Ideas Of Motherhood Depending On Structure Of Students’ Valuable Orientations

Abstract

The relevance of the research is determined by the need to create a system of measures for educating a value-positive attitude towards motherhood, the development of parental attitudes and motivation for parenthood, the acceptance of a maternal role at the stage of entering adulthood and the lack of knowledge of individual psychological factors in the formation of ideas about motherhood as a component of the phenomenon of parenthood among student’s youth. The authors theoretically justified and empirically confirmed the position that the structure of valuable orientations determines the features of ideas about motherhood among young men and women. It is established that the structure of valuable orientations, age and gender determine the content and hierarchical structure of the characteristics of the cognitive image of motherhood (“Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”) among modern students. Basically, the image “Ideal mother” is limited to a set of individual personal qualities characterized by fragmentation in some cases inconsistency and cognitive distortions. If at adolescence young men and women who have the same structure of valuable orientations, ideas about motherhood are mostly the same then differences begin to appear in early adulthood which can later cause marital conflicts in the parental and educational sphere. The obtained results actualize the importance and necessity of psychological and pedagogical support of the process of family self-determination and premarital education of students in the educational environment of the university.

Keywords: Motherhoodvaluable orientationsadolescenceearly adulthood

Introduction

The relevance of this research of the conditions and factors for the formation of a value-positive attitude towards motherhood among modern youth is due to a decrease in the birth rate, postponement of childbearing in the near or distant future, lack of children, lack of development of parental motivation in many young families, refusal to give birth to children for reasons of a hedonistic nature, refusal to care for children and deviant parenting, widespread social orphan hood, etc. The student's youth unlike their peers occupied in the sphere of work, undergoing military service is included in the higher education system, masters a role of the highly qualified specialist, has accurate installations on choice of profession. The student’s period combines adolescence and early adulthood. Karabanova (2018) notes that each age stage is characterized by a social situation of development of an age stage, tasks of development which set a development vector, the system of types of activity headed by the leader and age-related psychological new growths. Student's years are time of professional and family self-determination, time of choosing your own living position, hard work, knowledge not only the professional truth, but also general cultural values.

Over the past five years the subject of special research has been the question of the features of the attitude towards motherhood of female students as a special social group. The study (Karabanova et al., 2017) revealed various types of the attitude towards future motherhood: 1) priority and acceptance of the maternal role (29.6 %); 2) positive attitude but deferred parenthood (23.6 %); 3) motherhood as an obligation (11.1 %); 4) ambivalent attitude and deferred parenthood (22.2 %); 5) rejection of motherhood and the maternal role (13.4 %). An important condition determining the position of young women regarding motherhood is the nature of relationships with their parents (Burmenskaya et al., 2018; Zakharova, 2015). Positive emotional and semantic attitudes towards motherhood are formed by parental acceptance, cooperation, and closeness. Female students from the capital are more confident in planning the birth of a child compared to their peers living in the region. As a result of this research Sadovnikova et al. (2018), it was found that the nature of child-parent relationships determines the type of attitude towards the maternal role at the stage of entering adulthood. The high level and conflicting style of separation from the mother is combined with the rejection of motherhood and the maternal role. The low level and harmonious style of separation contributes to the formation of a positive perception of motherhood, readiness to accept the maternal role. The problem of forming an attitude towards motherhood is discussed in the context of studying the influence of basic concepts of the world (implicit assessment of the surrounding world in terms of its benevolence, justice, manageability, etc.) and the image “I myself” (Karabanova, et al., 2018a). The type of family self-determination determines the features of the content and hierarchical structure of the cognitive image of motherhood (“Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”) among young men and women (Merzlyakova, 2019). The study (Karabanova et al., 2018b) proved the relationship of attitude towards future motherhood with the priorities of the valuable sphere of young women. While the values of “family”, “interesting work”, and “love” are highly significant there is a positive attitude towards motherhood and acceptance of the role of mother. With the significance of the value “material welfare” - an ambivalent attitude towards motherhood. When the value of “self-development and knowledge” is prioritized there is the rejection of the mother's role. Readiness for parenthood implies acceptance of the parental role, awareness of oneself as a parent, priority of the parental sphere in the hierarchy of motives and life plans (Zakharova, 2015). Semenova, Serebryakova, and Knyazeva (2018) established the dependence of parenting motivation on the system of valuable orientations of the individual at the stage of early and late adolescence.

