Educational Activities With Infants And Young Children In A New Professional Standard

Abstract

The article contains approaches to the design of pedagogical activity in the field of preschool education of infant and young children according to the new professional standard "Pedagogue of preschool education". The project of the professional standard (hereinafter PS) was developed by The Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «Institute оf Study for Childhood, Family and Education of the Russian Academy of Education». The relevance and social significance of PS are disclosed in the article. The description of the professional activity and the goals of the professional activity of a preschool teacher is given. The interrelation of work functions and labour actions is characterized, it is shown that the specificity of positions included in the PS is reflected in the generalized work functions. The content of pedagogical activity in the field of preschool education of infants and young children is revealed through labour actions and is necessary for their implementation with the knowledge and skills of pedagogues.

Keywords: Professional standardinfants and young children

Introduction

In modern conditions, the requirements for the quality of preschool education are fairly increasing. Firstly, the development of preschool education, the improvement of its quality and accessibility are one of the priorities of the state social and educational policy. Secondly, the introduction of federal state educational standards for preschool education (hereinafter referred to as the "standard") actually means high-quality updating and modernization, in which the main attention is paid to the value attitude towards childhood, the preservation of childhood, the transition from a knowledge-oriented paradigm to a humanistic paradigm which is based on the idea of the child as a subject of education and on providing him or her with space for self-realization, creativity, search, efforts and discoveries. Thirdly, the new challenges of the modern world determine the growing risks of socialization and the need to provide comprehensive support for childhood in the learning process, to create conditions for a safe, developing environment for the life support of children, their development and positive socialization. A qualitative renewal of the preschool education system and its effective development are possible if only the appropriate human resources are provided and the professional competence of teachers is increased. So, we consider PS "Pedagogue of preschool education" as one of the fundamental documents that allow us to create favourable conditions for the development of infants and young children.

In current conditions, there is an urgent need to provide comprehensive support for childhood in the learning process, to create conditions for the safe development of children's living conditions, their development and successful socialization. This statement takes on special significance when it comes to pre-schoolers, about a certain phase of life, when the basis of the physical and mental development of a person is formed.

The approaches and some issues of creating a new PS for a certain level of education are widely discussed in modern scientific works (Bogoyavlenskaya, 2016, 2019; Volosovets, Kirillov, & Buyanov, 2018; Wagner et al., 2019; Wagner & Volosovets, 2017). Humanistic principles, methods and forms of pedagogical work with infants and young children laid down in professional standards continue the cultural and historical traditions of Russian preschool education (Uruntayeva & Gosheva, 2019; Usoltseva, 2019).

The social significance of the PS "Pedagogue of preschool education" is supported by the priorities of social and demographic policy in modern Russia, its focus on supporting motherhood and childhood. The actualization of complex tasks of supporting children coincides with a significant increase in the requirements for the quality of education in the field of preschool education, as well as with the renewal of preschool education through the introduction of a standard approved by Order of the Ministry of the Russian Federation Education and Science No. 11515 dated 17.10.2013 (Postanovleniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 27 uyunya 2016 goda No 584..., 2016).

Problem Statement

Designing pedagogical activities for preschool education of infants and young children in the new professional standard "Pedagogue of preschool education”.

Research Questions

What are the main labour functions and labour activity of pedagogues of a preschool educational organization when working with infants and young children?

Purpose of the Study

Determine the content of the educational activities of pedagogues with babies and young children; formulate your labour actions and labour functions according to the new professional standard "Pedagogue of preschool education".

Research Methods

Analysis of the pedagogical practice of teachers with infants and young children; analysis and comparison of the current regulations defining the labour functions and labour actions of teachers of preschool educational organizations; development of the content of a new professional standard "Pedagogue of preschool education" taking into account the methodological recommendations of the Ministry of Labor of Russia.

Findings

The full embodiment of some of the implied standard principles is available only if there are appropriate staff resources, and coherent professional work of all preschool teachers. Some of the principles mentioned are:

  • support principle of diverse childhood and respect of child’s personality;

  • principle of maintaining uniqueness and intrinsic value of childhood as an important phase in overall human development;

  • principle of implementation preschool education program in the forms which are specific for children in this age group;

  • principle of providing personal developing and humanistic nature of interaction between adults and children.

