This article review In the modern period of development of psychological science and practice, at this stage of the formation of higher psychological education, takes into account not only the professional quality of future specialists and psychologists. Reasonably it is regarded as the personal qualities (personal qualities, in turn, predetermined by age peculiarities) of students-psychologists have a very important role in the development of them as professionals engaged in socially useful activities in society.
Keywords: students, psychologists, anxiety, stress, adaptation
In the modern period of development of psychological science and practice, at this stage of the formation of higher psychological education, takes into account not only the professional quality of future specialists and psychologists. Reasonably it is regarded as the personal qualities (personal qualities, in turn, predetermined by age peculiarities) of students-psychologists have a very important role in the development of them as professionals engaged in socially useful activities in society. Moreover, in the modern scientific and practical psychology is postulated a priori that the development of personal qualities of psychologists, especially at the stage of them as professionals, determines the formation of their professional qualities (L.I. Bozovic, I.V. Dubrovin, M.V. Ermolaeva, V.V. Zatsepin, E.A. Klimov, L.M. Mitin, A.M. Parishioners, L.S. Pryazhnikov, etc.). [2, 4, 6, 12, 15, 16, 18]. That's why you need to know and recognize the time, in the process of professional development of individual students of psychology; they may have difficulties in communicating and interacting with others and in understanding themselves. The problem of anxiety continues to be one of the most relevant in modern psychology. Among the negative experiences of human anxiety occupies a special place, leading to a decrease in efficiency, to difficulties in communication and reduction of resources for adaptation [1,3].
Interest in the problem of anxiety is reflected in the work of psychologists in various fields. The representatives of classical psychoanalysis – Z. Freud, V.Rayh, individual psychology - A. Adler; neo-psycho-analysis - K. Horney, G.Sallivan, E.Erikson, humanitarian, and cognitive psychology - K.Rodzhers and J. Kelly, Gestalt psychology - F . Perls. Experimental studies of anxiety involved - D.Teylor, Ch.Spilberger, H.Ayzenk, Kettel, K.Izard, N.Miller, A.Spens, Serazon and others.Among the representatives of Kazakhstan's psychology the major contribution was made by psychologists - S.M.Dzhakupov, Z.B.Madalieva, M.A.Perlembetov and others. The study on the relationship of personal anxiety and achievement motivation were investigated by: H.Hekhauzen (1980), D.MakKlelland (1957), D.Atkinson (1957), K.Devidson (1960), S.Sarazon (1972), D.Naycholls (1976), R.Vayte (1960).
The term "anxiety" is used in different meanings. This "intermediate variable" and the mental state that arises under the influence of stress and frustration of important needs, and the property of the individual, and the reaction to the conflict situation, and motivational conflict. Hence the main difficulty in the study of anxiety, which consists in the fact that most researchers define anxiety as a personality complex process with multiple components and at the same time seek to take into account the psychological aspects of the theoretical assumptions of schools in which working. Currently, the following common models of anxiety: biological (Akinschikova G., S. Schechter, etc.), interpersonal (J. Bould, A. Meyer, G. Sullivan, and others), psychoanalysis (R. May, G. Tillich, Z. Freud, K. Horney, and others), cognitive (A. Beck, R. Lazarus, and others).
Anxiety is one of the central problems in philosophy. It appears, from a philosophical point of view, when a person is aware of its existence against the possibility of a fatal oblivion. S. Kerkegor argues that anxiety is a subjective "fear of nothing." Paul Tillich said anxiety existential awareness of nonbeing, i.e. state in which the possibility of being aware of his nothingness. K. Goldstein defines anxiety as the fear of the meaninglessness of existence. R. Niebuhr calls the internal state of anxiety, temptation of inside premise .
Traditionally, the anxiety is called human tendency to experience anxiety, ie, negative emotional experience associated with anticipation of real or imaginary danger. Anxiety, unlike fear, does not object. Its object is the negation of any object. A single object - a threat rather than a threat. The main psychological parameters that distinguish anxiety from other states, acts as an assessment of the situation and containing the risk awareness of the possibility of failure. From other emotional states of anxiety distinguishes a subjective assessment of the situation, containing the threat, the anticipation of failure in a meaningful activity for the individual (I.V. Imedadze, V.R. Kislovskaya). It is one of the main indicators of individual differences and subjective manifestation of distress interaction of personality with the
environment. Anxiety appears with the first emotional reaction to various situational stressors, and therefore an integral part of emotional participant any significant activity for the subject.
In psychological science, there is a significant number of papers devoted to various aspects of anxiety (F.B. Berezin, B.A. Bozhovich, N.A. Vyatkin, V.R. Grishchenko, N.D. Kislovskaya, N.D. Levitov, V.N. Myasishchev, N.I. Naenko, T.A. Nemchin, I.S. Food, Vladimir Plotnikov, A.M .Parishioners, L.A. Suleymanov, V.V. Suvorov, Y. Khanin , H. Eysenck, R. May, K. Spence, Charles Spielberger, J. Taylor, X. Hekhauzen, E. Erikson, and others). These studies considered various definitions of anxiety; it causes and strengthens its influence on the activities and forms of anxiety.