Problem Statement

The problem of this research is determined by the resolution of the contradiction between the need of modern society to form a value-positive attitude towards motherhood among students and the need to identify psychological factors in the formation of ideas about motherhood, parental attitudes, motivation for parenthood, and acceptance of the maternal role at the stage of entering adulthood.

Zakharova (2012) analyzes the function of representations about the content of such social roles as spouse and parent from the positions of Galperin’s doctrine (2005) about orientation activities. When starting to develop a new field of activity a person relies on the specific ideas he has about the nature of its implementation. Ideas about a social role (spouse, parent) are formed long before he begins to master it (latent learning) and perform an orienting function. Thus, the concept of motherhood serves as an indicative basis for the mastered activity (parental behavior).

The function of regulating human activity from motivation and meaning formation to performance is carried out by valuable orientations. In the scientific literature valuable orientations are understood as: the conscious ideas of the subject about their own values, valuable to himself (Leontiev, 2009); relatively stable, socially constructed orientation of an individual towards certain valuable goals for personal life, and certain ways of their achievement as any personal qualities, designs (methods) of behavior and is relatively independent on situations (Zhuravleva, 2015, p. 52); a complex multilevel hierarchical system which is an important regulator of human activity allowing you to correlate individual needs and motives with the conscious personality and the accepted values and norms (Vartanova, 2016, p. 116). The study of the structure of value orientations as a factor in the formation of ideas about motherhood in adolescence and early adulthood, we have identified for ourselves as the targets of this study.

Research Questions

3.1. Are there differences in perceptions of motherhood depending on the structure of students ' valuable orientations in adolescence and early adulthood?

3.2. Do ideas about motherhood coincide with the same structure of valuable orientations in adolescence and early adulthood?

3.3. Are there differences in the content and hierarchical structure of images “Ideal mother” and “I am a future mother” among young women depending on the structure of valuable orientations in adolescence and early adulthood?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to identify the features of representations of motherhood depending on the structure of valuable orientations of students at different stages of age development: adolescence (from 17 to 19 years), early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years). We hypothesized that the features of representations of motherhood are determined by the structure of valuable orientations and the age of the respondents. It is necessary to take into account the gender of the respondents since an earlier study which found that gender influences the content and hierarchical structure of qualities in the cognitive image of the ideal mother among modern youth (Merzlyakova, Golubeva, & Eremitskaya, 2019).

4.1. To identify the content and hierarchical structure of the characteristics of the cognitive image of motherhood (“Ideal mother”) depending on the structure of valuable orientations of young men at different stages of age development: adolescence (from 17 to 19 years), early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years).

4.2. Determine the content and hierarchical structure of the characteristics of the cognitive image of motherhood (“Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”) depending on the structure of valuable orientations among young women at different stages of age development: adolescence (from 17 to 19 years), early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years).

The research was conducted at the Astrakhan State University and the Astrakhan Branch of Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of Russian Federation. The study involved 1086 students. There are 357 young men (32.9 %) and 729 young women (67.1%). We divided the entire sample into two age groups. The first group consisted of students aged 17 to 19 years, they are 644 people (59.3 %). The second group included students aged 20 to 22 years, they are 442 people (40.7 %).

Research Methods

5.1. In order to diagnose the structure of valuable orientations we used the questionnaire “A Value and Availability Ratio in Various Vital Spheres Technique” by E.B. Fantalova. In order to identify the content and hierarchical structure of characteristics in the cognitive image of motherhood we used the following psychodiagnostic methods: the method of Semantic Differential, developed by Charles E. Osgood, projective technique of "Incomplete Sentences", the questionnaire "Role Expectations and Claims in Marriage" by Volkova (1985).

5.2. During the analytical stage we used mathematical and statistical methods that allowed us to establish the reliability of the research results. All calculations were performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21 computer program. The analysis included descriptive statistics, cluster analysis (K-means method), Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion for one sample, Shapiro-Wilk criterion, Pearson Linear Correlation, and Spearman Rank Correlation.

Findings

Using the questionnaire “A Value and Availability Ratio in Various Vital Spheres Technique” by Fantalova (2001), we determined the hierarchy of values of students. As a result of divisive clustering of an empirical sample we found that there are significant differences in the structure of valuable orientations of modern students and identified three homogeneous clusters. These received results show that the majority of interviewed students are focused on the values of personal life (619 people, 57 %). The most important values for them are a happy family life, love, health, and having good and loyal friends. The next cluster consisted of students focused on gnostic and aesthetic values (274 people, 25.2 %). These respondents differ in the significance of such values as knowledge, creativity, beauty of nature and art. The third cluster includes students focused on the values of professional self-realization (193 people, 17.8 %). The importance of an active life, interesting work, financially secure life, self-confidence, freedom as independence in the behavior and actions distinguishes students of this group.

