Kazakh National University after Al-Farabi celebrated its 80th anniversary last year. It is one of the leading Universities in the country, with a good material and technical base, powerful scientific, educational potential, a lot of scientific schools and research areas, centers and institutes, started one of the first to claim the status of a national innovative research university. Priority in the activities of the university becomes the production of high-quality knowledge, based on the fundamental sciences, providing the relationship of education and science.This article focuses on Kazakhstan's participation in the Bologna Process, the quality of education in the teaching of social sciences and humanities, which is primarily determined by the quality of the teaching staff, which transmits this knowledge by studying different methods.
At the present stage in Kazakhstan pays great attention to the further development of the education system. Factors: the emergence of statehood of Kazakhstan, the entry into the market economy and the development of private property, occurrence of the national education system in the world community.
Date March 11, 2010 entered the history of Kazakhstan's higher education as a day of the signing of the Bologna Declaration on the decision of the Committee of Ministers of Education of the Bologna process (46 countries). The Republic of Kazakhstan became the 47 countries of the Bologna process. The purpose of Kazakhstan's participation in the Bologna process - improving access to European education, further enhancing its quality, as well as increasing the mobility of students and teaching staff through the adoption of comparable levels of higher education, the use of a system of credits, issuing graduates Kazakh universities European Diploma Supplement.
Kazakhstan's accession to the Bologna Process will provide adhered by Kazakh educational programs, curricula, academic mobility of students and teachers, the convertibility of national diplomas in the European region, the right graduates for employment in any country.
The signing of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Bologna Declaration implies the fulfillment of obligations to fulfill its basic parameters.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is the first Central Asian state, which was honored to join the Bologna Declaration and became a full member of the European educational space.
Kazakhstan's accession to the Bologna process provides certain opportunities for Kazakhstan universities and students: i.bringing the national educational programs and curricula in line with European standards; ii.the recognition of national qualifications and academic degrees; iii.ensuring academic mobility of students and teachers; iv.Credit Transfer students Kazakh universities in foreign universities, and vice versa; v.implementation of joint educational programs; vi.creating conditions for the convertibility of Kazakhstan diplomas of higher education in the European region and the right graduates for employment in any country.
Main purpose for which the movement in the international educational space - Quality assurance of Kazakhstani higher education in accordance with international standards, improving its attractiveness and competitiveness.
One of the main principles of the Bologna Declaration is an academic mobility of students and teachers.
In the decade up to 2020 we will achieve a high level of quality in higher education that meets the needs of the labor market problems of industrial and innovative development of the country, the individual and the best international practices in the field of education.
Kazakhstan can succeed in this endeavor only if it is the most of the skills and abilities of its citizens, will participate fully in the process of learning throughout life, as well as to increase participation in higher education.
Education, result-oriented, and mobility will help students develop the competences they need to adapt to the changing labor market, and that will enable them to become active and responsible citizens. Since 2005, as an experiment in the universities of the country began to be introduced educational programs to train doctors PhD. Initially, the two universities: Kazakh National University after Al-Farabi and Eurasian National University after L.Gumilev. Currently Kazakh National University successfully carries out all the tasks of the Bologna Process. Student Office on Bologna Process has opened the support center “Advice” to students where each student can get needed information on academic policy of the university.In the international ranking of the Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi ranked 299 among the 800 best universities in the world.
The study of the international organization “Great Value Colleges” is among the 50 most technologically advanced universities in the world, taking place in the ranking of 31. KazNU is the only university in Kazakhstan adopted a program of the organization of the United Nations “Academic Impact” approved by the initiative of the Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon. KazNU is actively involved in the implementation of the strategy of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev “Kazakhstan 2050”.
The value of education and knowledge in this dynamic world is of particular relevance and importance, as it affects the basis of their own human existence, its moral ethos and cultural environment. Conceptually generalizing axiological essence of education, there are three aspects: the value of education at the state level; education as a social value; the value of education on a personal level.
For the state educational environment is a source of human and intellectual capital, a strategically important resource for the development and reproduction of society, civilization level indicator, innovation and industrial, scientific and technological capabilities. At the societal level education serves as the primary mechanism for relaying, conservation and enhancement of cultural fund gained throughout the development of humanity, the most important social institution that provides humanitarian orientation, spiritual and moral formation of the person. On a personal level education is the main ways of socialization, participation and inclusion in the socio-cultural reality, the foundation of personal growth, self-actualization in the basic need of man, his material and spiritual welfare.
