The modern image of a professional pedagogue striving for self-development is a complex philosophy reflecting special knowledge, rational activity, professional skills, and spiritual reality. Not only the teacher, but every professional who has already begun his/her work, even a professionally developed one, must pay great attention to improving the quality of his/her work, to professional growth. Pedagogical praxiology can help rationally solve the problem and achieve a positive result. For the competent and professional implementation of state requirements aimed at mastering professional development courses established for each teacher in the field of step-by-step activities in the education system and professional training, clear universal tools and well-established mechanisms are needed. The proposed research article aims to consider the philosophy of the pedagogue within the framework of pedagogical practice, therefore, ways to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of professionalism of the pedagogue in the activity, the regularities and conditions of its purposeful and rational structure. Pedagogical praxiology in the article, which presents the results of scientific research, is presented as a practice, as a subject of research, as a methodological and practical basis, in the category of practices that can master the professional skills, the ability to think, plan, control and implement their activities.
Since the beginning, when mankind paid special attention to the development of knowledge and science, the process of human mentoring, education and development has been constantly improving, but day by day there is a growing interest in it and a parallel shortage. There is a great demand for specialized tools, applied and basic research, specific methodologies, professionals and textbooks. These factors are present in a healthy competition throughout life, and in the midst of the competition the observer/evaluator is standing. This requires skills to master the methods, techniques, and tools to be able to use organizational technology effectively.
The scientific translation of productive action is close to the Greek word "Praxis", practice, action, and the Latin word "Praxeus", which comes from the Latin word "praxeus", action. Directly translated, praxiology means "knowledge of action," recognition of practice, implementation of practice, and awareness of its importance (Kotarbinski, 1964).
Praxiology is a theory of effective organization of activities (Fedotova, 2010). Although the term was first introduced in 1882 by Bourdieu, but its scientific name is known by Espinas, Slutsky, Kotarbinski. Espinas proposed the idea of creating a separate scientific discipline dedicated to factors that increase the efficiency and usefulness of actions. In one of his scientific articles, published in 1890, Espinas wrote: "The jeweler learns, the farmer rakes the land, the sailor steers the ship, the army fights, the merchant sells, the teacher teaches, the chief divides the labor of the workers" (Fedotova, 2010, p. 187). This is called praxis, which is to define these services at their own level and consider them as the progress of society as a whole. From this meaning comes the "praxiology" term.
Praxiology as one of the important areas of sociological research is important in analyzing the implementation of pedagogical practice and as a research method it allows us to analyze each moment of activity, dividing it into structural elements and then synthesizing the results into an overall model of practice. In modern conditions it is necessary to respond to such challenges as digitalization, technologization, distance learning, the emergence of new markets, internationalization, new functions of teachers in the digital educational environment, service support of educational services, focus on the personalized development of each person, increasing demand for professionals, providing staffing solutions. Effective interaction between universities and employers is a prerequisite for the healthy development of higher education and labor relations. All this dictates the need to explore new approaches in the organization and undertaking professional practices in close relationship with the issues of effective employment through the use of an electronic platform.
The main question of the research is a comparative analysis of the implementation of teaching practices in different countries and the identification of features based on the application of praxiology method, which is carried out by identifying the cause-effect relationships.
Purpose of the Study
The implementation of the praxiological approach for the effective implementation of teaching practice.
The proposed article mainly used the method of comparative analysis, as well as the analysis of the collected information. The information and results were based on the students' main research work on teaching practice. The article makes philosophical judgments about a teacher's existence and professional skills.
Praxiology as a field of sociological research is important in analyzing human activity, and as a method of sociological research it is unique by the fact that in examining human activity it first analyzes each moment of activity, breaking it down into its component parts, and then synthesizes the results into an overall model. Praxiology is most common in applied sociological research. The method of praxiology in sociological research allows to learn the laws of functioning of social consciousness, to determine the essence of social relations (Kireev & Mazaev, 2018).
The methodology of the praxiological approach is based on the application of rational, effective action leading to the expected result (Danyushenkov & Korshunova, 2020).