The cognitive image of motherhood is a specifically created image of an ideal and real mother with a set of personal qualities, values, role expectations and claims in marital and family relations and necessary attitudes towards the upbringing of a child (Merzlyakova, Golubeva, & Eremitskaya, 2019). In order to identify the features of the cognitive image of motherhood we determined the value attitude of students towards such concepts as “Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”. In order to determine the preferred strategy of motherhood, we used the concepts of “self-actualization” and “happiness” (the valuable factor). The projective technique of “Incomplete Sentences” allowed us to determine the attitude of students towards the primacy and responsibility in the family, the rights and duties of spouses. While using the questionnaire “Role Expectations and Claims in Marriage” by Volkova (1985) we have identified the installations of students on active implementation of future marriage partner family roles (role expectations) and their own personal commitment to family responsibilities in the household, parental educational, emotional and psychotherapeutic spheres of social activity, visual appeal (role claims).

Research of ideas about motherhood depending on the structure of value orientations of young men

In the group of young men there are 225 people of adolescence (from 17 to 19 years) and 132 people of early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years). Among young people, 46 people (20.5 %) are focused on the values of professional self-realization, 82 people (36.5 %) are focused on gnostic and aesthetic values, and 97 people (43 %) are focused on the values of personal happiness.

Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for one sample and the Shapiro-Wilk test, we checked the normality of the distribution of quantitative variables. As a result of calculating the Linear Pearson correlation (r) for quantitative variables whose distribution corresponds to the normal law, and the Spearman Rank correlation (r s), we identified the content and hierarchical structure of the characteristics of the cognitive image of motherhood (“Ideal mother”), depending on the structure of valuable orientations in adolescence (Table 1 ). Among young men with a focus on the values of professional self-realization, the cognitive image of the ideal mother includes 9 qualities. In the ranking of the correlation coefficients at the level of statistical significance we defined a hierarchical structure of the image “Ideal mother”: 1) diligence; 2) a positive attitude towards the rights and responsibilities of spouses; 3) empathy; 4) patience; 5) personal independence; 6) a positive attitude towards primacy and responsibility in the family; 7) work ethic; 8) performance of duties; 9) respect for others. Among young men with a focus on the gnostic and aesthetic values in the image “Ideal mother” there is the following hierarchy personal qualities: 1) hard work; 2) diligence; 3) respect for others; 4) personal independence; 5) performance of duties; 6) balance; 7) success; and 8) responsibility; 9) patience. The image “Ideal mother” among young men with a focus on the values of personal life has the following personal qualities: 1) diligence; 2) success; 3) respect for others; 4) hard work; 5) balance; 6) empathy; 7) personal independence; 8) performance of duties; 9) responsibility. In the image “Ideal mother” young men focused on gnostic-aesthetic values or values of personal life and did not reveal a reliable relationship with role expectations and attitudes in the marital and family sphere.

Table 1 -
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In the sub-sample of early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years) 41 people (31.1 %) are focused on the values of professional self-realization, 39 people (29.5 %) are focused on gnostic and aesthetic values, 52 people (39.4 %) are focused on the values of personal happiness. In this age group of young men focused on the value of professional self-realization the cognitive image “Ideal mother” includes 9 personal qualities that are organized in the following hierarchical structure: 1) personal independence; 2) balance; 3) diligence; 4) performance of duties; 5) hard work; 6) success; 7) respect for others; 8) patience; 9) empathy. In the group of young men with a focus on the gnostic and aesthetic values in the image “Ideal mother” there is a hierarchy of personal qualities: 1) performance of duties; 2) hard work; 3) balance; 4) respect for others; 5) diligence; 6) patience; 7) responsibility; 8) personal independence; 9) the success. Among young men focused on the value of personal life the image “Ideal mother” contains only 7 personal qualities and has the following hierarchical structure: 1) success; 2) respect for others; 3) personal independence; 4) hard work; 5) patience; 6) diligence; 7) responsibility. In early adulthood the image “Ideal mother” among young men contains only personal qualities and among them role expectations and attitudes in the marital and family sphere which are necessary for the upbringing of a child are absent.

Research of ideas about motherhood depending on the structure of valuable orientations of young women

In the group of young women 729 respondents were investigated. Among them 419 respondents of adolescent age (from 17 to 19 years), 310 respondents of early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years). In the group of adolescent age there was found that 61 respondents (14.6 %) focused on the values of professional self – realization, 94 respondents (22.4 %) focused on gnostic and aesthetic values, 264 respondents (63 %) focused on the values of personal happiness.