Purpose of the Study:
It should be noted that the state of the education system is largely determined and depends on what position is the society itself and the main components of social life: economy, politics, culture, religion, science, ideology. And at the same time is always traceable feedback, all of the spheres of social life, of course, influence and determine the quality of education, educational policy, educational strategy and technology. As you know, in recent decades, Kazakhstan, signed a number of international instruments, actively began to "move" in the Bologna process, and quickly began the process of integration into the European educational space. One of the factors ensuring equal competition for Kazakh universities with leading universities in the world is to create or better to say, the transformation of classical universities in research.
Method of comparative analysis, inductive method, theoretical methods
Time has shown that it is impossible to develop in the separateness of global processes, the development of new technologies, new methods of education in general. At the same time, we are witnessing that the old method of education causes regression. Everyone knows that Kazakhstan is developing rapidly on the path of joining the 30 most developed countries. One of the conditions of the process is the training of competitive specialists. Conclusion “The economic competitiveness - especially competitive footage” is proof of this (Nazarbayev, 2007).
Kazakh National University after Al-Farabi, being one of the largest in the country, with a good material and technical base, powerful scientific, educational potential, a lot of scientific schools and research areas, centers and institutes, started one of the first to claim the status of a national innovative research university. Priority in the activities of the university becomes the production of high-quality knowledge, based on the fundamental sciences, providing the relationship of education and science. The content of the education is elite, as the cornerstone put forward criteria for the existence of highly professional teaching staff, selection of the best students, an increase in the share of scientific component, as well as the establishment of structures for the commercialization of scientific activity. In other words, in a competitive environment a priority educational institution becomes the demand for knowledge obtained in studying the specific conditions, the ability to use them for a particular purpose and quality of life.
Overview of analytical materials on the issue of quality of education, shows that there are the following blocks of quality indicators.
First, the quality of the teaching staff, which motivate teachers, as a component of training programs, the innovation activity of the administrative apparatus. The second is the quality of infrastructure, including the state of the material-technical base of the institution, level of implementation of process innovations. Third, the quality of students, determined by indicators of quality of knowledge, employment and demand for graduates, competitiveness and success of graduates in the labor market.
In the educational process of a key figure, of course, is the teacher, therefore, the policy of quality assurance starts with the individual and the professional competence of the teacher. In particular, in the teaching of social and human sciences, namely philosophy, history, historiography, source studies, cultural studies, religious studies, political science, sociology, much depends on the system of training courses on the meaningfulness of working curricula, as they include the richness and diversity of the various schools, systems, approaches to understanding reality, as is taught, how it is methodologically built, and what techniques and technologies are used. In this case, the teacher of social and humanities not only transmits knowledge but also forms the personality of the learner, his worldview and spirituality. Hence as a set of requirements for the professional level of teachers, nominated: the level of competence; ability to teaching; communication skills; research activity; creativity (innovativeness), flexibility (sensitivity), mobility; availability of scientific schools.
It should be considered that each of the components of the "teacher quality" can be detailed and, as a rule, can not be quantified, since, for example, is determined by the level of competence in basic education, followed by self-education, the availability of scientific degrees and titles; pedagogical work experience; practical experience in a specific field. Quality of training depends on the demands, which is presented to the students, and the quality is determined by their fundamental knowledge and demand in the job after graduation.
In the new conditions, one of the key requirements in the training process is the implementation of the competency approach, briefly, this means that, depending on the knowledge gained graduate should possess certain competencies, skills, abilities, without which it can not be an expert in a particular field of expertise.
For example, we present a number of competencies, the possession of which is required for the graduate faculty of social sciences and humanities: possession of written and oral communication, clearly express their thoughts in writing and verbally express. Language skills: the ability to speak jargon handling terms, concepts and categorical apparatus; the ability to apply new scientific and information technology. Readiness for lifelong learning in order to obtain new knowledge and its application in professional activities, etc. It should be noted that in the framework of vocational training of students of social and humanitarian specialties distinguish different types of competencies: generic (general), personality (interpersonal); occupational, cognitive, social, and general cultural competence, and others.