This particular main condition for the effectiveness of preschool education is ensured by the development and implementation of the PS "Preschool teacher", in which the content of the preschool pedagogical activity is determined in accordance with the standard.

What is meant by PS "preschool teacher"? PS is a regulatory and methodological document characterizing the type of professional activity, generalized labour functions, particularized job functions and labour actions; professional skills and knowledge of employees necessary for the implementation of these labour actions; requirements for the education of professionals. Enlargement of PS is one of the guidelines of the Ministry of Labor of Russia, according to which several job positions are included in one standard under one general name. This approach significantly influenced the content of the professional standard, the description of labour functions and actions of specialists, since it was important to avoid duplication of their functions, to show the specifics of each activity. Common to all positions is the characteristic of the type of professional activity and its goal indicated on the title of the professional standard. This approach significantly influenced the content of the professional standard, the description of labor functions and actions of specialists, since it was important to avoid duplication of their functions, to show the specifics of each type of activity. A feature of professional activity mentioned on the title of PS and the goal of this activity are common for all positions.

The development and implementation of PSs are carried out in accordance with the approved by the Decree of the Russian Government No.487-r of 31.03.2014 (Rasporyazheniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 31.03.2014 N 487-r…, 2014). A comprehensive plan of measures for the development of the PSs, their independent professional public expertise and realization was taken place in 2014-2016. The history of PSs dates back to much earlier times. Analysts refer to 1997 when “this term was officially used in the Program of Social Reforms in the Russian Federation in 1996-2000, which was approved by the Decree of the Russian Government No.222 of 26.02.1997 (Postanovleniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 26.02.1997 No 222…, 1997). But the Decree of the Russian President No. 597 of 07.05.2012 “On measures to implement the state social policy” (Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 7 maya 2012 g. N 597…, 2012) was the starting point of a full-fledged process of active development and approval of PSs. In this Decree, the Russian Government was given the task to develop by 2015 and to confirm not less than 800 PSs. So, PS “Preschool teacher” is one of PSs that have been developed, tested and enacted in the Russian Federation in recent years.

Although this PS is used together with other PSs, it should be noted that its relevance is significantly enhanced by the priorities of modern public policy in the field of childhood. In accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin No. 240 dated May 29, 2017 (Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 29.05.2017 g. No 240…, 2017), from 2018 to 2027, the decade of childhood was declared "to improve the state policy in the field of child protection." Taking into account the growing number of problems in the field of globalization, computerization, alarming trends in the development of modern civilization with its high socio-cultural dynamics, environmental problems, terrorist threats, extremism, economic crisis, exacerbation of ethnic conflicts and other factors that threaten modern childhood, there is an urgent need to ensure a comprehensive supporting childhood in the educational process, creating conditions for a safe and reliable developing environment for children’s livelihoods, their development and successful socialization.

The high social significance of PS is due to the development of socio-demographic policies and measures to support motherhood and childhood, the increasing need of young families for quality services in the field of preschool education in the Russian Federation.

The development, approval and implementation of the PS were identified among the priority tasks in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 597 dated May 7, 2012 “On measures to implement the state social policy” (Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 7 maya 2012 g. N 597…, 2012).

In accordance with article 195.1 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation No. 197-FZ of 12/30/2001 (as amended on 02/05/2018) (Trudovoy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 30 dekabrya 2001 goda… 2001), PS is a characteristic of qualifications that an employee needs to carry out a certain type of professional activity and to perform a certain function of work.

Article 195.3 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation No. 197-FZ of 12/30/2001 (as amended on 02/05/2018) (Trudovoy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 30 dekabrya 2001 goda…, 2018), which determines the procedure for applying the PS, states that if this Code, other federal laws or other federal laws or in other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation requirements to qualifications of an employee are defined that he or she must perform a certain job function, in which case employers must necessarily apply PS associated with these requirements. The characteristics of qualifications that are included in the PS and the mandatory application of which is not defined in accordance with the first part of this article are used by the employer as a basis for determining the requirements for the qualifications of employees, taking into account the characteristics of labour functions, are performed by employees, which arise from the technologies used and the adopted organization of production and labour.