Similarly, in a group of adolescent women using correlation analysis we identified the content and hierarchical structure of the characteristics of the images “Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother” depending on the structure of valuable orientations (Table 2 ).

Table 2 -
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Young women focused on the values of professional self-realization have the following hierarchy of personal qualities in the image “Ideal mother”: 1) diligence; 2) personal independence; 3) respect for other people; 4) empathy; 5) success; 6) patience; 7) hard work. The content-structural characteristics of the image of “I am a future mother” differ from the image “Ideal mother”. The cognitive image "I am a future mother" has the following hierarchical structure: 1) setting on the importance of external social activity: professional, social; 2) positive attitude towards the rights and duties of spouses; 3) empathy; 4) positive attitude towards the primacy and responsibility in the family; 5) diligence; 6) hard work; 7) respect for other people. Future motherhood is perceived as happiness (r s = 0.414 at p < 0.001). The absence of a reliable correlation between the variables "I am a future mother" and "Ideal mother" indicates a possible intrapersonal conflict in the parental and educational sphere among young women. The content of the cognitive image “I am a future mother” among young women largely coincides with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with an orientation to the values of professional self-realization in adolescence.

With a focus on the gnostic and aesthetic value of the image “Ideal mother” includes 10 personal qualities and has the following hierarchical structure: 1) diligence; 2) hard work; 3) personal independence; 4) respect for others; 5) performance of duties; 6) balance; 7) success; 8) patience; 9) responsibility; 10) empathy. The content of the image “Ideal mother” coincides with the way “I am a future mother” but the hierarchy of personal qualities is changed: 1) diligence; 2) balance; 3) success; 4) respect for others; 5) hard work; 6) performance of duties; 7) personal independence; 8) responsibility; 9) patience; 10) empathy. The role of balance, success, and responsibility increases for young women in the image “I am a future mother” and the importance of such qualities as hard work, fulfillment of duties, personal independence, and patience decreases. A positive correlation at the level of high statistical significance indicates that future motherhood is considered as an achievement of happiness (r s = 0.411 at p < 0.001) and a new opportunity for self-actualization (r s = 0.329 at p = 0.001). The content of the images “Ideal mother”,” I am a future mother” does not coincide with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with an orientation to gnostic and aesthetic values in adolescence. Unlike young women in the image “Ideal mother” young men lack empathy.

Among the young women focused on the value of personal life the image “Ideal mother” also contains 10 personal qualities and has the following hierarchical structure: 1) diligence; 2) respect for others; 3) personal independence; 4) hard work; 5) balance; 6) performance of duties; 7) success; 8) responsibility; 9) patience; 10) empathy. Among young women characteristics of the image “Ideal mother” coincides with the way “I am a future mother” but changes their hierarchical structure: 1) respect for others; 2) diligence; 3) personal independence; 4) hard work; 5) balance; 6) performance of duties; 7) responsibility; 8) success; 9) empathy; 10) patience. The role of respect for other people, responsibility and empathy increases in the image “I am a future mother” while the importance of such qualities as diligence, success, and patience decreases. The role of the mother is associated with happiness (r s = 0.398 at p < 0.001) and is seen as an opportunity for self-actualization (r s = 0.378 at p < 0.001). The content of the images “Ideal mother”,” I am a future mother” does not coincide with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with an orientation to the values of personal life in adolescence. In contrast to young boys the cognitive image of motherhood among young women has such a quality as patience.

In the age group of early adulthood 45 people (14.5 %) were identified with an orientation to the values of professional self-realization, 59 people (19 %) with an orientation to gnostic and aesthetic values and 206 people (66.5 %) with an orientation to the values of personal happiness. With a focus on the values of professional self-realization of the image “Ideal mother” includes 9 personal qualities and has the following hierarchical structure: 1) diligence; 2) hard work; 3) personal independence; 4) patience; 5) respect for others; 6) performance of duties; 7) balance; 8) success; 9) empathy. Cognitive image “I am a future mother” contains 13 substantive characteristics which have the following hierarchy: 1) respect for others; 2) patience; 3) balance; 4) the installation on their own active participation in housekeeping that is the role of claims in the domestic sphere; 5) hard work; 6) empathy; 7) diligence; 8) the desire to provide moral and emotional support to family members, have a role claim in an emotionally-psychotherapeutic field; 9) success; 10) performance of duties; 11) personal independence; 12) responsibility; 13) a positive attitude towards the rights and responsibilities of spouses. Future motherhood is perceived as happiness (r s = 0.465 at p = 0.001) and an opportunity for self-realization (r = 0.405 at p = 0.006). The idea of yourself as a future mother is positively correlated with the image “Ideal mother” (r s = 0.447 at p = 0.002). The content of the cognitive image “Ideal mother” among young women coincides with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with an orientation to the values of professional self-realization in early adulthood.