In 1949, Mises, the Austrian economist, in his scientific authorship work Human Action" considered the term praxiology as a science that defines and traces conscious human activity (Kolesnikova & Titova, 2005). Kotarbinski, the Polish philosopher, in the middle of the twentieth century marked the importance of the idea of praxiology in the field of theoretical and applied research with his works "Principles of Good Work" published in 1946 and "Treatise on Good Work" published in 1955 (Fedotova, 2010). Scientific thinking is necessary to continually improve and enhance the effectiveness of every practice. Because action can always be a professional and pedagogical tool.
Therefore, praxiology should be seen as the doctrine of practice. Practice in the broad sense has a socio-historical nature, because it does not consider and differentiate the activity of the individual student, it is based on the joint collective action of a certain group, faculty, university, and the experience of a student-intern is considered as the main object in the history of professional teaching practice. We believe that the phrase "No practice is better than a good theory" is not only an important word to convey the essence of pedagogical praxiology, but also the abstract consensus of scholars in the field, which is usually unofficial, not copyrighted, but popular among the public.
In accordance with the expansion of the place and role of praxiology in science, its features began to appear in various fields, in particular, "political praxiology", "legal praxiology", "social praxiology", "pedagogical praxiology" and others (Egorov, 2018). Pusvacet (2007), the author of the scientific article "Features of the organization of teaching practice of the future teacher in Germany", said that both a methodological as well as practical basis of pedagogical praxiology can form the implementation of professional skills in education, including the ability to think, plan, control and carry out one's actions. Because action can always be a professional and pedagogical tool. Scientific article by Bondarenko "Professional practice in teacher's universities in England, France and Germany", presented to intellectual society, gives the following definition of "pedagogical praxiology":
- pedagogical praxiology - as a methodological and practical framework can develop professional skills in education, including the ability to think, plan, control, and carry out one's actions;
- pedagogical praxiology examines the actions of special institutions of professional and teacher education, associations of qualified professionals and individuals;
- pedagogical praxiology - as a general theory of pedagogical activity has a place in the pedagogical system and is focused on the satisfaction of practical needs (Bondarenko, 2008).
According to Kotarbinski, the Polish philosopher and logician, the founder of the term, who first introduced the concept of pedagogical praxiology in the proposed article, the main task of pedagogical praxiology is to standardize certain actions according to their performance. Praxiology can provide three groups of problems: analytic description, characterization and sorting, and systematization of practical work (Kotarbinski, 1964). Solutions to these problems can be found in the analysis of a number of world teaching practices (Verstukova, 2019).
Practice has a broad socio-historical nature, as it does not consider or differentiate the activities of individual students, but is based on the joint collective actions of a group, a faculty, an institute and is seen as a student-intern's experience in the history of professional teaching practice. The advantage of the praxiological method is based on the analysis of human actions and on the basis of particular actions to assess the result of our work (Betancur et al., 2021). The scientific article is based on the relevance of the organization and conduct of practical work in Kazakhstan's colleges of education in terms of coverage and relevance with the world experience. In colleges of education of the country 17,2 % of educational process is the practices on the bases, in foreign establishments, 82,7 % is the theory delivered in educational institutions. Considering the world experience, we can dwell on the problem of the correspondence of these figures to pedagogical praxeology, which contributes to the formation of philosophical attitude to the development of a professional outside of it, to perform conscious actions in general. Considering the world experience, we can focus on the relevance of these figures for pedagogical praxiology, the formation of a philosophical view of becoming a professional behind it, to act consciously.
According to the Bologna Agreement, the educational process for undergraduate students at universities in the United Kingdom lasts 4 years, as in our system of higher education (Totto et al., 2019). And teaching practice takes 1 year of those 4 years, or rather 25% of the entire period of study, that is, from 18 weeks to 32 weeks. It may be noted that the organization of teaching practice in England began in the 60s of the twentieth century, and over the past 30 years there have been significant changes in this system. Nowadays, teaching practice in English universities involves the following objectives:
- to give students an idea of the educational system, the mechanism of its implementation through an introduction to various educational institutions;
- acquaintance with the psychological peculiarities of children depending on their age;
- to give students the pedagogic skills necessary for independent work at school;
- development of students' motivation to teach by forming a positive attitude toward the teaching profession, school, children, and colleagues.