In accordance with paragraph 25 of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 dated January 22, 2013 "On the rules for the development, approval and application of PS" (Postanovleniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 22 yanvarya 2013 g. No 23…, 2013), PS are applied:

  • by employers while building personnel policy and personnel management, organizing training and certification of personnel, developing job descriptions, assignment of jobs attributing salary categories to employees and establishing pay system taking, taking into account the specifics of production management, labour and business administration;

  • by professional educational organizations while developing professional training programs;

  • while developing federal state educational standards of professional education in accordance with established procedure.

Application of will allow solving the following tasks:

  • establishing and maintaining uniform requirements for the content and quality of pedagogical activity in the field of preschool education;

  • development of job descriptions and rating positions;

  • recruiting and recruiting personnel for the implementation of pedagogical activities in the field of preschool education;

  • development of systems of motivation and stimulation of labor, career planning, training and professional development of specialists;

  • a system for assessing human skills and professional development of personnel.

The PS will provide the necessary conditions for the professional growth of teachers working in the field of security. The priorities of state policy to support motherhood and childhood, as well as the renewal of the preschool education system based on the implementation of the standard, tend to update the set of working functions and professional competencies of teachers who carry out their professional activities in the field of preschool education. When developing the project, it was taken into account that the requirements for the quality of pedagogical activity in the field of preschool education were objectively increased.

PS goes along with:

  • methodological recommendations for developing PSs, approved by the Order of the Russian Ministry of Labour No.170-N of 29.04.2013 (Prikaz Ministerstva truda i sotsial'noy zashchity RF ot 29.04.2013 N 170n…, 2013) which determine its structure, that is the system of generalized job functions, labour actions and description of teachers’ knowledge and skills;

  • the standard approved by the Order of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science No. 1155 of 17.10.2013 (Prikaz Ministerstva obrazovaniya i nauki Rossii ot 17 oktyabrya 2013 g. No 1155…; 2013) which determines the content of job functions and teachers’ actions;

  • modern methodological approaches to designing and realizing preschool education programs taking into account the age of pre-schoolers;

  • Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 8, 2013 N 678 "On approval of the nomenclature of positions of teaching staff of organizations engaged in educational activities, positions of heads of educational organizations” (Postanovleniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 8 avgusta 2013 g. N 678…, 2013) according to which the names of positions are defined in PS, that creates conditions for saving state guarantees and privileges provided for by law for teaching staff;

  • the Order of the Russian Ministry of Labour No.148-N of 12.04.2013 “About the approval of qualification levels with a view to developing projects of PSs” (Prikaz Mintruda Rossii ot 12.04.2013 N 148n…, 2013);

  • conditions, set out in articles 331 and 351.1 of the Labour Code of the Russian Federation (Trudovoy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 30 dekabrya 2001 goda № 197-FZ …, 2001) (namely no record of convictions) and passing obligatory preliminary medical examinations (at the time of employment) and periodical medical examinations, as well unscheduled medical examinations (inspections) in the manner prescribed by law of the Russian Federation.

The novelty and features of PS stem from 2 main positions:

1) PS reflects the main provisions of the standard and therefore ensures its compliance with a set of job functions in a preschool educational organization;

2) PS is complex, includes the positions of all preschool teachers of the educational organization and systematizes their set of job functions.

The approval of the professional standard "Pedagogue of preschool education" will help to improve the quality of preschool education and create conditions for comprehensive protection of childhood.

Preschool age requires special attention because it is it is fundamental for physical and mental development of personality; it also requires careful attitude and attention to the appearing features, interests and abilities.

PS, which reveals the labor functions and labor actions of preschool teachers of organization, should become the guarantee of access to children for specialists who can communicate with them, create a comfortable atmosphere for them, organize positive interaction between children, and provide emotional well-being of a child, his or her security and development, show respect towards a child, give him or her the right to choose, encourage the child's desire to act independently, and many other things which humanistic pedagogy is characterized with.