In addition to the Bologna process, Kazakhstan has established close ties with the countries of Europe by the program "Bolashak". November 5, 1993 by decision of the President of N.A. Nazarbayev was installed program "Bolashak". The program is based on the acquisition of knowledge talented young people in countries abroad and application of knowledge in the development of the state. Since 1994, the program "Bolashak" in 13 countries, 785 students gained knowledge. Graduates of this program have the right to work in government agencies, international organizations, joint-stock companies and contributed to the development of the young state. In the address to the nation from 2005 President of the Republic has decided to increase the surprising number of receiving knowledge of the program "Bolashak". In this regard, in order to organize the competition in the framework of the decision of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on April 4, 2005 number 301 was established Joint Stock Company "Center for International Programs". Along with that starting this year, the training of specialists in foreign countries held very strictly. In 2005-2007 in the award of the scholarship program was part of the necessary disciplines for the development of the state. As a result, in 2005, has increased the number of countries where candidates for the scholarship were able to gain knowledge in the most advanced countries of the world. Among them are the leading countries of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Poland, Finland, Russia. The Republic of Kazakhstan has reached an agreement whereby applicants had the opportunity to gain knowledge in the leading countries of Western Europe.
The Bologna process has arisen as a result of necessity as the trend in Europe was creating a single economic zone, which gave great results. However, economic integration affected the education system, and therefore there was the need for integration in the education system. The purpose of the Bologna process was the increasing competition of European higher education and strengthening citizens' health, increase job opportunities of graduates in 2010 to form a single European educational advice. On the basis of the Bologna process was organized unified system of higher education. Along with that has been made to attract European education and enhancing competitiveness, the introduction of the levels of learning, the introduction of academic credit redundant system, to control quality of education organization of students and teachers, the centralization of learning. The Bologna process separately pays attention to research works. Just issue the relevant certificates and pays attention to quality.
Need to tell the truth, the decision of such a complex issue, especially in recent years has achieved great results. The transformation of the Kazakh University of the leading higher education institution in Central Asia and Kazakhstan is proof. Bereau Veritas Certification (France) International Bureau of December 3, 2008 reviewed the specialty undergraduate, graduate and doctoral studies in physics, mechanics and mathematics, chemistry, material technology, methodology of research in chemistry and physics, biology, biotechnology, environmental compliance standards for research and quality management issued Certificate of Quality Management System Accreditation 9001: 2000 ISO.
Kazakh National University puts on the agenda the issue of strengthening the quality of education and compliance with modern teaching methods. In such an important issue for the government in the preparation of highly qualified faculty members, students and undergraduates go to improve the skills of leading foreign universities are research internships; go to study in European universities, making the industry a tradition. In this situation, attention was drawn to match job training programs. In this regard, the university has introduced an experimental system of education. Training programs were compared with the top-rated universities, in order to be able to develop a system of academic mobility. This year has been entered the second stage of the pilot program of education. The program is specifically Kazakh University with the support of the Ministry of Education and Science has moved in a pilot program to enhance innovative teaching methods. The purpose of introducing a pilot program of training was the entry into the world educational space, the introduction of new learning technologies. Since the purpose of the pilot training program were to give young people a quality education were covered by mandatory elective professional discipline, compulsory and elective humanity, mandatory professional elective professional disciplines, as well as more learning methods, in general, 132 loan. In the experimental program of study is not considered a mandatory national standard, on the contrary is the selective system of compulsory and elective courses and academic activity in general. Mandatory professional disciplines in a total of 20, they argue chair, dean, academic council, after the selection of the Academic Council shall submit for approval to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
In an experimental training program a big attention pays to elective courses. This process is carried out in order to comply with the Bologna process and the current trends in education. In this regard, the criteria were elective courses. Significance and has been designated the most extended objects elective courses. Many professional and elective courses are conducted at the Department of English, German and Oriental languages. At the same time the program uses new technologies and teaching methods. The classes and workshops using interactive innovation, Presentational, press conference, brainstorming roundtable case the Internet and other methods of training. In the preparation of teaching materials were taken into account special items. It was also brought to the attention of independent work of students and guidelines for them. In this regard, the seminars drew attention to the methodical recommendations of independent works, educational complexes, which is strategically important principle of the Kazakh National University. The teachers at the university and beyond are actively involved in teaching workshops themselves are master classes, open, video and online classes. In the process of migrating to a loan program and the requirements of modern education system is important part of training, training manuals, and other electronic aids. In this direction, faculty members have begun to produce such benefits at both the State and English languages. Each year, an average count of 350 study guides are available in print University.