Among young women who are focused on gnostic and aesthetic values the cognitive image” Ideal mother” is contradictory because of revealing a negative correlation with the role claims in the parental and educational sphere. A negative correlation coefficient means that the higher the value of the image “Ideal mother” the lower the values on the scale of claims in the parental and educational sphere. Therefore, in the views of young women in this group an ideal mother in raising children should not be focused on their own parental responsibilities. The image “Ideal mother” includes 10 substantive characteristics and has the following hierarchical structure: 1) diligence; 2) personal independence; 3) empathy; 4) respect for others; 5) success; 6) hard work; 7) performance of duties; 8) balance; 9) positive attitude towards the rights and responsibilities of spouses; 10) low importance of parenthood and the role of the mother. Cognitive image of mother differs from the image “Ideal mother” as some meaningful characteristics and their hierarchy: 1) diligence; 2) respect for others; 3) responsibility; 4) performance of duties; 5) empathy; 6) personal independence; 7) hard work; 8) success; 9) patience; 10) balance. Future motherhood is seen as an achievement of happiness (r s = 0.58 at p < 0.001) and a new opportunity for self-actualization (r s = 0.515 at p < 0.001). In early adulthood young women associate the image “I am a future mother” with images “Ideal mother” (r s = 0.6 at p < 0.001). The content of the image “I am a future mother” does not coincide with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with an orientation to gnostic and aesthetic values in early adulthood. Unlike young women in the image “Ideal mother” young men lack empathy. Some differences in the content of the cognitive image “Ideal mother” among men and women focused on gnostic and aesthetic values were revealed in early adulthood.

With a focus on the values of personal life the image “Ideal mother” contains the greatest number of characteristics and has the following hierarchical structure: 1) diligence; 2) respect for others; 3) personal independence; 4) success; 5) hard work; 6) balance; 7) responsibility; 8) patience; 9) performance of duties; 10) setting on a private visual appeal, the pursuit of fashionable and beautiful dress; 11) empathy; 12) a positive attitude towards the rights and responsibilities of spouses. External attractiveness in the cognitive image “I am a future mother” is replaced by role-based claims in the emotional and psychotherapeutic sphere. There is the following hierarchical structure of features: 1) diligence; 2) respect for others; 3) balance; 4) responsibility; 5) personal independence; 6) success; 7) hard work; 8) patience; 9) desire to provide moral and emotional support to family members, have a role claim in an emotionally-psychotherapeutic field; 10) empathy; 11) performance of duties; 12) a positive attitude towards the rights and responsibilities of spouses. Future motherhood is perceived by young women as a happy event (r s = 0.448 at p < 0.001) and a new opportunity for self-realization (r s = 0.446 at p < 0.001). The idea of yourself as a future mother is closely related to the image “Ideal mother” (r s = 0.595 at p < 0.001). In contrast to young men focused on the value of personal life the cognitive image of motherhood (“Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”) among young women contains a large number of characteristics and includes such qualities as performance of duties, equanimity, empathy, a positive attitude towards marital rights and duties, attractiveness, role claims in an emotionally-psychotherapeutic field.

Conclusion

The conducted research aimed at studying the influence of the structure of valuable orientations on the formation of ideas about motherhood in adolescence and early adulthood allows us to draw the following conclusions.

7.1. Among young men (from 17 to 19 years) the structure of valuable orientations determines the content and hierarchical structure of the characteristics of the image “Ideal mother”. General personal qualities in the image “Ideal mother” are diligence, hard work, respect for other people, personal independence, and fulfillment of duties. For young men with a focus on the values of professional self-realization “Ideal mother” should have a positive attitude towards marital rights and responsibilities, show empathy, be patient, and share leadership and responsibility in the family. Young men who are focused on gnostic and aesthetic values believe that the image “Ideal mother” is also characterized by such qualities as balance, success, responsibility, and patience. Young men who are focused on the values of personal life in the image “Ideal mother” underline such qualities as success, balance, empathy, responsibility.