These objectives represent the particular approach of English pedagogical science to practice, which can be seen in the following 3 conclusions:
- teaching practice is the example of tomorrow's teaching activities of today's student;
- teaching practice is the "I am the teacher" character, the ability to develop professionalism and skills that are needed in the work process;
- teaching practice is a tool for enhancing the professional qualities of future teachers.
The general abstract idea of the concepts is of the same interest, it means that opportunities are created to shape the student-intern as a future teacher. The U.K. Department for Education provides general guidelines for the duration as well as the content of the practical work. The professional teaching practice for prospective primary and secondary school teachers lasts a minimum of 26 weeks and is divided into traditional or block and sequential one. Traditional or block, i.e., long-term one, is considered sequential, which means that the duration of the practice can be a half-day, a day, a week, or a short-term practice. Each module of professional teaching practice form consists of 5 elements. Their length may vary from college to college. For example, in some colleges the length of schooling is 12 to 16 weeks, while in others it is 14 to 15 weeks. The first trimester of the first year has an internship period of 2 to 4 weeks where student-interns give pilot lessons. The remainder of the practice periods are 3 to 7 weeks of practical work, which take place in different trimesters of the second and third years. There are differences in the amount, content, and form of practices in educational institutions (Huang & Gasanova, 2020).
A number of actors are actively involved in the organization of teaching practice and pedagogical-production practice. These are the subject teachers and methodologists of the university, the subject teacher and the class master of the school, as well as the deputy principal and the student himself. When visiting kindergartens or other institutions, some subjects may be replaced by educators, speech therapists, defectologists, coaches, and so on. Each participant has duties and responsibilities assigned to them. All faculty staff members are involved in organizing and conducting the major phases of teaching practice. Student internships at the school are supervised by two college faculty members who determine the content of the internship discipline, prepare general instructions for the internship, supervise the faculty advisors, create a schedule for students to work at the school, and monitor the progress of the practical work. At the end of the practical work, an examination will be taken by 2 college teachers and two examiners approved by the Teacher's institute. The cost of the practice is added to the total cost of pedagogy (Kolesnikova & Titova, 2005). The final phase of the training includes the main part of the practice. During several years of training, the practice include several important phases.
The first practice is introductory. During this practical work students become familiar with the features of the teaching profession and confirm the correct choice of the teaching profession. Introductory practice takes place in the first academic year. During the practice, they take part in the classes of experienced teachers, and they can also teach on their own. Teaching practice of students takes place in schools supervised by higher educational establishments. Supervision of students' teaching practices is the responsibility of university professors, and they are also responsible for students' results during the practice. At the end of the internship, students give open lessons attended by university professors and representatives of the scientific and methodical department. After graduation every graduate of the British teacher's university is obliged to improve his/her qualification in the place of work for a period of 1 year. During this time, the teacher who improves his/her qualification is supervised by the surveyor of the supervisory science head who passes a final examination "worthy of pedagogical action" (Huang & Gasanova, 2020).
In conclusion, English teaching practice consists of visiting schools to master the features of the teaching process, viewing and analyzing test lessons, and conducting lessons independently. British requirements for the educational system are justified. Any professional receives the main educational load from schools. Therefore, it is necessary and important to have a high level of knowledge and skills and to strengthen them through professional teaching practice.
Also in the United States, teacher training in higher education establishments takes four years and culminates in a bachelor's degree. Teacher preparation educational programs include such subjects as mathematics, natural sciences, art, literature, educational philosophy, educational psychology, and teaching methods. To this day, courses for students in the use of computers and other technological devices are actively taught during the teaching and learning activities. In the United States there are a number of professional development schools where students are required to undergo teaching practices under the guidance of experienced teachers. In general, one year of the four-year university teaching and learning activities is devoted to practicing teachers. This practice is a prerequisite for obtaining a permanent teaching license. In order to obtain a permanent license, a teacher must have a bachelor's degree and a National Council for Teacher Education (NCFTE)-approved certificate of completion. In addition, several U.S. states offer a teacher education program for those who do not have a specific teaching major but intend to work in schools. The program takes into account 1-2 years of working in a school and improving pedagogical skills under the guidance of experienced teachers (Dzhurinsky, 2017).