At the University of attention paid to the training of undergraduates and doctoral students. In the Kazakh University of over 1,000 professors and doctors are preparing these specialties. For the training changed the governance structure of the education system. At this stage, there are five departments that regulate the system of education, teaching, research, educational, linguistic, and Department of International Relations. The educational process is reflected in the University intranet. For example, the intranet will regulate visiting students, their academic performance, involvement of teaching materials, etc.
On the master theme of elective courses focused on getting quality knowledge, to improve the skills and competitiveness, deepen the knowledge gained in baccalaureate through an interdisciplinary approach. Research work carried out in the university undergraduates leading foreign universities, archives, libraries, databases museum.
By collaborating with leading universities in the world, Kazakh National University prepares doctoral students.
One of the goals of the Bologna process is the production of high-quality knowledge. On this basis, there is a tendency in the university management education and science in general. Realizing the difficulties in the preparation of competitive specialists Kazakh University conducts research and development. For the development of professional skills and science in general in the education system are turned out a lot of work, the difficulties of which fall on universities. In this regard, the introduction of new technologies is not mean to be limited to the formation. Universities, in particular, national universities and research centers at various levels should take into account the socio-political and economic development of the country. The opening of the universities research centers and laboratories, their research will affect the quality of the education and training of highly qualified specialists. In this direction with the Kazakh University on the basis of a strategic plan to 2015 Number of research centers has increased (Nazarbayev, 2012).
In general, the knowledge on the program of experiential education specialists are competitive and this has created the entire technical base. The university has online classes, study halls, sports complexes, dormitories and Students' Palace responsible date. At each department of the University, there are several modern laboratory, research centers and museums. Founded a new library for students and teaches. Despite the global economic crisis in recent construction of new academic buildings. At the present stage in the Kazakh University are taught 20 thousand students. The university complex is situated on 90 hectares of land. Based on new technologies and innovation infrastructure makes it possible to obtain high-quality knowledge.
University believes priority enhance education at the international level, the introduction of new technologies and education, the results of the acquired knowledge to use for professional purposes.
The new, unified infrastructure of European higher education within the Bologna process develops as a whole successful and fast enough (although in different European countries reform higher education is at a different rate). It is designed to make the higher education system in Europe more efficient, competitive, compatible and comparable, providing while respecting the principles of academic autonomy and maintaining institutional, cultural and national a variety of high school. However, in general optimistic scenario of the Bologna process does not negate the existence of a number of unsolved problems, contradictions, risks. One such problem is the training teachers. The general conclusion from this analysis can be worded as follows: Kazakhstan's accession to Bologna process - a positive step and uncontested. However, the participation of Kazakhstan in the Bologna Process should make full use provided by the Bologna agreement possibility of maintaining national tradition of higher education. Including and above all -tradition of providing fundamental university higher education, not liable to market conditions (Sagintayeva, 2013).
We must admit that the current three-tier system of training in the field of social sciences and humanities is not a perfect model, as is in a constant process of its improvement and compliance requirements and time "challenges". The credit system and modular training are responsible for setting completely different criterion to the goals and objectives of education, the quality and level of teaching in the global information and communication space. Traditional schemes and theoretical and methodological baggage becomes less popular, and new trends of educational activities require innovative approaches.
Innovation and tradition in education is always relevant and has been the subject of heated debate. What is the novelty of modern methodological decisions? Educational process of modern emphasis on the choice of students individual learning paths and increase the proportion of independent work. In new contexts, as we know, the modern teacher ceases to be the "ultimate truth", the main source of knowledge, and increasingly acts as an informant, or rather one of the sources of the information and "roadmap" for the student to obtain the necessary knowledge in a another sphere. Intensify the search for new and effective ways to transfer knowledge and forms of control of education.
Nazarbayev, N.A. (2007). New Kazakhstan in the new world. – Almaty
Nazarbayev, N.A. (2012). Strategy of the Kazakh National University for 2010-2015. - Almaty, 2012.
Sagintayeva, A.K. (2013). Challenges of Bologna process: Pros and Cons. Retrieved from http://www.elibrary.kz/download/zhurnal_st/st3607144
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18 December 2019
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Tanabayeva, A., Mukhatova, O., Massalimova, A., Tashenev, M., Akhmetzhanova, A., & Mukhazhanova, T. (2019). Kazakh National University in the education system of Kazakhstan. In Z. Bekirogullari, & M. Y. Minas (Eds.), Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences – icCSBs 2015 January, vol 2. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 137-144). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2015.01.16