The article discusses the results of implementing the project "Development of a modern concept for the comprehensive prevention of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment and its scientific and methodological support, including practical assessment and preparation for implementation," which was carried out at the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Institute for the Study of Childhood, Family and Education Russian Academy of Education" within the framework of the government assignment of the Ministry of Education of Russia. The relevance of the project is due to the increasing number of cases of manifestations of extreme aggressive behaviour among children of different ages, which requires the creation of a special holistic concept of comprehensive prevention of manifestations of aggressive behaviour in an educational environment that matches modern social challenges. The development of upbringing in order to prevent aggressive behaviour of children is considered in detail. It acts as the main vector for the development of a socio-pedagogical module of a comprehensive system for preventing aggressive behaviour in the educational environment at the level of interaction of all subjects of educational relations.
Keywords: Educationpreventionaggressive behavior of children
The problem of aggressive behaviour in schools is extremely relevant in almost all countries. Aggressive behaviour in schools takes the form of school violence by students towards other students (fights with and without weapons, attacks), as well as towards teachers. In addition, there can be threats and crimes against property and personality in and out of school (Legault, Anawati, & Flynn, 2006; Novak-Marcincin, Gîfu, & Teodorescu, 2014; Volungis & Goodman, 2017). There are many cases of violent actions of school teachers against students (Bekiari & Manoli, 2016). The problem of a school shooting which has enormous psychological, physical and material consequences both for its participants and school society and for society as a whole has not yet been resolved (Beland & Kim, 2016; Diazgranados, Noonan, & Brion-Meisels, 2014).
In 2020, The Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «Institute оf Study of Childhood, Family and Education of the Russian Academy of Education» is implementing a research project “Developing a modern concept for the comprehensive prevention of aggressive behaviour in an educational environment and its scientific and methodological support, including practical assessment and preparation for implementation” (principal investigator D.Ed., Prof. Irina Wagner). The project is realized as part of a government assignment given by the Russian Ministry of Education.
The study of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment is a complex interdisciplinary study that includes three main blocks (sociological, psychological and socio-pedagogical) aimed at the in-depth study of the spread of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment of the Russian Federation, the development of conceptual foundations and scientific and methodological principles, support of the system for preventing aggressive behaviour in the educational environment at the level of interaction of all subjects of educational relations.
The relevance of the project is due to the increase in the number of acts of highly aggressive behaviour among children of different ages. Solving this problem requires not just separate practical measures to resolve a specific situation, and not only systematic measures to organize preventive measures at the regional level. It is absolutely necessary to create a modern, unified, holistic concept for the comprehensive prevention of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment that meets modern social challenges. The need to develop such a concept depends on including all subjects of educational relations in the system of preventing aggression and its prevalence in all spheres, levels and sectors of the education system. Among other things, the creation of a unified concept makes it possible to solve the problem of unifying methods and techniques, preventing violence by creating a unified methodology and systematizing technological principles.
In connection with the increasing manifestations of child aggression, it is necessary to identify and develop properties of the education system that will ensure the prevention of aggressive behavior.
What properties and components of the education system should be developed to prevent aggressive behavior of children?
Purpose of the Study
To develop conceptual approaches to the development of the educational system for the prevention of aggressive behavior of children, to determine its properties and components that ensure the reduction of child aggression.
Analysis of situations related to the manifestation of aggressive behavior by children in the educational environment. The study of factors affecting the growth of manifestations of child aggression. Analysis of parenting practices aimed at preventing the aggressive behavior of children. Theoretical modeling. Generalization of practical experience. Designing mechanisms for the development of education.
The development of upbringing in order to prevent aggressive behaviour of children is the essential goal of creating a socio-pedagogical unit of a comprehensive system for preventing aggressive behaviour in the educational environment at the level of interaction of all subjects of educational relations. It should contain conceptual socio-pedagogical foundations for preventing aggressive behaviour in the educational environment and its scientific and methodological support.
The project group of the social and pedagogical unit works under the scientific supervision of D.Ed., Prof. Irina Wagner in the following composition: Marina Guryanova, Tatiana Borisova, Isabella Dementyeva, Inessa Usoltseva, Yulia Berlyand, Roza Andrianova, Galina Nezdemkovskaya, Svetlana Lobyntseva, Victor Golovanov, Alexey Shemshurin, Irina Frishman, Igor Metlik, Vladimir Ryabtsev, Sergey Lenkov. The authors of this article are members of the project team, and in this article, we present some results of the collaborative work of the team. It is important to note that when developing conceptual approaches to the prevention of aggressive behaviour of schoolchildren by means of child-rearing; we relied on the many years of research experience of these authors in the field of upbringing.