The PS defines four generalized functions of work for five positions: a preschool teacher; a musical supervisor; a physical education teacher; a senior preschool teacher / methodologist. Each generalized job function is unfolded through three job functions, and then, accordingly, each job function is revealed with the help of labor actions, knowledge and skills necessary to perform the assigned labor actions. This model can be characterized as optimal, which fully reflects the main components of pedagogical activity in preschool education, the features and characteristics of professional pedagogical activity.

In accordance with the PS structure accepted by the Russian Ministry of Labour, the project contains the system of generalized job functions, job functions and labour actions. Each generalized job function is focused on a certain position, so that is logical and appropriate.

  • Generalized job function A (preschool teacher): pedagogic work in realization of preschool educational programs. Generalized job function A includes 3 main job functions: educational activity in a group of pre-schoolers; creating educational environment for a group of children; interaction with teachers and parents (legal representatives) of children in matters related to their development.

  • Generalized job function B (music supervisor): provision of organizational and pedagogic music education in preschool educational organization. Generalized job function B includes 3 job functions: arrangement of musical activity of children within realization of preschool educational programs; music accompaniment of public events within realization of preschool educational programs; managing activity of teachers and parents (legal representatives) in matters related to musical education;

  • Generalized job function C (a physical education teacher): provision of organizational and pedagogic physical education in preschool educational organization. Generalized job function C includes 3 job functions: organizing physical activity of children within realization of preschool educational programs; arrangement of physical culture and health related work within realization of preschool educational programs; interaction with parents (legal representatives) in matters related to physical education of preschoolers;

  • Generalized job function D (a head preschool teacher / methodologist): provision of organizational and methodological realization of preschool educational programs. Generalized job function D includes 3 job functions: methodological control of teachers’ work in realizing preschool educational programs; management of teachers’ activity in realizing preschool educational programs; organizing and methodological control of providing interaction of preschool educational organization with family and other social institutes.

The presented logic and formulation, revealing pedagogical activity, reflect the specifics of the pedagogical process in a preschool educational organization, taking into account the age of children in accordance with the standard of preschool education.

The content of pedagogical activity in the field of preschool education of children of different ages, including infants and young children, is disclosed in the description of each generalized function of work through labor actions, knowledge and skills of teachers.

So, for example, in the generalized job function focused on the position of a preschool teacher the following job functions are determined:

  • Educational activity in a group of preschoolers which includes the following labour actions:

    • to monitor children’s activity and behaviour for individual approach to educational process;

    • to take part in designing preschool educational programs according to the standard;

    • to encourage children to take part in different activities, pedagogic support of child’s initiative and independence;

    • to provide socio-communicative, speech, cognitive, artistic, aesthetic and physical development of children;

    • to organize different kinds of activity for pupils based on providing children an opportunity to choose among different activities;

    • to arrange contests, feasts, artistic events with a group of children, their introduction to socio-cultural norms and traditions of family, society and state;

    • to arrange walking and physical games outdoors, excursions for a group of children;

    • to introduce kids to children’s literature, reading children’s literature for pupils, creating interest in reading;

    • to realize educational activity with children with disabilities, including disabled children within adapted preschool educational programs;

    • to control pupils’ mastering preschool curricular, to diagnose children’s development;

    • to protect children’s life and health, to provide their safety during educational activity, to provide them first aid.

  • Creation of educational environment for a group of children which includes the following labour actions:

    • to design developing educational environment in a group of children according to the standard;

    • to provide emotional well-being of children through direct communication with every child, to respect each child, his or her feelings and needs;

    • to take part in creating comprehensive, substantive, transformative, multifunctional, variable, available developing subject-spatial environment for a group of children;

    • to organize children’s activity in developing subject-spatial environment on the basics of developing their subjectivity;

    • to create social situation of development for children according to age aspects, to support positive atmosphere in a group, lifestyle and traditions of preschool educational organization;

    • to organize communication of children on the basics of learning norms and values, common in the society, setting positive attitude to different kinds of labour and creativity, emotional intelligence, sympathy, willingness to work in a team;

    • to take part in creating informative environment in preschool educational organization in order to develop in children basic principles of information literacy;

    • to create developing educational environment for educational activity with the children with disabilities, including disabled children;

    • to cooperate with pedagogic workers and other specialists to solve pedagogic tasks;

    • to provide safety of educational environment in a group.