According to Charles Spielberger, anxiety is - a reflection of the emotional state or a specific set of reactions occurring in a subject perceives a situation as personally threatening,dangerous. I.P. Pavlov assessed anxiety as an indicator of the weakness of the nervous system,chaotic neural processes. N.D. Levitov considers the mental state of anxiety as expressed in the state fears and disturbance caused by the possible troubles . A.M. Prihozhan defines anxiety as emotional personal formation, which has cognitive, emotional, and the operational aspects . L.V. Borozdina and E.A. Zaluchenova associated anxiety with the concept of safety concerns of its own position, a desire to avoid risk, setting the behavior of reinsurance . Thus, we see that there are many different theories and schools, attitudes to the phenomenon of anxiety, suggesting that there is no single view of the nature of this phenomenon. Based on the available definitions of the phenomenon of anxiety, we understand the anxiety as a psychological tendency to experience emotional discomfort of future psychologists.
Currently, it is increasing the number of disturbing students with different high anxiety, uncertainty, and emotional instability. The problem of motivation and motives of students - is also one of the key in psychology. Behavior, achievement-oriented, suggests the presence of the motives of every person to achieve success and avoid failure. All people have the ability to be interested in achieving success and worry about failure, but each individual has a dominant tendency to be guided or motivated to achieve, or the motive of avoiding failure.
In the past decade, interest in Kazakhstan's psychology to the study of motivation for success, avoiding failure and anxiety, significantly increased due to the drastic changes in society, generating uncertainty and unpredictability of the future and as a consequence, the experience of emotional tension, alarm, and anxiety.
An investigation work was conducted aimed at identifying the characteristics of anxiety in adolescents with differentlevels of achievement motivation. The work was conducted at the University "Kainar". Total number of respondents - 62 people (future psychologists - 62 Students II-IV courses in age from 18 to 25 years). We studied the level of personal and situational anxiety to Charles Y. Khanin, and Spielberg, the motivation to achieve and avoid failures of A.A. Rean. Based on these results, we divided the sample into three groups according to severity of motivation: Group 1 - the prevalence of low motivation (avoidance of failure) -18% of the sample; Group 2 - the average level of motivation (motivation is not expressed) - 34% of the sample; Group 3 - high level of motivation (motivation to achieve) - 48% of the sample.
In the group with a predominance of the motivation of avoiding failure, adolescents have a high situational andpersonal anxiety and low confidence in their abilities, try to avoid critical tasks, which in turn speaks of the fear of possible failure, not on how to achieve success.
In the second group, motivational pole clearly not expressed. However, the results suggest that adolescents who identify themselves to a greater degree of motivation avoid failure than achieve. They have been personal and situational anxiety, avoidance of responsibility and lack of confidence in achieving the desired result.
The high level of motivation in the third group, indicates a positive adolescents in the implementation of goals, confidence in the successful completion of the work, responsibility, initiative, and the absence of anxiety.
Analyzing the level of anxiety has been found high trait anxiety in 44% of the sample. Young people, belonging to the category of high anxious tend to perceive a threat to their self-esteem and life in a wide range of situations and react very hard, pronounced the state of anxiety, which greatly complicates communication, creates a lot of communication barriers.
About 20% of the studied adolescents have low levels of personal anxiety. Here you can talk about a relatively stable tendency to perceive a threat to their teens, "I" in a variety of situations and react to these situations increase situational anxiety. Behavior, relationships with others are governed by confidence in the success, the belief in the possibility of conflict resolution and achievement motivation.
Situational anxiety is characterized by stress, anxiety, nervousness. Such states arise as an emotional reaction to a stressful situation. Comparison of the results on both subscales an opportunity assess the individual significance of a stressful situation for students. Positive correlation was found (Pearson correlation) between the personal and situational anxiety (r = 0,424; p <0,01).
Based on the above results, we obtained the severity of motivation (achievement and avoidance of failure) and its relationship with anxiety (situational and personal):The group №1, with a predominance of failure avoidance motivation revealed that avoidance of failure leads to an increase in the level of situational and personal anxiety. Found a positive relationship between motivation and situational (r = 0,480; p <0,01) and personal (r = 0,678; p <0,01) of anxiety. This is due to the need to avoid failure, punishment, which leads to an increase in anxiety;The group №2, with the unexpressed motivations observed average level of personal and situational anxiety; The group №3, It was found low situational and personal anxiety with a predominance of achievement motivation. The observed negative correlation between the level of motivation and personal anxiety (r = -0,977; p <0,01) shows that with an increase in achievement motivation, trait anxiety is reduced.
Investigation of future psychologists with varying levels of personal anxiety as personality dispositions are closely related. The predominance of one or another motivational tendency is always accompanied by differences in degree of difficulty of selecting targets and the level of both, situational and personal anxiety. The increase of anxiety in adolescence, as stressful, can lead to emotional stress, reduced ability to adapt. Therefore, the study of psychological and physiological health indicators of future psychologists with varying levels of personal anxiety in the organization of academic work shows that it is necessary to organize measures aimed at changing attitudes of students to the educational process in the university environment in order to create motivation to achieve.
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14 May 2014
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Social psychology, collective psychology, cognitive psychology, psychotherapy
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KorgadzhanovnaToхanbaeva, N., TanirbergenovaNaubaeva, H., SuleymenovnaZhubanazarova, N., Mandykayeva, A., & Bekova, Z. (2014). Psychological Health Indicators of Future Psychologists with Different Levels of Anxiety. In Z. Bekirogullari, & M. Y. Minas (Eds.), Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences – icCSBs 2014, vol 1. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 98-102). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2014.05.12