Each of the project participants has leading scientific work in their field. Among such areas, we can note the design of the educational process and the study of the socio-cultural experience of children (Wagner, 2018, 2019), the problems of social education (Guryanova, 2018), parenting and the education of social activity in adolescents (Borisova et al., 2019; Dementyeva, 2019), psychological approaches to child-rearing activities Inessa Usoltseva (Berlyand, 2012; Borisova et al., 2019), ethnopedagogical approach in child-rearing and problems of intercultural communication (Gukalenko, Andrianova, & Nezdemkovskaya, 2019), individualization of upbringing and the upbringing potential of additional education (Golovanov, 2019; Lobyntseva, 2018), moral and ethical education (Shemshurin, 2018), upbringing in children public organizations (Frishman, 2019), the upbringing potential of the content of education Igor Metlik (Borisova et al., 2019), the formation of pedagogical culture and professional competence among teachers (Vladimir Ryabtsev, Sergey Lenkov) and others.
The purpose of research work within the framework of the socio-pedagogical module is the development of socio-pedagogical foundations for the prevention of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment and scientific and methodological support of childrearing activities for the prevention of aggressive behavior.
The following research tasks were set and are being solved:
1. Analyze the socio-pedagogical approaches, models and technologies used in modern pedagogical practice in order to identify their potential in solving the problems of preventing aggressive behaviour of all subjects of educational relations.
2. To study the socio-cultural experience of modern adolescents in order to identify the risks of socialization, that is factors and phenomena that provoke the manifestation of aggressive behaviour of students in the educational environment.
3. To develop conceptual social and pedagogical foundations for the prevention of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment through the effective implementation of the potential of the education system of an educational organization, additional education and children's public associations in the prevention of aggressive behaviour of all subjects of educational relations
4. To identify and characterize the social and pedagogical conditions for the development of the experience of positive interaction with peers and adults in the educational environment in children as a condition for preventing their aggressive behaviour.
5. To develop and present a package of methodological materials, including a project of instructional guidance letters, methodological recommendations for administrative and management level of the educational system for the implementation of the social and pedagogical module of the modern concept of comprehensive prevention of aggressive behaviour in the educational environment.
Therefore, at the moment conceptual approaches to the development of the education system have been developed to prevent aggressive behaviour of children. The properties and components of the education system, which help to reduce the risks of socialization and prevent aggressive behaviour, have been determined. When developing models for parenting and child-rearing in education, significant priorities were identified to reduce the risk of child aggression.
In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that the educational system will prevent aggressive behaviour of children, provided that it is humanistic, open, dynamic, adaptive, subjective, compensatory, creates space for self-realization of children and develops intercultural communication; increasing the effectiveness of parenting programs, extracurricular activities, additional education, children's associations in the formation of moral values in children, organizing free time, positive communication and activities.
Preparing a growing person for self-determination, for making independent decisions in situations of choice is the main goal of democratic education. A condition for the systemic and progressive development of the educational component in a general educational institution is to ensure the active participation of all subjects of the educational process in the design and implementation of models of successful socialization. It is necessary to help the school to transfer the educational system to the mode of self-development, to find its own specifics, taking into account the socio-cultural characteristics of the region, the needs of society, needs of all subjects of the educational process.
It is necessary to develop and apply technologies that will ensure the realization of the subjective potential of all participants in the educational process, both collective (socialization institutions) and individual (teachers, parents, children). This technology can create conditions for motivating children for self-realization in social practice, for their successful self-determination and the formation of a need for self-education and self-development.
Today it is essential to ensure the overcoming of the existing declarative nature of the subjective approach. The key factor to success is to carry out modelling of the spaces of the formation of the adolescent's subjective position, his or her competence in making decisions in problem situations and situations of uncertainty; to develop and successfully implement technologies of pedagogical support of adolescents in the process of self-determination. These models would allow, based on subjective, personality-oriented, and activity-based approaches, the formation of the space of adolescents’ self-determination and thereby create conditions for their effective preparation for making independent decisions, positive and social-oriented behaviour in problem situations and situations of uncertainty.
In accordance with the Federal State Education Standards Of General Education (the FSES of GE), each general education institution develops and implements an education program at each of the main levels of general education. The documents of the FSES of GE set out the requirements for curriculum, and the educational programs developed by schools are varied educational programs.