  • Interaction with teachers and parents (legal representatives) of children in matters related to their development which includes the following labour actions:

    • to conduct interviews with teachers and parents (legal representatives) of children about specifics of child’s development and his or her participation in group activity and communication in a group;

    • to organize participation of parents (legal representatives) in designing preschool educational programs;

    • to organize participation of parents (legal representatives) in creation of developing educational environment;

    • to provide participation of parents (legal representatives) in conducting events with children within realization of preschool educational programs;

    • to inform parents (legal representatives) about mental and physical health of a child, his or her interests, specifics of behaviour, interaction with peers;

    • to consult parents (legal representatives) in current issues of learning, nurture and development of a child;

    • to interact with parents (legal representatives) of children with disabilities, including disabled children while realizing adapted preschool educational programs;

    • to discuss with parents the results of pedagogic diagnostics focused on children’s mastering preschool educational programs, and therefore individual planning of a child’s development;

    • to take part in work of teachers’ councils and other forms of methodological work in preschool educational organization;

    • -to coordinate auxiliary educational staff taking care of children in a group.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we can say that the professional standard provides for educational requirements. Improving the quality of preschool education, ensuring the implementation of an age-based approach and creating conditions for ensuring the safety of children will be facilitated by the requirement included in the professional standard for teachers to complete additional vocational education in the field of preschool education. If the existing higher or secondary vocational education within the framework of enlarged groups of areas of preparation for higher education and specialties of secondary vocational education "Pedagogical and pedagogical sciences" did not imply the formation of professional competencies in the field of preschool education.

It is obvious that taking care of children, ensuring their safety, creating favorable conditions for their development is the main task that the standard solves as much as possible within the framework of the document of this format.

The most essential features of the professional standard project are as follows.

  • Targeting. The most successful version of PS can be considered the model that combines the positions of teachers working at a certain level of education, in this case in preschool education. There is no doubt that it is necessary to unite positions of teachers working in a preschool educational organization into one PS.

  • Specifics of teaching in the system of preschool education is successfully reflected thanks to targeting model and detailed elaboration of content substantive issues by developers of PS.

  • Timeliness, extreme demand in practice due to the fact that the transition to professional standard was expected from 2020.

  • Compliance of PS content to the standard, revealing activity of preschool teachers and other teachers or a preschool educational organization within realizing the standard, high-quality updating description of job functions and labour actions which will help teachers in realizing the standard.

  • Logic and correct language for describing generalized job functions, job functions and labour actions, knowledge and skills needed for realizing labour actions. The structure of PS complies with the requirements of the Russian Ministry of Labour.

  • PS will contribute to increasing social status of preschool specialists, preschool teachers, increasing prestige of the pedagogic profession and will encourage youth to choose it more often thanks to equalizing preschool teacher status with the status of general and supplementary education teachers. So, a preschool teacher, a music supervisor and a physical education teacher are related to the 6th level of qualification, and such positions as “a head preschool teacher” / “methodologist” are related to the 7th level of qualification.

  • Social importance of PS in the context of priorities to provide availability and increasing quality of preschool education is in the highest state level.

To conclude, there is an urgent need to address the issue of confirmation and implementation of PS “Preschool teacher” without delay because PS is very popular with modern practice of preschool education. Furthermore, preschool educational organizations are looking forward to it. This is especially important, since 2020 was defined by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 584 of June 27, 2016 (Postanovleniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 27 iyunya 2016 g. N 584…; 2016) as the year of a full-scale transition to professional standards.

Acknowledgments

Information about a state assignment or a grant, within which the study was carried out. The article was prepared within the framework of the state task № 073-00032-20-00 of 2020 for the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Institute of Study of Childhood, Family and Education of the Russian Academy of Education”.

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

25.12.2020

Doi

10.15405/epes.20121.21

Online ISSN

2672-815X