Professional preparation of future teachers in the United States is based on a parallel, sequential, and alternative learning model. The parallel learning model is four years long and is equivalent to a bachelor's degree, but is taught at the college level in the United States. Professional and pedagogical training begins in the first year of parallel teaching and learning activities and runs simultaneously with general and special education. The parallel model curriculum, designed to prepare future teachers, consists of 4 main sections:
1) compulsory basic general education courses for all students;
2) knowledge of the basics of pedagogy, psychology, school hygiene, that is, the psychological and pedagogical cycle of the discipline. The mastering of these disciplines is accompanied by teaching practices;
3) one or two subjects of the student's choice from the cycle of regular school subjects and individually selected for each student. The student shall study these disciplines in depth;
4) professional courses.
On average 30% of time is devoted to the study of subject courses: without taking into account practical work pedagogical disciplines - 25%, basic general disciplines - 23%, professional disciplines - 10-12% and tutoring (debating, discussion) - 10-11%.
The length of the discipline's continuing education model is 3-4 years and is adapted to the first bachelor's degree. Those who have completed one year of professional teachers' training after university receive a second-degree certificate. Graduates of technical teacher training colleges, art teacher training colleges, and university teacher training faculties have the opportunity to earn these certificates.
The training model for the qualified teacher who chooses the alternative pathway consists of the following aspects:
1) contract training for teachers;
2) training for licensed teachers;
3) school-based centers that focus on teachers' training from the beginning (Dzhurinsky, 2017).
However, this means that everyone who wants to become a teacher is offered several opportunities. This will increase the social role of the teaching profession and create healthy competition for the teaching profession. Teacher shortages contribute to the recruitment of substandard teachers. Today, the U.S. education system is undergoing major changes. Its main emphasis is on the development of technology, in particular, the online training for professional teachers, that is, a maximum of two years is enough to obtain a degree in teaching. Based on these circumstances, interactive web universities are opening in the United States. According to the United States Department of Education, in 2010, six prominent school teachers received virtual express education. The state of Colorado has virtual universities based on public educational institutions (Kolesnikova & Titova, 2005). One of them is the 21st Century Virtual Academy and the Colorado Virtual Academy (COVA) (Bondarenko, 2008). Thus, anyone who wants to become a teacher in the United States has the opportunity to become a professional teacher after taking a 1-2 year course. But this does not mean that the U.S. education system is perfect.
The length of the teaching practice at German universities is two years, after which the student takes a final state exam. University teacher training is based on three components:
1. Mastering 2-3 school subjects, the choice of which depends on the curriculum of the future teacher. One course in German, mathematics, and elective courses are compulsory for all students.
2. Mastering pedagogy. Compulsory subjects in teacher's universities are mentoring, education, development and teaching, social background of education, forms of organization of educational system and institutional management (pedagogy, philosophy, psychology, sociology, jurisprudence, general didactics).
3. Practice in schools. Internships in schools adapt students to school work, in addition, allow them to gain practical experience and contribute to the formation of an assessment of their suitability for the teaching profession.
The teaching practice, which lasts for two years, is called a referendum at German universities. During professional teacher training at school, particular importance is attached to the student's participation in lessons and independent teaching. Practical work is followed by a second state examination consisting of homework, two test sessions and an oral examination. Successful passing of the second state examination indicates the completion of teacher training. A special feature of teacher training in France and in Germany is the introduction of a practice called "pre-professional", which is an introduction course to the teaching profession (Nos, 2017).
While the aforementioned England, Germany, and the United States focus on practical training, they often suffer from a lack of theoretical knowledge, while in France, Russia, and around here, by contrast, the question of whether or not to apply theoretical knowledge in practice arises.
