The authors of the article consider the phenomenon of deviant behavior through the prism of the specific characteristics of adolescence, as one of the most difficult stages of a child's development, in the process of which the main determinants of personality's behavioral deviations are manifested. The article presents the results of a pilot study of various deviant forms of behavior of adolescents from complete and incomplete families, and analyzes the presence of intolerant attitudes of the personality depending on the degree of "problematicness" of adolescents. The modern educational environment is often a zone of risk for such manifestations, especially if adolescents are brought up in single-parent families, where socio-cultural influences on them are minimized. The authors of the article dwell in detail on topical problems of the educational environment associated with the insufficient level of competence of school specialists in understanding the causes of adolescent aggression and skills in the development of complex psychocorrectional and preventive work with adolescents on a school basis. The article analyzes the main reasons for the occurrence of deviant behavior in modern adolescents and considers the main directions of correctional and preventive work in accordance with the characteristics of the educational environment. The authors formulate psychological and pedagogical recommendations for teaching staff in order to create a favorable psychological and pedagogical atmosphere in an educational institution, harmonious formation of the personality of adolescents, their psychological well-being and safety.
Keywords: Children and adolescents at riskadaptationpreventioncorrectioninnovations
The modern school is naturally moving away from uniformity by providing different varied educational services and innovative psychological and pedagogical technologies, which are based on the selection and optimal combination of various forms and methods, as well as preventive and psychocorrectional measures adapted to the developmental characteristics of different categories of children and adolescents (gifted, children with special needs, students at risk) and their needs. Only under such conditions is successful adaptation and integration of children into society possible.
Creation of an educational and learning milieu for children and adolescents at risk;
Adaptation and integration of children and adolescents at risk in the modern social environment;
Choosing optimal variative learning services for children and adolescents at risk;
Introduction of advanced psychological and pedagogical methods in the practice of the modern educational institution.
How to create an educational and learning milieu for children and adolescents at risk?
How to combine various forms, working methods for adaptation and integration of children and adolescents at risk in the modern social environment?
How to implement preventive and psychocorrective measures for the adaptation of different categories of children and adolescents at risk?
How to intensify the professional activities of employees in educational institutions to optimize educational, preventive and psychocorrective work?
Purpose of the Study
Empirical base of the study
The study involved 120 adolescents (60 people from two-parent families – 28 boys, 32 girls) and (60 people from single-parent families – 38 boys, 22 girls); the age of adolescents is 13–16 years.
Darkie Bass Aggression Index; "Tendencies to deviate behavior" scale to study forms of aggressive and deviant behavior of adolescents; express-scale “Tolerance Index”, which determines the level of tolerance of adolescents. Statistical processing of the results was determined by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test.
Significant differences in forms of aggressive and deviant behavior of adolescents from single-parent families were revealed, in particular expression of a tendency to violate norms and rules (U = 176, p = 0) compared with adolescents from two-parent families. Adolescents from single-parent families have a tendency to violence, aggression (U = 197.5, p = 0) and addictive behavior (U = 217, p = 0.001) (Vorobyeva, 2012).
The study showed that adolescents from single-parent families are more prone to aggressive and deviant behavior. Such a significant factor as family composition of adolescents (one-parent or two-parent) cannot codetermine occurrence of deviant behavior and assimilation of behavioral patterns, since children and adolescents are also influenced by other socialization institutions that perform learning and educational functions. Relational tribe, mass media, and the Internet have a huge influence on the personality development and socialization.
An empirical study showed that adolescents at risk, regardless of the family structure, may have intolerant affirmations: tolerant and intolerant traits and affirmations are combined in “medium-troubled” adolescents. Adolescents at risk behave tolerantly and intolerantly in certain social situations. Adolescents who belong to the group of "less- troubled" have a tolerant attitude towards the surrounding community.
In addition, adolescents at risk from one-parent families and two-parent families experience a feeling of insecurity, they have a desire to join groups and demonstrate a low level of empathy (Alekseeva, 2009). Adolescents at risk have a narrower zone of other people differences due to the violation of partner identity (parents, peers), i.e. hetero-tolerance, which results in aggression and competition (Actual tasks of pedagogy, 2016).
We observe a combination of personal psychological characteristics of adolescents at risk and an increase in their behavioral deviations. Therefore teachers and psychologists should carry out preventive work in educational institutions to help different categories of children and adolescents from their risk group to get adapted.
1. The pilot study of children and adolescents at risk growing up in one-parent and two-parent families revealed the most pressing challenges in the educational milieu, taking it into account one may carry out prompt preventive and psychocorrective work.
The list the most pressing challenges:
teachers’ insufficient awareness about the psychological problems of adolescents at risk;
teachers’ conventional understanding of deviant behavior causes;
psychological difficulties when teachers overcome myths about aggressive reactions of children and adolescents at risk;
the lack of psychological knowledge among teachers about the development on psychocorrective and preventive programs for working with children and adolescents at risk;
the lack of the teachers’ methodic work with parents of children and adolescents at risk, involving various specialists.