Our analysis of variable upbringing programs that have been developed by the collectives of educational institutions shows that the excessive desire of teachers to develop programs in strict accordance with the requirements of the FSES or primitive approaches of regulatory bodies to the examination of upbringing programs for the literal compliance of school upbringing programs with the requirements of the FSES deprive them originality, attractiveness for subjects of upbringing, that mobility and variability, which would allow creating conditions for self-realization of children in social creativity.
In the process of implementing the educational component of the FSES of general education today, it is especially important to ensure a significant expansion of the socio-cultural experience of adolescents associated with behaviour in situations of self-determination, which determines the process of forming their position, the general orientation of the personality.
We focus on the mechanisms that will allow us to design and implement educational programs for students of different ages so that they would open up opportunities for children and adults to choose an individual route in the course of collective activities, intensive development of students' actual socio-cultural experience, the cooperation of subjects of the educational process, the experience of self-determination and self-realization in joint creative activity. These are ethical dialogues, project activities, long games, teaching teamwork at an asset school, ensuring a system of social growth for schoolchildren in the program, mastering the roles of a leader, organizer, participant, master, instructor, expert, etc.
After all, the inclusion of an educational component in the FSES of GE was aimed at strengthening the educational function of the school, increasing the social status of upbringing, but in no case at unifying the content, forms and methods of upbringing, not at limiting the creativity of the subjects of upbringing, especially not at standardizing the personality. The requirements proposed in the FSES of GE are minimal, and the sample programs are approximate. This means that on this basis it is possible and necessary to develop individual routes of social growth, self-realization of the school collective as a whole and each subject of the educational process.
The leading goal of modern education is to prepare students for life self-determination such as personal, value, professional and other types of self-determination, which implies the formation of schoolchildren's competence in decision-making in situations of choice, problem-solving and uncertainty. As we have repeatedly noted (even before the development of the FSES of GE and during the work on the educational component of the FSES of GE), the preparation of schoolchildren for self-determination can be achieved only if he or she has something to choose from. The educational institution provides space for the student to make an independent choice of forms and types of activities, if he or she is provided with samples of successful self-realization, a situation of success is created for each student, each teenager is provided with support in the design of personal growth and a highly moral, harmoniously developed personality is one of the main values and goals of collective activity.
The upbringing program contains a relatively constant conceptual frame (this is mainly included in the FSES OO) and a developing, dynamic component, which, firstly, is limited in time, reflects current social problems, needs and interests of the subjects of upbringing, provides opportunities for choice, and implementation by the subjects of the educational process of their initiatives.
For example, in the sections of the FSES of GE about the goals and values, are mentioned the main directions, the planned results of education, provisions are set out that reveal civil-patriotic education. The provisions characterizing it in the documents of the educational component of the FSES of GE are formulated in a generalized and conceptual format. They will find more concrete expression in the school, compiled on the basis of the FSES of GE, annual thematic education programs dedicated to the Victory Day. Moreover, the theme of the Great Victory and civil-patriotic upbringing is likely to become a system-forming direction in the upbringing program. This one may become a theme that will run like a golden thread through the entire content of upbringing, integrating other areas of upbringing. Within the framework of this topic, the content of both informational and environmentally oriented, and artistic, and labour, and other areas of joint creative activity of the subjects of the educational process, mainly children and adults can be developed.
If in conceptual documents the directions of education are traditionally referred to as "civil-patriotic", "moral", "labour", etc., then in a variable annual thematic program developed by a school itself the integrated modules may have their name (like the entire program itself). All subjects of the educational process like children and adults can take an active part in creating the name of the program and its modules (projects), their emblems or other symbols. This process can take place through a competition or brainstorming, etc. The modules (projects) can receive titles such as, for example, "Songs and Colors of the Great Victory" (the module integrates civil-patriotic and aesthetic education); "My Little Motherland is the Motherland of the Great Victory" (civil-patriotic education based on local history); "Labor in the name of Victory, Peace, Motherland" (the module integrates civil-patriotic and labour education); "Content of the Great Victory" (the module integrates civil-patriotic education and education of information culture), etc.