France is one of the leading European countries in terms of the quality of education. The main focus of the French education system today is the "teacher-practitioner" model with technical competence and professional skills. This model was considered in the Bell-Lancaster system, which was active in England by default. The basic principle of the system was "collaborative learning". However, in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century, France faced a significant crisis in the system of teacher training, qualification of specialists. In 1959, the French Ministry of National Education implemented an active educational policy based on two cycles of training. One of them is the "short cycle" (le cycle court), secondary colleges (CES), general education colleges (CEG), lycées of the first cycle. The second is the "long cycle" (le cycle long), where there are classes of lycées with full secondary education, summing up.
During this time, much attention was paid to the professional development of teachers. To this end, regional teacher training centers (CPR) were created on the basis of pedagogical institutions, which gave an additional impetus to the professional development of teachers. These centers later became regional research centers (CRDP). The students of this center are teachers with a bachelor's degree and 3 years of experience, in addition to first-year university students. Therefore, future general education college teachers will specialize in 2 or 3 subjects. 3 hours of theory, 1 hour of practice, for a total of 4 hours of psychology, 2 hours of educational philosophy, 1 hour of social anthropology, and 1 hour of civic participation, as well as for teacher theory classes (Pusvacet, 2007). The duration of the practice is approximately 8 hours per week. Content includes methods of teaching subjects, practical and laboratory work, and independent testing of students.
Teaching practice take place in between the three semesters for three weeks. During the first internship, the student is trained in only one of the specialties of mastering the profession. During the second and third internships, the student-intern works independently in two disciplines under the supervision of an academic supervisor and at the end takes an examination in pedagogical theory, psychology and social anthropology. The right to teach in a general education college is granted only after passing the exam.
Today there are 29 teacher's universities in France with more than 90,000 students. All of them will be trained on the basis of a new model of 3-level education in a single educational space. As a result of the unification of teacher's universities and institutes, teacher training takes 5 years, including 3 years at a university and 2 years at a teacher's institute. It used to be a 1-year license and a 2-year IUFM, which means 3 years of training. Today, this system does not exist at all (Ponomarenko & Nenovsky, 2017).
The French education system, especially teacher training, has undergone many reforms, the most effective among them being Julia Ferry in 1881-82, F. Guizot in 1883, the Amiens Conference in 1968, the Law on the Direction of Education in connection with the creation of university-type teacher training institutes in 1989, the Pecret Law in 2007, or the Law on Higher and Professional Education, as it is officially called. Despite the many reforms, the training of French teachers and their social status, the French higher education system as a whole is of high value and quality in the European educational space and in the market. This is demonstrated by the signing of the Bologna Agreement, which began its new phase on 19 June 1999, and supports the long-term objective of the Bologna Process.
There is every reason to believe that the education system in Russia has been formed since the times of Peter the Great's reform, given that literacy and arithmetic were taught. Foreign teachers were involved in mastering the higher level of education. At the same time there was a need to train professional teachers in the country. This decision was made at the end of the 18th century. Thus, in 1779 for the first time a teachers' seminary was opened at Moscow University, which prepared future teachers for the lower grades of Moscow and Kazan gymnasiums and boarding schools. Then, in 1803, a teachers' gymnasium was opened in St. Petersburg to train teachers for city schools. In 1804 this educational institution was reorganized into a teacher's institute. Overall, in the history of teacher training in Russia in the nineteenth century, the first teacher's institutes that trained teachers for secondary schools were established. Thus, teacher training developed rapidly, resulting in a total of 171 teacher seminaries with a four-year education at the beginning of 1917 (Slepenkova & Aksenov, 2021).
In the 1860s and 1870s the first women's courses were opened here, which trained teachers for secondary education for girls and elementary school for boys. Later teacher seminaries became 3-year teacher training courses, then teacher training colleges, and teacher training institutes became teacher training institutes. Even later, evening and correspondence teaching education became widespread. In the 1990s, a number of Russian teacher training institutes became teacher training universities, and a new type of teacher training educational institutions emerged. Accordingly, teacher training educational programs are expressed in different types. The program includes mathematics, biology, chemistry, Russian language and literature, foreign languages, etc. About 40 subjects are taught in secondary schools.