7.2. Among young men in early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years) the structure of valuable orientations determines the content and hierarchical structure of characteristics of the image “Ideal mother”. General personal qualities in the image “Ideal mother” are hard work, personal independence, respect for other people, diligence, success, and patience. The presence in the image “Ideal mother” such qualities as hard work, personal independence and success indicates that in early adulthood modern men do not limit women to the social roles of wife and mother which imply the performance of household duties, the birth and upbringing of children, diligence for a legitimate spouse, and the importance of social and professional activity of young women increases. For young men who are focused on the values of professional self-realization, the ideal mother should also be balanced, perform duties and show empathy. The image “Ideal mother” among young men with a focus on gnostic and aesthetic values is supplemented by such qualities as performance of duties, balance, responsibility. Young men who are focused on the values of personal life believe that the “Ideal mother” should be responsible.

7.3. In adolescent young women (from 17 to 19 years) the structure of valuable orientations determines the content and hierarchical structure of characteristics in the images “Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”. All young women perceive future motherhood as a happy event. General personal qualities in the image “Ideal mother” are diligence, personal independence, respect for other people, hard work, success, patience, empathy. For young women who are focused on gnostic and aesthetic values or on the values of their personal life, the cognitive image “Ideal mother” is supplemented by such qualities as fulfillment of duties, balance, and responsibility. Among young women with a focus on the values of professional self-realization the content and structural characteristics of the image “I am a future mother” differ from the image “Ideal mother” which contributes to the formation of intrapersonal conflict in the parental and educational sphere. At the same time the content of the cognitive image “I am a future mother” largely coincides with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with an orientation to the values of professional self-realization in adolescence. For young women who are focused on gnostic and aesthetic values or on the values of personal life the content of the image “Ideal mother” coincides with the image “I am a future mother” but the hierarchy of qualities changes, motherhood is considered as an opportunity for self-actualization. The content of the images “Ideal mother”, “ I am a future mother” almost coincides with the image “Ideal mother” among young men with the corresponding system of values in adolescence.

7.4. Among young women in early adulthood (from 20 to 22 years) the structure of valuable orientations determines the content and hierarchical structure of characteristics in the images “Ideal mother”, “I am a future mother”. General personal qualities in the image “Ideal mother” are diligence, personal independence, respect for other people, hard work, success, fulfillment of duties, empathy. For young women who are focused on the values of professional self-realization the image “Ideal mother” is complemented by patience. Young women with a focus on gnostic and aesthetic values have a contradictory image “Ideal mother” because despite a positive attitude towards the rights and duties of their spouses there is a low significance of their own responsibilities in raising children and the mother's role. The image “Ideal mother” among young women who are focused on the values of their personal life is supplemented by such qualities as responsibility, patience, external attractiveness, and a positive attitude towards the rights and duties of their spouses. In early adulthood the content-structural characteristics of the image “I am a future mother” differ from the image “Ideal mother”. Future motherhood is considered by young women as an achievement of happiness and a new opportunity for self-realization. The content characteristics of the cognitive image “Ideal mother” among young women and men focused on the values of professional self-realization coincide. Differences are revealed in the content of the cognitive image “Ideal mother” among young men and women focused on gnostic and aesthetic values or on the values of personal life.

So a cognitive image of motherhood is a dynamic intrapersonal education determined by the structure of valuable orientations and the gender of students. Modern young men and women in their views of motherhood are not limited to traditional social roles which imply the performance of duties at home, the birth and upbringing of children but seek to combine a number of status positions both at the level of the family institution and within society as a macro-institution (professional and social activity). The image of your own mother contributes to the formation of ideas about motherhood in both young men and women. In General, the image “Ideal mother” is characterized by fragmentation limited to a set of individual personal qualities in some cases by inconsistency and cognitive distortions (for example, among young women with a focus on gnostic and aesthetic values in early adulthood). Young women who are focused on the values of professional self-realization or the values of personal life in the image “I am a future mother” there are role-playing claims and attitudes necessary for the upbringing of a child. If at adolescence young men and women who have the same structure of valuable orientations, ideas about motherhood are mostly the same then in early adulthood differences when they begin to appear and later can cause marital conflicts in the parental and educational sphere. In order to develop ideas about responsible and positive parenting, prevent deviant motherhood, prevent social orphan hood of children, it is necessary to provide a psychological and pedagogical support to the process of family self-determination and pre-marital education of students.

Acknowledgments

The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 20-013-00072.

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

25.12.2020

Doi

10.15405/epes.20121.14

Online ISSN

2672-815X