2. It is necessary to enhance the effective psychological and pedagogical interaction of all participants in the educational process within educational institutions, including the development of reflexivity, creativity, sensitivity, goal formation, intellectual work. It is necessary to apply methods of active learning, synectics, induction, deduction, analysis, heuristics, demonstration methods, project method, research, reflective and simulation-game training, brainstorming, debriefing (Gabbasova, 2016).
3. In the modern context, the strategic goals of the educational system development is to create an educational milieu that promotes personality development and socialization of children and adolescents, their successful adaptation and integration into society. The following methods of work should be considered as psychological means for working with children and adolescents at risk: symbolic, verbal, model substitutes for material objects, electronic learning resource, the use of "model substitutes" and multimedia illustrating technologies.
4. It is necessary to choose the best available methods and implement it in the practice of the modern educational institutions in order to manage learning process properly in the context of the education modernization. This is due to the increased self-government of educational institutions, which are free to develop their own curricula and programs. In addition, parents have the right to vote in the discussion and decision of the learning content for their children. Besides, educational institutions obtain financial independence and they are competitive in relation to each other. In the competition for the number of students, the quality of the education and the educational program of an educational institution are an important argument for improving the quality of education (Zagvyazinsky, 2013).
5. Modern educational institutions naturally stop using uniform learning and educational programs, and provide some variative educational services, as well as advanced psychological and pedagogical methods based on the selected and balanced active tools and methods. It is important to conduct preventive and psychocorrective measures specified for different categories of children and adolescents (gifted children, children with special needs, students at risk) that meet the needs of society. Successful adaptation and integration in modern society of children and adolescents at risk is possible just under such conditions (Vorobyeva, 2020).
6. Efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of psychological and pedagogical methods for working with children and adolescents at risk depends on the use of advanced methods and tools (conference of ideas; group discussion; reflexive and professional simulation and role play; training on the development of the cognitive power; group lessons on the effective communication skills development), what is possible in terms of interaction of various specialists. To create an effective educational and pedagogical activity using advanced methods in a modern school, it is necessary:
to monitor on a regular basis the effectiveness of individual rehabilitation and educational programs with children and adolescents at risk, that may improve the system of educational and preventive work;
to improve interdepartmental interaction of state organizations and to hold particular responsibilities of each department;
to engage school psychologists to upgrade parents’ competence on prevention possible deviations in crisis ages (for example, forecasting and anticipating the period of “Storm and Stress” by creating new equal relations), that will ensure the successful solution of the most important challenge of adolescence development - parental care livery;
to employ legal psychologists in the educational institutions who would solve priority tasks of preventive, corrective and rehabilitation work with children and adolescents at risk, as well as their parents;
to improve the system of training, retraining and continuing education of teaching staff, taking into account the current needs and interests of modern students using a learner-centered approach;
to hold individual counseling, workshops, group trainings, and provide scientific and methodological support to teachers by introducing psychological and pedagogical innovations to involve them in advanced processes and to master methods for supporting children and adolescents at risk.
to develop educational corrective programs, teaching guides for working with children and adolescents at risk and to develop follow-ups in the educational milieu in accordance with the needs of children, their parents teachers, the state and society as a whole;
to create the necessary conditions for experimental work in an educational institution to test the content of the advanced psychological and pedagogical learning and educational programs, extracurricular activities for children, program-methodical support and technological tools for the activities of educational institutions;
to support on a regular basis children and adolescents at risk by using latest effective advanced methods to create a safe educational milieu that will overcome the problems of school maladjustment and prevent illegal actions; to reduce deviation behavior (Mishina & Mursalyeva, 2018).
7. Modern Russian educational practice demonstrates a wide range of the use of psychological and pedagogical innovations in the learning process. The efficiency of its application depends on the established traditions in a General education institution, the ability of the teaching staff to perceive these innovations, and the material and technical foundation of the institution. An educational institution is practically the only stable social institution capable of providing the tasks of social, psychological and pedagogical correction − the concentration of teachers’ attention and the creation of proper psychological and pedagogical support for children and adolescents at risk in the process of education.
This work was supported by the RFBR grant No.20-013-00654a and the management of the Russian New University (RosNOU).
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25 December 2020
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Feoktistova, S., Vasilyeva, N., Mishina, M., Vorobyeva, K., Batkolina, V., & Usoltseva, E. (2020). Innovative Technologies In Psychological Support Of Children And Adolescents At Risk. In I. Elkina, & S. Ivanova (Eds.), Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences - icCSBs 2020, vol 1. European Proceedings of Educational Sciences (pp. 192-197). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epes.20121.22