Teaching practice is a traditional component of teacher training. However, it occurs at different times in each university, depending on the specifics of the profession. For example, at the Elementary School Department of Moscow State Pedagogical University (MSPU), there is a continuous teaching practice for all academic courses:
- 2 weeks in the 1st year, which means an introduction to the mentoring work of the teacher;
- A bi-weekly school visit to become familiar with the teacher's work in the 2nd year;
- 2 weeks of methodological practice in the 3rd year, i.e. participation in open lessons, conducting one lesson or a part of a lesson;
- In the 4th year there will be 4 weeks of practical work, where there will be pilot lessons, mentoring work;
- 5 weeks of practical work will be in the 5th year, during this time the student-intern conducts 75 classes, in addition, he is engaged in mentoring work with students.
Both the style and history of organizing and conducting practical work in Russian colleges of education are similar to the model of Kazakhstan. There are historical reasons for this. In the history of the peoples of the world, as a result of the merger or division of countries, there is a common history and mass action. Therefore the process of struggle against illiteracy and aspiration for knowledge and science during 150 years of colonial rule became one-sided. As a rule, the Kazakh steppes had a pattern of religious literacy, direct writing, and most importantly, a very good reflection of the system of family upbringing and administration. History shows that many schools (Muslim elementary schools) and madrasahs, higher religious education establishments started functioning in Kazakhstan in the early Middle Ages (8th-7th centuries A.C.).
The ancient cities of Isfidzhab, Taraz, Sayram, Turkestan, Otrar, etc. had many madrasahs, the total number of which reached 84. In rural areas, schools were taught by mullahs (Tatars, Bashkirs, etc.). The tuition fee was charged from the population. The term of apprenticeship was 4 years, with enrollment starting at the age of 7, but there was no procedure of issuing an official certificate of completion at the end of the year. Madrasahs were not only educational establishments, but also served as major cultural centers. These schools taught legal, historical, logical, philosophical, mathematical, astronomical, medical, and other subjects. There were serious libraries next to the madrasahs.
The 150-year colonial policy of the tsarist government had a serious impact on the creation of the sovereignty of the people, yet it opened the way for the spiritual life of the West and the East. For example, in 1761 a school for the children of miners was opened in the city of Zmeinogorsk in eastern Kazakhstan on the lead and zinc deposit, in 1786 "The School of Asians" was founded in Omsk. In 1789 a similar school was opened in Orenburg. Children of Kazakh feudal lords from the families of sultans, dancers, rich men and sergeants were allowed to enter the Neplyuev Cadet Corps and the Omsk Cadet Corps. In 1841 the first Kazakh school was opened in Horde Bokeykhan, then in 1850 - under the Frontier Commission in Orenburg (Kornilova & Papakhina, 2020). These historical data indicate that the prerequisites for the development of education were formed in the Kazakh steppes.
Since the beginning of 1928, universities began to open in the Kazakh land. Along with the theory, the practical work was organized and carried out in these educational establishments. The current rules of practice do not differ much from the organization of professional practice in the last century. For example, the textbook "Methodological development of continuous psychological practice for students of I-V years", compiled by Hismatullina, Mukanova, Baitikova and published in 1987 by Kirov Kazakh National University, Alma-Ata, can be a proof of that. However, the combination of theory and practice requires a philosophical approach to the training of education professionals.
Thus, praxiology is focused on the study of general patterns and properties of competent activity in various areas of human activity, in particular, practice (Raven et al., 2017). The main objective of pedagogical praxiology is the development of successful teaching activities that are based on the division of functions and responsibilities in achieving the goal.
Application of praxiological approach in the study of teaching practice will allow teachers to organize it more effectively and productively, to make timely adjustments to the methodology and content of practice, to determine real ways of its further development, which in general will improve the quality of teaching practice.
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17 April 2022
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Alimbayeva, S., Nuradin, G., Iskakova, A., Тaubaeva, G., Taiteliyeva, L., & Rysbekova, A. (2022). Pedagogical Praxiology: From Theory to Practice. In S. Vachkova, & S. S. Chiang (Eds.), Education and City: Quality Education for Modern Cities, vol 3. European Proceedings of Educational Sciences (pp. 236-247). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epes.22043.22