Dickey, J. L. (2011). Biology: concepts and connections (7thed.). San Francisco:Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
- Gumustekin, S., Senel, T., Cengiz, M. A. (2014). A comparative study on Bayesian optimization algorithm for nutrition problem. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research , 2(12), 952-958.
- Muhammadar, A. A., Mazlan, A. G., Samat, A., Muchlin, Z. A., &Simon, K. D. (2011). Crude protein and amino acids content in some common feeds of tiger grouper (Epinephelusfuscoguttatus) juvenile. Aqu. Aquarium, Conservation & legislation.International Journal of Bioflux Society, 4(4).241-247.
- Soong, C.-J., Razamin, R. &Rosshairy, A. R. (2015). Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation. 2nd Innovation and Analytics Conference &Exhinition 2015 (IACE2015), Kedah.
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22 August 2016
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Cai-Juan, S., Ramli, R., & Abdul Rahman, R. (2016). Nutrients Requirements and Composition in A Grouper Fish Feed Formulation. In & B. Mohamad (Ed.), Challenge of Ensuring Research Rigor in Soft Sciences, vol 14. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 60-66). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.08.10