The practice of implementing this approach to the design of upbringing programs which took place together with the students of our advanced training courses on the basis of the Institutes of the Russian Academy of Education (such as Institute of Family and Upbringing, Institute for Strategic Research in Education) shows that already at this stage teachers are able to independently suggest some spheres for self-realization of schoolchildren. Obviously, within each integrated, thematic module of the program, the following steps can be done:
- the approximate space (the subject matter) of children's project initiatives, implemented both at the classroom level and groups in the classroom or individual projects, is characterized; to schoolchildren and adults can be offered thematic cycles of project activities, corresponding to the approximate content of each module;
key cases (events) are identified, as well as a system of preparation for them and their aftereffects, which presupposes a whole list of different-format events, cases, projects that will acquire specific outlines thanks to the creative participation of the subjects of the educational process;
relevant associations of subjects in the educational process and bodies of school self-government (for example, the Organizing Committee of the Victory Day School Festival; Councils of Affairs for other events dedicated to the Jubilee of the Great Victory) are identified for one school year. There are also can be named Timur's headquarters, which will delight veterans of the Great Patriotic War; Information (or Media) Center; Council of the Real or Virtual War Glory Museum; Environmental Center, which organizes actions of memory such as the landings of memory alleys, care of the monuments of the heroes of the Great Patriotic War, etc. Schoolchildren themselves will take part in the formation of specialized associations and the design of the content of their activities;
a special system for assessing the results of the participation of children's creative associations, each student in collective activities, has been created, the implementation of which will be a joint assessment activity of children and adults, requiring everyone to participate in summing up the results of the activities carried out, implemented projects;
thematic programs of extracurricular activities and additional education have been opened, which will strengthen the content of the planned modules of the program and the resource support of its implementation due to the formed creative groups in which a child's asset with relevant competencies, able to show an example to other children, to interest, lead, to include other children in activity in a certain direction.
This is not a complete list of possible spaces of self-determination, the formation of which can be laid down in the design of an upbringing program and implemented in the process of its fulfilment. So, for example, the information space of an educational institution and its upbringing potential deserve independent attention.
Taking into account the major interest of modern schoolchildren in information and communication technologies and the special opportunities provided by ICT in organising the educational process, it is advisable to use its upbringing potential. Teachers may design the educational institution's information space as a space for students' self-realisation and organise their information activities in accordance with the content of the school curriculum, providing students with the opportunity to achieve their information projects, which will reduce the risks of their spontaneous immersion in an uncontrolled virtual space.
I would like to draw your attention to the upbringing potential of the events. The peculiarities of the school curriculum will be reflected in one way or another in their list, which it is advisable not to “put down” on teachers and schoolchildren, but to form with the participation of all subjects of the educational process. I would like to draw your attention to the educational potential of events. The peculiarities of the school curriculum will be reflected in one way or another in their list, which it is advisable not to “put down” on teachers and schoolchildren, but to form with the participation of all subjects of the educational process. It should be noted that often the list of events in educational programs looks like a calendar of “red dates” where traditional holidays are repeated from year to year. It is thoroughly impossible to ignore them, and it would be wrong. After all, the whole country lives according to this calendar, they are celebrated in families, ones held by cultural institutions, urban and more large ceremonies are timed to them. But the upbringing program has its logic, its directions, its leading theme. The content of the “red dates” of the calendar acquires new content following the general theme of the upbringing program, the peculiarities of its structure, and possibly the features the plot of a long-term role-playing game, under the modules of the program and children's project initiatives.
It is crucial to ensure the eventfulness of children's life, colourfulness, the gamification of the educational process. Emotional experience, the emotional colouring of activities are significant for schoolchildren of different ages both for motivation and for confirming their actions, behaviour, and the formation of social competencies. The eventfulness of the educational process is one of its leading characteristics, which we consider conditions of its effectiveness. The existence of bright, colourful mass events, collective affairs, holidays, competitions, presentations of the results of project activities, and festivals that record the achievements of adolescents are the very situation of success that encourages them to social creativity and development.
The effectiveness of mass events depends on the competent definition of their role and place, the application of this method in the system of collective activity, ensuring its logical relationship with the content of the previous and subsequent activities of students, reflection in the content of the event of relevant aspects of collective activity, individual achievements of students. It is important to distinguish between eventfulness and "episode-fulness" of the upbringing process. "Episode-fulness ", which is a common mistake of practitioners and is justly criticized by both many specialists and the parent community, is expressed in the organization of educational work as a sum of events, most often holidays, timed to coincide with the red dates of the calendar. An unreasonable number of festive episodes, their isolation from the daily life of children, from the social environment is the antipode of the principle of eventfulness, which involves the implementation of a mass event as a mechanism for implementing the content of education, expanding the actual social experience of children, an emotional, culminating moment in collective activity, fixing a situation of success and stimulating further self-realization.
A mass event as a mechanism for implementing the content of child-rearing is effective if it includes not only an informational component, but also an activity one, if the technologies and methods of its implementation do not limit the children’s participation to the passive role of a spectator, but presuppose real creative social and personally significant activities, as in preparation, and during the event with the appropriate game instrumentation. The development of the content of mass affairs follows the general logic of the development of the educational process, reflects its dynamics, corresponding to the plot of the game and the content of the system-forming direction of upbringing, implemented priorities, the specifics of the educational and socio-cultural space of the program realization.
To integrate upbringing influences on the child's personality and increase the effectiveness of their developmental influence in the practice of systemic education, a key matter is used, which includes the main aspects of education in their interconnection and interaction and has a holistic pedagogical effect on the intellectual, spiritual, moral and emotional-volitional sphere of a teenager. All schoolchildren, all teachers, regardless of the subject taught and class leadership, parents, friends of the school collective most often take part in its preparation and conduct. The organization of key affairs allows us to eliminate age barriers to interaction, strengthen interpersonal ties, meet the needs of members of the school community in communication, creative expression, and recognition in the team.
The game instrumentation of socially and personally significant types of activity of adolescents is efficiently ensured by the use of such a form of joint activity of children and adults as a long-term role play. This presupposes collective creative activity, which develops in the logic of a certain scenario, in accordance with which the structure of the children's collective is formed, the distribution of roles. Long-term play guarantees the richness of the upbringing process since it assumes the presence of significant events and rituals in the process of collective play activity which are fixing the transition of participants from one stage of the game to another, changing roles, stages of the development of the game's scenario, the results of children's activities.
The teaching staff, together with parents and other subjects of the educational process, should purposefully form the space for the activities of school self-government bodies, for the implementation of the functions of each elective position of students. The creation of a self-government structure without backing it up with a real space for activity, the lack of social demand for student project initiatives lead to a negative effect such as formalism, passivity, destructive behaviour as an alternative way of self-affirmation of schoolchildren.
The development of self-activity and self-government of students at the class level is affiliated with the organization of the activities in groups, which are formed on different grounds. These are associated with the content of the activity, with the scenario of the role-playing game, with a choice of leaders of student associations, and with the supposed functions of the groups within the framework of a certain project. The dynamics of the social roles of a student is ensured through his participation in the activities of various public creative student associations. Among them, there may be permanent (such as press centre, leisure centre, environmental centre) and temporary associations acting as organizers of specific cases. Thanks to the ramified structure of self-government, the student is given the opportunity for self-realization in different roles (a performer, an organizer, an instructor, an expert) and in diverse activities. The names of individual positions, appointments and roles, their functionality and dynamics of their replacement are determined by the tasks of forming various social competences, types of sociocultural experience and active citizenship in children.
Particular attention is required to deliver the activities of children's public organizations on the basis of an educational institution. The main reason is to promote the fulfilment of playful forms of children's self-government as a model of a children's republic, a fabulous country of childhood, a city of experts, etc. Special work is needed to form a child's asset. This can be facilitated by the systematic work of a student leadership's school, a school of social success. The last one is a system of special classes, social and psychological training aimed at developing schoolchildren's leadership qualities, organizational abilities, the formation of their civic position, initiative, and the need for self-realization in social and personal significant activity.
In concluding, the work we have done allows us to assert that an organized upbringing system, its effective functioning will be that primary and main system for the prevention of aggressive behaviour, which ensures the formation of internal mechanisms of social regulation of adolescents' behaviour due to the formation of their value attitudes, ideas about the norms of ethics, positive interactions, teamwork and communication skills, needs for prosocial behaviour and self-actualization in socially and personally significant activities.
Information about a state assignment or a grant, within which the study was carried out. The article was prepared within the framework of the state task № 073-00032-20-00 of 2020 for the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Institute of Study of Childhood, Family and Education of the Russian Academy of Education”.
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25 December 2020
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Wagner, I., Frishman, I., Golovanov, V., Nezdemkovskaya, G., Andrianova, R., & Berlyand, J. (2020). Development Of Education For Prevention Of The Aggressive Behavior Of Children. In I. Elkina, & S. Ivanova (Eds.), Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences - icCSBs 2020, vol 1. European Proceedings of Educational Sciences (pp. 153-163). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epes.20121.18